test particle
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2022 ◽  
pp. 100946
Bobur Turimov ◽  
Yunus Turaev ◽  
Bobomurat Ahmedov ◽  
Zdeněk Stuchlík

2021 ◽  
Aleksandr Y. Ukhorskiy ◽  
Kareem A. Sorathia ◽  
Viacheslav G. Merkin ◽  
Chris Crabtree ◽  
Alex C. Fletcher ◽  

Abstract Plasma convection in the Earth’s magnetosphere from the distant magnetotail to the inner magnetosphere occurs largely in the form of mesoscale flows, i.e., discrete enhancements in the plasma flow with sharp dipolarizations of magnetic field. Recent spacecraft observations suggest that the dipolarization flows are associated with a wide range of kinetic processes such as kinetic Alfvén waves, whistler chorus waves, and nonlinear time-domain structures. In this paper we explore how mesoscale dipolarization flows produce suprathermal electron instabilities, thus providing free energy for the generation of the observed kinetic waves and structures. We employ three-dimensional test-particle simulations of electron dynamics one-way-coupled to a global magnetospheric model. The simulations show a rapid growth of interchanging regions of parallel and perpendicular electron temperature anisotropies distributed along the magnetic terrain formed around the dipolarization flows. Unencumbered in test-particle simulations, a rapid growth of velocity-space anisotropies in the collisionless magnetotail plasma is expected to be curbed by the generation of plasma waves. The results are compared with in situ observations of an isolated dipolarization flow at one of the spacecraft of the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission, that show strong VLF wave activity alternating between broad-band wave activity and whistler waves. With estimated spatial extent being similar to the characteristic size of temperature anisotropy patches in our test-particle simulations, the observed bursts of VLF wave activity are likely to be produced by the parallel and perpendicular electron energy anisotropies driven by the dipolarization flow, as suggested by our results.

2021 ◽  
Vol 923 (2) ◽  
pp. 209
A. Shalchi

Abstract Over the past two decades scientists have significantly improved our understanding of the transport of energetic particles across a mean magnetic field. Due to test-particle simulations, as well as powerful nonlinear analytical tools, our understanding of this type of transport is almost complete. However, previously developed nonlinear analytical theories do not always agree perfectly with simulations. Therefore, a correction factor a 2 was incorporated into such theories with the aim to balance out inaccuracies. In this paper a new analytical theory for perpendicular transport is presented. This theory contains the previously developed unified nonlinear transport theory, the most advanced theory to date, in the limit of small Kubo number turbulence. New results have been obtained for two-dimensional turbulence. In this case, the new theory describes perpendicular diffusion as a process that is sub-diffusive while particles follow magnetic field lines. Diffusion is restored as soon as the turbulence transverse complexity becomes important. For long parallel mean-free paths, one finds that the perpendicular diffusion coefficient is a reduced field line random walk limit. For short parallel mean-free paths, on the other hand, one gets a hybrid diffusion coefficient that is a mixture of collisionless Rechester & Rosenbluth and fluid limits. Overall, the new analytical theory developed in the current paper is in agreement with heuristic arguments. Furthermore, the new theory agrees almost perfectly with previously performed test-particle simulations without the need of the aforementioned correction factor a 2 or any other free parameter.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-6
M. I. Wanas ◽  
Mona M. Kamal

Using a geometry wider than Riemannian one, the parameterized absolute parallelism (PAP) geometry, we derived a new curve containing two parameters. In the context of the geometrization philosophy, this new curve can be used as a trajectory of charged spinning test particle in any unified field theory constructed in the PAP space. We show that imposing certain conditions on the two parameters, the new curve can be reduced to a geodesic curve giving the motion of a scalar test particle or/and a modified geodesic giving the motion of neutral spinning test particle in a gravitational field. The new method used for derivation, the Bazanski method, shows a new feature in the new curve equation. This feature is that the equation contains the electromagnetic potential term together with the Lorentz term. We show the importance of this feature in physical applications.

Xuanye Ma ◽  
Peter Delamere ◽  
Katariina Nykyri ◽  
Brandon Burkholder ◽  
Stefan Eriksson ◽  

Over three decades of in-situ observations illustrate that the Kelvin–Helmholtz (KH) instability driven by the sheared flow between the magnetosheath and magnetospheric plasma often occurs on the magnetopause of Earth and other planets under various interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. It has been well demonstrated that the KH instability plays an important role for energy, momentum, and mass transport during the solar-wind-magnetosphere coupling process. Particularly, the KH instability is an important mechanism to trigger secondary small scale (i.e., often kinetic-scale) physical processes, such as magnetic reconnection, kinetic Alfvén waves, ion-acoustic waves, and turbulence, providing the bridge for the coupling of cross scale physical processes. From the simulation perspective, to fully investigate the role of the KH instability on the cross-scale process requires a numerical modeling that can describe the physical scales from a few Earth radii to a few ion (even electron) inertial lengths in three dimensions, which is often computationally expensive. Thus, different simulation methods are required to explore physical processes on different length scales, and cross validate the physical processes which occur on the overlapping length scales. Test particle simulation provides such a bridge to connect the MHD scale to the kinetic scale. This study applies different test particle approaches and cross validates the different results against one another to investigate the behavior of different ion species (i.e., H+ and O+), which include particle distributions, mixing and heating. It shows that the ion transport rate is about 1025 particles/s, and mixing diffusion coefficient is about 1010 m2 s−1 regardless of the ion species. Magnetic field lines change their topology via the magnetic reconnection process driven by the three-dimensional KH instability, connecting two flux tubes with different temperature, which eventually causes anisotropic temperature in the newly reconnected flux.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2081 (1) ◽  
pp. 012033
V N Timofeev

Abstract The article shows that a large flat platform with a constant current, which flows over its surface, accelerates time. It is also shown that if an alternating current flows along the surface of a flat platform while creating a null electromagnetic field then a force repelling from the platform acts on the test particle located near it. This force has no gravitational nature and arises as a result of the curvature of space-time by the electromagnetic field of a flat platform with an alternating current.

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