infection rates
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (3) ◽  

BACKGROUND Coccydynia refers to debilitating pain in the coccygeal region of the spine. Treatment strategies range from conservative measures (e.g., ergonomic adaptations, physical therapy, nerve block injections) to partial or complete removal of the coccyx (coccygectomy). Because the surgical intervention is situated in a high-pressure location close to the anus, a possible complication is the formation of sacral pressure ulcers and infection at the incision site. OBSERVATIONS In this case report, the authors presented a minimally invasive, fully endoscopic approach to safely perform complete coccygectomy for treatment of refractory posttraumatic coccydynia. LESSONS Although this is a single case report, the authors hope that this novel endoscopic approach may achieve improved wound healing, reduced infection rates, and lower risk of penetration injury to retroperitoneal organs in patients requiring coccygectomy.

Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 192
Stuart J. Patterson ◽  
Tim H. Clutton-Brock ◽  
Dirk U. Pfeiffer ◽  
Julian A. Drewe

Individuals vary in their potential to acquire and transmit infections, but this fact is currently underexploited in disease control strategies. We trialled a trait-based vaccination strategy to reduce tuberculosis in free-living meerkats by targeting high-contact meerkats (socially dominant individuals) in one study arm, and high-susceptibility individuals (young subordinates) in a second arm. We monitored infection within vaccinated groups over two years comparing the results with untreated control groups. Being a member of a high-contact group had a protective effect on individuals’ survival times (Hazard Ratio = 0.5, 95% Confidence Interval, CI: 0.29–0.88, p = 0.02) compared to control groups. Over the study, odds of testing positive for tuberculosis increased more than five-fold in control groups (Odds Ratio = 5.40, 95% CI = 0.94–30.98, p = 0.058); however, no increases were observed in either of the treatment arms. Targeted disease control approaches, such as the one described in this study, allow for reduced numbers of interventions. Here, trait-based vaccination was associated with reduced infection rates and thus has the potential to offer more efficient alternatives to traditional mass-vaccination policies. Such improvements in efficiency warrant further study and could make infectious disease control more practically achievable in both animal (particularly wildlife) and human populations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
Céline M Gossner ◽  
Nelly Fournet ◽  
Christina Frank ◽  
Beatriz Fernández-Martínez ◽  
Martina Del Manso ◽  

Background Dengue is a disease with major impacts on public health in tropical and subtropical countries. In Europe, in the past decade, few autochthonous outbreaks were described. Aim We aimed to identify factors associated with frequency of dengue virus infection among European travellers and at assessing how surveillance data could support preparedness against autochthonous outbreaks within Europe. Methods We performed a descriptive analysis of travel-related dengue cases reported by European countries from 2015 through 2019. Using flight passenger data, we calculated travellers’ infection rates (TIR). We investigated the following associations: (i) between TIR and incidence rate in selected countries of infection and (ii) between number of travel-related cases and occurrence of autochthonous outbreaks within Europe. Results There were 11,478 travel-related dengue cases and the TIR was 2.8 cases per 100,000 travellers. Most cases were infected in Asia (71%), predominantly in south-eastern Asia. The TIR was highest among travellers returning from Asia (6.1/100,000). There was an association between the incidence rate in the country of infection and the TIR but no association between the number of travel-related cases and occurrence of autochthonous outbreaks in Europe. Conclusions The likelihood of infection in travellers is a function of the ongoing epidemiological situation in the country of exposure. The number of travel-related cases alone is not sufficient to estimate the likelihood of autochthonous outbreaks where vectors are present in Europe. Additional contributing factors such as adequate vectorial capacity and suitable environmental conditions are required.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261833
Mostafa Shartaj ◽  
Jordan F. Suter ◽  
Travis Warziniack

During the COVID-19 pandemic, US public land managers faced the challenge of catering to large increases in camping demand, while maintaining social distancing guidelines. In this paper, we use multivariate linear regression to analyze weekly changes in reservations to US Forest Service (USFS) campgrounds between 2019 and 2020. The regression models estimate the impact of local COVID infection rates, public health restrictions, and spatial spillovers from proximity to National Parks (NPs), metropolitan areas and wildfire on camping demand. Our sample includes 1,688 individual USFS campgrounds from across the contiguous US. The results illustrate the dramatic increases in camping on USFS land that occurred in the summer of 2020 and demonstrate that increases in local infection rates led to significant increases in camping nights reserved in the summer. The results also illustrate that the increase in camping nights reserved at USFS campgrounds was particularly dramatic for campgrounds located near large metropolitan areas and near NPs that saw increases in overall recreational visits. These results point to the important role that public lands played during the pandemic and can help guide public land resource allocations for campground maintenance and operation.

