dengue virus
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 243-247
Narinder Singh ◽  
Ajeet Pal Singh ◽  
Amar Pal Singh

Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne viral illness that is quickly spreading over the globe, with significant death and morbidity rates. Dengue fever is an acute viral infection transmitted by Aedes mosquitos and caused by an RNA virus from the Flaviviridae family. The symptoms might vary from asymptomatic fever to life-threatening complications including hemorrhagic fever and shock. Although dengue virus infections are normally self-limiting, the disease has become a public health concern in tropical and subtropical countries. Dengue fever is a major public health concern owing to its rapid worldwide spread, and its burdens are now unmet due to a lack of accurate therapy and a simple diagnostic approach for the early stages of illness.

Pooja Gandhi ◽  
Pinkal Taral ◽  
Krunal Patel ◽  
Sanketsinh Rathod ◽  
Bhavini Rathwa

Introduction: Infection with any of the 4 dengue virus serotypes results in a diverse range of symptoms, from mild undifferentiated fever to life-threatening hemorrhagic fever and shock. Given that dengue virus infection elicits such a broad range of clinical symptoms, early and accurate laboratory diagnosis is essential for appropriate patient management. So a study was carried out to know its clinical profile, correlation between the laboratory profile and the severity of dengue fever and outcome in dengue patients. Aim: To study the clinical profile, correlation between the laboratory profile and the severity of dengue fever and outcome in dengue patients at tertiary care center. Method: Retrospective Observational study from 1st May 2019 to 31st April 2021. Result: Total 323 patients were studied during 1st May 2019 to 31st April 2021. Most common presentation was fever (100%), most common clinical finding is hepatomegaly (14.2%). All severe dengue infection has platelet count < 50000/cumm. In study of 323 patients 194(60%) of dengue fever,85(26.4%) of DHF GRADE 1,9(2.8%) of DHF GRADE 2 were discharged .13(4%) patients of DSS were expired.22 patients (6.8%) went DAMA. Conclusion: Reliable diagnosis of dengue fever in endemic areas can be done by clinical parameters like presence of nausea, vomiting, pain abdomen and hepatomegaly. Monitoring platelet count, hematocrit and WBC count is very useful for management of dengue cases. Keywords: dengue fever, platelet count, outcome

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
Céline M Gossner ◽  
Nelly Fournet ◽  
Christina Frank ◽  
Beatriz Fernández-Martínez ◽  
Martina Del Manso ◽  

Background Dengue is a disease with major impacts on public health in tropical and subtropical countries. In Europe, in the past decade, few autochthonous outbreaks were described. Aim We aimed to identify factors associated with frequency of dengue virus infection among European travellers and at assessing how surveillance data could support preparedness against autochthonous outbreaks within Europe. Methods We performed a descriptive analysis of travel-related dengue cases reported by European countries from 2015 through 2019. Using flight passenger data, we calculated travellers’ infection rates (TIR). We investigated the following associations: (i) between TIR and incidence rate in selected countries of infection and (ii) between number of travel-related cases and occurrence of autochthonous outbreaks within Europe. Results There were 11,478 travel-related dengue cases and the TIR was 2.8 cases per 100,000 travellers. Most cases were infected in Asia (71%), predominantly in south-eastern Asia. The TIR was highest among travellers returning from Asia (6.1/100,000). There was an association between the incidence rate in the country of infection and the TIR but no association between the number of travel-related cases and occurrence of autochthonous outbreaks in Europe. Conclusions The likelihood of infection in travellers is a function of the ongoing epidemiological situation in the country of exposure. The number of travel-related cases alone is not sufficient to estimate the likelihood of autochthonous outbreaks where vectors are present in Europe. Additional contributing factors such as adequate vectorial capacity and suitable environmental conditions are required.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. e0010119
Trang Thi Thuy Huynh ◽  
Noboru Minakawa

The primary dengue virus vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, are primarily daytime biting mosquitoes. The risk of infection is suspected to be considerable in urban parks due to visitor traffic. Despite the importance of vector control for reducing dengue transmission, little information is available on vector populations in urban parks. The present study characterized mosquito habitats and estimated vector densities in the major urban parks in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam and compared them with those in adjacent residential areas. The prevalences of habitats where Aedes larvae were found were 43% and 9% for the parks and residential areas, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (prevalence ratio [PR]: 5.00, 95% CI: 3.85–6.49). The prevalences of positive larval habitats were significantly greater in the parks for both species than the residential areas (PR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.04–2.22 for A. aegypti, PR: 10.10, 95% CI: 7.23–14.12 for A. albopictus). Larvae of both species were positively associated with discarded containers and planters. Aedes albopictus larvae were negatively associated with indoor habitats, but positively associated with vegetation shade. The adult density of A. aegypti was significantly less in the parks compared with the residential areas (rate ratio [RR]; 0.09, 95% CI: 0.05–0.16), while the density of A. albopictus was significantly higher in the parks (RR: 9.99, 95% CI: 6.85–14.59). When the species were combined, the density was significantly higher in the parks (RR: 2.50, 95% CI: 1.92–3.25). The urban parks provide suitable environment for Aedes mosquitoes, and A. albopictus in particular. Virus vectors are abundant in the urban parks, and the current vector control programs need to have greater consideration of urban parks.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jaskaran Kaur ◽  
Yogita Rawat ◽  
Vikas Sood ◽  
Neha Periwal ◽  
Deepak Kumar Rathore ◽  

