electromagnetic field
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Ajayi AO ◽  

This study shows the bactericidal effect of Electromagnetic Field on fruit juice microbes. Short shelf-life period of fruit juice caused by spoilage organisms has limiting factor for its economy value. The Eighteen microorganisms isolated from both fresh and spoilt fruit samples (Pineapple and Apple), and identified during the study include, twelve (12) bacteria and Six (6) fungi, out of which only the bacterial isolates were exposed to electromagnetic field of 0mG, 500mG, and 5000mG for thirty minutes. The bacteria species were Leuconostoc mesentroides, Bacillus species, Lactobacillus brevis, Microbacterium species, Clostridium species, Bacillus cereus, Acetobacter aceti, and Staphylococcus aureus. The Gram negative bacteria isolates were Erwinia carotovora, Erwinia ananas, and Proteus species. Exposure of the isolates to an electromagnetic field of 0mG, 500mG and 5000mG showed a decrease in some electromagnetic field magnitude. This study shows reduction in growth range among most bacterial species tested at 500mG electromagnetic radiation exposure, but the growth of many of these bacterial species were triggered at 5000mG electromagnetic radiation exposure. This may mean an initiation of: adaptation mechanism, growth mechanism in some microorganism, and sugar content of the fruit juice from which they are being isolated. The exposure of the bacteria to electromagnetic field elicited detectable responses therefore depends on the adaptation mechanism of each bacteria and sugar content of the fruit from which it is being isolated from. Thus, future research can be done to optimize the limits specified for target microbes that are strength and frequency of this EMF in diseases control.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 882
Yu-Lin Song ◽  
Manoj Kumar Reddy ◽  
Hung-Yung Wen ◽  
Luh-Maan Chang

The extremely low-frequency (ELF) and its corresponding electromagnetic field influences the yield of CMOS processes in the foundry, especially for high-end equipment such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) systems, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) systems, focused ion beam (FIB) systems, and electron beam lithography (E-Beam) systems. There are several techniques to mitigate electromagnetic interference (EMI), among which active shielding systems and passive shielding methods are widely used. An active shielding system is used to generate an internal electromagnetic field to reduce the detected external electromagnetic field in electric coils with the help of the current. Although the active shielding system reduces the EMI impact, it induces an internal electromagnetic field that could affect the function of nearby tools and/or high-performance probes. Therefore, in this study, we have used a C-shaped cylindrical device combined with an active shielding system and passive shielding techniques to reduce EMI for online monitoring and to overcome the aforementioned issues. In this study, the active shielding system was wrapped with a permalloy composite material (i.e., a composite of nickel and iron alloy) as a tubular device. A C-shaped opening was made on the tubular structure vertically or horizontally to guide the propagation of the electromagnetic field. This C-shaped cylindrical device further reduced electromagnetic noise up to −5.06 dB and redirected the electromagnetic field toward the opening direction on the cylindrical device. The results demonstrated a practical reduction of the electromagnetic field.

2022 ◽  
James Bushong ◽  
Henry Bushong

Conventional theory suggests that black holes are singularities of enormous mass-density: matter compressed beyond imagination due to extreme mass-based gravitational forces and possessing so much mass-based gravity that light itself cannot escape them. As an alternative to convention, this paper builds on the theories of fire-tornado accretion cylinder vortex forces and colossal magnetic pressure spawned within (previously described by the authors in their paper on ~2D planar celestial kinematics), and analyzes them in more detail specifically for black holes and the formation / evolution of galaxies. Several interesting charge-distribution and associated electromagnetic field components will be utilized in the modeling. To demonstrate concept, the proposed forces during formation and evolution will be computationally modeled and translated into visual simulations in 4-D space-time using C# programming in the Unity operating platform.

Lei Tian ◽  
Limei Song ◽  
Yu Zheng ◽  
Jinhai Wang

Multi-coil magnetic stimulation has advantages over single-coil magnetic stimulation, such as more accurate targeting and larger stimulation range. In this paper, a 4 × 4 array multichannel magnetic stimulation system based on a submillimeter planar square spiral coil is proposed. The effects of multiple currents with different directions on the electromagnetic field strength and the focusing zone of the array-structured magnetic stimulation system are studied. The spatial distribution characteristics of the electromagnetic field are discussed. In addition, a method is proposed that can predict the spatial distributions of the electric and magnetic fields when currents in different directions are applied to the array-structured magnetic stimulation system. The study results show that in the section of z = 2 μm, the maximum and average magnetic field strengths of the array-structured magnetic stimulation system are 6.39 mT and 2.68 mT, respectively. The maximum and average electric field strengths are 614.7 mV/m and 122.82 mV/m, respectively, where 84.39% of the measured electric field values are greater than 73 mV/m. The average magnetic field strength of the focusing zone, i.e., the zone in between the two coils, is 3.38 mT with a mean square deviation of 0.18. Therefore, the array-structured multi-channel magnetic stimulation system based on a planar square spiral coil can have a small size of 412 μm × 412 μm × 1.7 μm, which helps improving the spatial distribution of electromagnetic field and increase the effectiveness of magnetic stimulation. The main contribution of this paper is a method for designing multichannel micro-magnetic stimulation devices.

Heat Transfer ◽  
2022 ◽  
R. S. Varun Kumar ◽  
I. E. Sarris ◽  
G. Sowmya ◽  
J. K. Madhukesh ◽  
B. C. Prasannakumara

Barbara Wagner ◽  
Margarete Steiner ◽  
Lovro Markovic ◽  
Richard Crevenna

Summary Background Post-COVID-19 fatigue is a frequent symptom in COVID-19 survivors, which substantially limits patients to achieve full recovery and potentially restrains return to work. The previous literature has not yet reported the use of pulsed electromagnetic fields in this indication. Methods Over the course of 5 weeks, 10 sessions of pulsed electromagnetic field treatment with a high magnetic flux density were applied to a patient suffering from post-COVID-19 fatigue syndrome. Fatigue, work ability, quality of life as well as anxiety, depression, stress level, and resilience were evaluated using validated patient-reported outcome measures. Results Fatigue, work ability, quality of life, and psychological well-being improved clearly over the course of the treatment and showed stable results 6 weeks later. Conclusion The use of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy with a device that allows sufficient penetration of the body tissue might be a promising physical modality to manage post-COVID-19 fatigue syndrome, which could reduce clinical and economic health consequences. Clinical sham-controlled studies are needed to evaluate the effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields in this indication.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 487
Ibrahim Halil Öner ◽  
Christin David ◽  
Christine Joy Querebillo ◽  
Inez M. Weidinger ◽  
Khoa Hoang Ly

We present a facile approach for the determination of the electromagnetic field enhancement of nanostructured TiN electrodes. As model system, TiN with partially collapsed nanotube structure obtained from nitridation of TiO2 nanotube arrays was used. Using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy, the electromagnetic field enhancement factors (EFs) of the substrate across the optical region were determined. The non-surface binding SERS reporter group azidobenzene was chosen, for which contributions from the chemical enhancement effect can be minimized. Derived EFs correlated with the electronic absorption profile and reached 3.9 at 786 nm excitation. Near-field enhancement and far-field absorption simulated with rigorous coupled wave analysis showed good agreement with the experimental observations. The major optical activity of TiN was concluded to originate from collective localized plasmonic modes at ca. 700 nm arising from the specific nanostructure.

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