2022 ◽  
Salome Wittwer ◽  
Onicio Batista Leal Neto ◽  
Daniela Paolotti ◽  
Guilherme Lichand

Abstract The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has emphasized the necessity of a well-functioning surveillance system to detect and mitigate disease outbreaks. Traditional surveillance (TS) usually relies on healthcare providers and generally suffers from reporting lags that prevent immediate response plans. Participatory surveillance (PS), an innovative digital approach whereby individuals voluntarily monitor and report on their own health status via Web-based surveys, has emerged in the past decade to complement traditional data collections approaches. This study compares novel PS data on COVID-19 infection rates across nine Brazilian cities with official TS data to examine the opportunities and challenges of using the former, and the potential advantages of combining the two approaches. We find that high participation rates are key for PS data to adequately mirror TS infection rates. Where participation was high, we document a significant trend correlation between lagged PS data and TS infection rates, suggesting that the former could be used for early detection. In our data, forecasting models integrating both approaches increased accuracy up to 3% relative to a 14-day forecast horizon model based exclusively on TS data. Furthermore, we show that the PS data captures a population that significantly differs from the traditional observation. These results corroborate previous studies when it comes to the benefits of an integrated and comprehensive surveillance system, but also shed lights on its limitations, and on the need for additional research to improve future implementations of PS platforms.

Alyssa B Dufour ◽  
Cyrus Kosar ◽  
Vincent Mor ◽  
Lewis A Lipsitz

Abstract Background Nursing home (NH) residents, especially those who were Black or with dementia, had the highest infection rates during the COVID-19 pandemic. A 9-week COVID-19 infection control intervention in 360 Massachusetts NHs showed adherence to an infection control checklist with proper personal protective equipment (PPE) use and cohorting was associated with declines in weekly infection rates. NHs were offered weekly webinars, answers to infection control questions, resources to acquire PPE, backup staff, and SARS-CoV-2 testing. We asked whether the effect of this intervention differed by racial and dementia composition of the NHs. Methods Data were obtained from 4 state audits using infection control checklists, weekly infection rates, and Minimum Data Set variables on race and dementia to determine whether adherence to checklist competencies was associated with decline in average weekly rates of new COVID-19 infections. Results Using a mixed-effects hurdle model, adjusted for county COVID-19 prevalence, we found the overall effect of the intervention did not differ by racial composition, but proper cohorting of residents was associated with a greater reduction in infection rates among facilities with ≥20% non-Whites (n = 83). Facilities in the middle (>50%–62%; n = 121) and upper (>62%; n = 115) tertiles of dementia prevalence had the largest reduction in infection rates as checklist scores improved. Cohorting was associated with greater reductions in infection rates among facilities in the middle and upper tertiles of dementia prevalence. Conclusions Adherence to proper infection control procedures, particularly cohorting of residents, can reduce COVID-19 infections, even in facilities with high percentages of high-risk residents (non-White and dementia).

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Roberta Pereira Niquini ◽  
Jurema Corrêa da Mota ◽  
Leonardo Soares Bastos ◽  
Diego da Costa Moreira Barbosa ◽  
Juliane da Silva Falcão ◽  