Dengue virus can infect human megakaryocytes leading to decreased platelet biogenesis. In this article, we report a study of Dengue replication in human K562 cells undergoing PMA-induced differentiation into megakaryocytes. PMA-induced differentiation in these cells recapitulates steps of megakaryopoiesis including gene activation, expression of CD41/61 and CD61 platelet surface markers and accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our results show differentiating megakaryocyte cells to support higher viral replication without any apparent increase in virus entry. Further, Dengue replication suppresses the accumulation of ROS in differentiating cells, probably by only augmenting the activity of the transcription factor NFE2L2 without influencing the expression of the coding gene. Interestingly pharmacological modulation of NFE2L2 activity showed a simultaneous but opposite effect on intracellular ROS and virus replication suggesting the former to have an inhibitory effect on the later. Also cells that differentiated while supporting intracellular virus replication showed reduced level of surface markers compared to uninfected differentiated cells.

2022 ◽  
Vol 103 (1) ◽  
Michael Leitner ◽  
Kayvan Etebari ◽  
Sassan Asgari

Mosquito-borne flaviviruses are responsible for viral infections and represent a considerable public health burden. Aedes aegypti is the principal vector of dengue virus (DENV), therefore understanding the intrinsic virus–host interactions is vital, particularly in the presence of the endosymbiont Wolbachia, which blocks virus replication in mosquitoes. Here, we examined the transcriptional response of Wolbachia -transinfected Ae. aegypti Aag2 cells to DENV infection. We identified differentially expressed immune genes that play a key role in the activation of anti-viral defence such as the Toll and immune deficiency pathways. Further, genes encoding cytosine and N6-adenosine methyltransferases and SUMOylation, involved in post-transcriptional modifications, an antioxidant enzyme, and heat-shock response were up-regulated at the early stages of DENV infection and are reported here for the first time. Additionally, several long non-coding RNAs were among the differentially regulated genes. Our results provide insight into Wolbachia -transinfected Ae. aegypti’s initial virus recognition and transcriptional response to DENV infection.

Tanamas Siriphanitchakorn ◽  
Cassandra Modahl ◽  
R. Manjunatha Kini ◽  
Eng Eong Ooi ◽  
Milly Choy

Successful completion of the dengue virus (DENV) life cycle in its mosquito vectors is important for efficient human–mosquito–human cycle of transmission, but the virus–mosquito interactions that underpin this critical event are poorly defined. To understand the virus–host interactions that determine viral infection by Aedes aegypti, the principal DENV vector, the authors compared transcriptomic changes in the head/thorax of the mosquito after intrathoracic infection with the wild-type DENV2 16681 strain and its attenuated derivative, PDK53. Using high-throughput RNA-sequencing, the authors identified 1,629 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) during 16681 infection, compared with only 22 DEGs identified during PDK53 infection, indicating that 16681 infection triggers a more robust host transcriptomic response compared with PDK53 infection. The authors further found that 16681 infection, but not PDK53 infection, altered metabolism in these heads/thoraces. Altogether, our findings reveal differential regulation of metabolic processes during wild-type and attenuated DENV infection, and suggest the need for future work to study the role of metabolic processes in determining DENV infection and replication in its mosquito vectors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Wei-Liang Liu ◽  
Chia-Wei Hsu ◽  
Shih-Peng Chan ◽  
Pei-Shi Yen ◽  
Matthew P. Su ◽  

Ajay Kumar Shukla ◽  
Saurav Misra

Abstract Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) can be seen in a variety of viruses. It has a deleterious impact on antibody treatment of viral infection. This effect was first discovered in the dengue virus, and it has since been discovered in the coronavirus. Over 213 million people have been affected by the rapid spread of the newly emerging coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The new coronavirus offers a significant threat and has sparked widespread concern. ADE in dengue virus and other viruses are discussed with possible effect on COVID-19 treatment and vaccine development will need to consider this phenomenon to ensure it is mitigated and avoided altogether. In these case scenarios, the role of ADE and its clinical consequences remains to be explored for this newly detected virus.

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