AbstractWe conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies assessing HCV infection rates in haemodialysis patients in Brazil (Prospero CRD #42021275068). We included studies on patients under haemodialysis, comprising both convenience samples and exhaustive information from selected services. Patients underwent HCV serological testing with or without confirmation by HCV RNA PCR. Exclusion criteria were the following: absence of primary empirical information and studies without information on their respective settings, study year, accurate infection rates, or full specification of diagnostic tests. Studies with samples ≤ 30 and serial assessments with repeated information were also excluded. Reference databases included PubMed, LILACS, Scopus, and Web of Science for the period 1989–2019. A systematic review was carried out, followed by two independent meta-analyses: (i) studies with data on HCV prevalence and (ii) studies with a confirmatory PCR (i.e., active infection), respectively. A comprehensive set of different methods and procedures were used: forest plots and respective statistics, polynomial regression, meta-regression, subgroup influence, quality assessment, and trim-and-fill analysis. 29 studies and 11,290 individuals were assessed. The average time patients were in haemodialysis varied from 23.5 to 56.3 months. Prevalence of HCV infection was highly heterogeneous, with a pronounced decrease from 1992 to 2001, followed by a plateau and a slight decrease in recent years. The summary measure for HCV prevalence was 34% (95% CI 26–43%) for studies implemented before 2001. For studies implemented after 2001, the corresponding summary measure was 11% (95% CI 8–15%). Estimates for prevalence of active HCV infection were also highly heterogeneous. There was a marked decline from 1996 to 2001, followed by a plateau and a slight increase after 2010. The summary measure for active HCV infection was 19% (95% CI 15–25%) in studies carried out before 2001. For studies implemented after 2001, the corresponding summary measure was 9% (95% CI 6–13%). Heterogeneity was pervasive, but different analyses helped to identify its underlying sources. Besides the year each study was conducted, the findings differed markedly between geographic regions and were heavily influenced by the size of the studies and publication biases. Our systematic review and meta-analysis documented a substantial decline in HCV prevalence among Brazilian haemodialysis patients from 1992 to 2015. CKD should be targeted with specific interventions to prevent HCV infection, and if prevention fails, prompt diagnosis and treatment. Although the goal of HCV elimination by 2030 in Brazil remains elusive, it is necessary to adopt measures to achieve micro-elimination and to launch initiatives towards targeted interventions to curb the spread of HCV in people with CKD, among other high-risk groups. This is of particular concern in the context of a protracted COVID-19 pandemic and a major economic and political crisis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Felicidade Mota Pereira ◽  
Fred Luciano Neves Santos ◽  
Ângelo Antônio Oliveira Silva ◽  
Nathan Menezes Nascimento ◽  
Maria da Conceição Chagas Almeida ◽  

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Human T-Leukemia Virus (HTLV) are retroviruses that share similar routes of transmission. In Brazil, the prevalence of HIV and HTLV varies according to geographic region. The state of Bahia, located in the Northeast region, is considered endemic for both retroviruses. The present study aimed to characterize the frequency of HIV/HTLV coinfection and evaluate the geographic distribution of coinfection throughout the state. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the state's Central Laboratory of Public Health (LACEN-BA) and included all samples from 2004 to 2013 submitted to serological testing for anti-HIV and anti-HTLV-1/2, screened by chemiluminescence/ELISA and confirmed by Western blot. Infection rates are expressed as the number of infected individuals per 100,000 inhabitants from each municipality. A total of 129,158 samples originating from 358/417 (85.8%) municipalities in Bahia were evaluated. HTLV was detected in 2.4% of the HIV-positive samples (n = 42) compared to 0.5% of those with negative HIV serology (n = 677) (OR: 4.65; CI: 3.39–6.37). HIV/HTLV coinfection was more frequent in women (69.0%); the median age of coinfected individuals was 47.2 years [interquartile range (IQR): 41.6–55.4 years]. In the 14/417 (3.4%) municipalities where at least one case of HIV/HTLV coinfection was detected, the overall HTLV coinfection rate in HIV-positive samples was 0.25 (range: 0.17–13.84) per 100,000 inhabitants. Most cases of HIV/HTLV-1 coinfection (21/37, 57%) were concentrated in the municipality of Salvador. Isolated instances (one or two cases) of HIV/HTLV-1 coinfection were distributed across municipalities known to be endemic for HTLV infection.

2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (2) ◽  
pp. e2105180119
Ned Augenblick ◽  
Jonathan Kolstad ◽  
Ziad Obermeyer ◽  
Ao Wang

Pooled testing increases efficiency by grouping individual samples and testing the combined sample, such that many individuals can be cleared with one negative test. This short paper demonstrates that pooled testing is particularly advantageous in the setting of pandemics, given repeated testing, rapid spread, and uncertain risk. Repeated testing mechanically lowers the infection probability at the time of the next test by removing positives from the population. This effect alone means that increasing frequency by x times only increases expected tests by around x. However, this calculation omits a further benefit of frequent testing: Removing infections from the population lowers intragroup transmission, which lowers infection probability and generates further efficiency. For this reason, increasing testing frequency can paradoxically reduce total testing cost. Our calculations are based on the assumption that infection rates are known, but predicting these rates is challenging in a fast-moving pandemic. However, given that frequent testing naturally suppresses the mean and variance of infection rates, we show that our results are very robust to uncertainty and misprediction. Finally, we note that efficiency further increases given natural sampling pools (e.g., workplaces, classrooms) that induce correlated risk via local transmission. We conclude that frequent pooled testing using natural groupings is a cost-effective way to provide consistent testing of a population to suppress infection risk in a pandemic.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document