aedes aegypti
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2022 ◽  
Vol 93 ◽  
pp. 101754
Wesley L. Passos ◽  
Gabriel M. Araujo ◽  
Amaro A. de Lima ◽  
Sergio L. Netto ◽  
Eduardo A.B. da Silva

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
A. Abrar ◽  
S. Sarwar ◽  
M. Abbas ◽  
H. Chaudhry ◽  
N. Ghani ◽  

Abstract Dengue fever vectored by the mosquito Aedes aegypti is one of the most rapidly spreading insect-borne diseases. Current reliance of dengue vector control is mostly on chemical insecticides. Growing insecticide resistance in the primary mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, limits the effectiveness of vector control through chemical insecticides. These chemical insecticides also have negative environmental impacts on animals, plants and human health. Myco-biocontrol agents are naturally occurring organisms and are found to be less damaging to the environment as compared to chemical insecticides. In the present study, entomopathogenic potential of local strains of fungi isolated from soil was assessed for the control of dengue vector. Local fungal isolates presents better alternative to introducing a foreign biocontrol strain, as they may be better adapted to environmental conditions of the area to survive and may have more entomopathogenic efficacy against target organism. Larvicidal efficacy of Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium proliferatum was evaluated against Aedes aegypti. Local strains of F. equiseti (MK371718) and F. proliferatum (MK371715) were isolated from the soil of Changa Manga Forest, Pakistan by using insect bait method. Larvicidal activity of two Fusarium spp. was tested against forth instar larvae of A. aegypti in the laboratory, using concentrations 105, 106, 107 and 108 conidia /ml. LC50 values for F. equiseti after 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h of exposure were recorded as 3.8x 108, 2.9x107, 2.0x107, and 7.1x106 conidia /ml respectively while LC50 values for F. proliferatum were recorded as 1.21x108, 9.6x107, 4.2x107, 2.6x107 conidia /ml respectively after 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h of exposure. The results indicate that among two fungal strains F. equiseti was found to be more effective in terms of its larvicidal activity than F. proliferatum against larvae of A. aegypti.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
R. L. Cansian ◽  
A. Staudt ◽  
J. L. Bernardi ◽  
B. M. S. Puton ◽  
D. Oliveira ◽  

Abstract The essential oil of citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) has several biological activities, among them the insect repellent action. Some studies showed that cinnamic acid esters can be applied as natural pesticides, insecticides and fungicides. In this context, the objective of the present work was to evaluate the production of esters from citronella essential oil with cinnamic acid via enzymatic esterification. Besides, the essential oil toxicity before and after esterification against Artemia salina and larvicidal action on Aedes aegypti was investigated. Esters were produced using cinnamic acid as the acylating agent and citronella essential oil (3:1) in heptane and 15 wt% NS 88011 enzyme as biocatalysts, at 70 °C and 150 rpm. Conversion rates of citronellyl and geranyl cinnamates were 58.7 and 69.0% for NS 88011, respectively. For the toxicity to Artemia salina LC50 results of 5.29 μg mL-1 were obtained for the essential oil and 4.36 μg mL-1 for the esterified oils obtained with NS 88011. In the insecticidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae, was obtained LC50 of 111.84 μg mL-1 for the essential oil of citronella and 86.30 μg mL-1 for the esterified oils obtained with the enzyme NS 88011, indicating high toxicity of the esters. The results demonstrated that the evaluated samples present potential of application as bioinsecticide.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 63
Rosanna Lorrane Francisco dos Reis Matos ◽  
Núbia Nunes de Souza ◽  
Sandro Morais dos Santos ◽  
Aline Ferreira Rafael ◽  
Eduardo Robson Duarte ◽  

The mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) are important vectors of several arboviruses, and are relevant public health problems. Conventional control, using chemical larvicides have selected resistant Culicidae populations and caused negative effects on the environment and human health. However, the use of plant extracts has represented a sustainable alternative for insect control. Popularly known as Xiriri, Mauritiella armata (Mart.) Burret (Aceraceae) is an abundant palm tree in Vereda ecosystems and has economic and social importance. In this study, the aim was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of the aqueous extract (AE) leaves of this plant on Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The mortalities of larvae were analyzed after treatment with four concentrations of the extract, comparing with a negative control using mineral water. The AE promoted 100% efficacy against Ae. aegypti larvae at 7.9 mg/mL. The lethal concentration to promote 90% mortality of Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae was estimated at 30.57 mg/mL. After chromatographic analyses, flavonoids, catechin and carbohydrates were detected. AE from M. armata leaves presented high larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, and represents a promising alternative to be used in vector control.

2022 ◽  
Alexis Carpenter ◽  
Rollie J Clem

Arboviruses continue to threaten a significant portion of the human population, and a better understanding is needed of the determinants of successful arbovirus infection of arthropod vectors. Avoiding apoptosis has been shown to be one such determinant. Previous work showed that a Sindbis virus (SINV) construct called MRE/rpr that expresses the pro-apoptotic protein Reaper via a duplicated subgenomic promoter had a reduced ability to orally infect Aedes aegypti mosquitoes at 3 days post-blood meal (PBM), but this difference diminished over time as virus variants containing deletions in the inserted reaper gene rapidly predominated. The goal of this study was to generate a SINV construct that more stably expressed Reaper, in order to further clarify the effect of midgut apoptosis on disseminated infection in Ae. aegypti. We did this by inserting reaper as an in-frame fusion into the structural open reading frame (ORF) of SINV. This construct, MRE/rprORF, successfully expressed Reaper, replicated similarly to MRE/rpr in cell lines, and induced apoptosis in cultured cells and in mosquito midgut tissue. Mosquitoes that fed on blood containing MRE/rprORF developed less midgut and disseminated infection when compared to MRE/rpr or a control virus up to at least 7 days PBM, when less than 50% of mosquitoes that ingested MRE/rprORF had detectable disseminated infection, compared with around 80% or more of mosquitoes fed with MRE/rpr or control virus. However, virus titer in mosquitoes infected with MRE/rprORF was not significantly different from control virus, suggesting that induction of apoptosis by expression of Reaper by this method can reduce infection prevalence, but if infection is established then apoptosis induced by this method has limited ability to continue to suppress replication.

2022 ◽  
Arley Calle-Tobón ◽  
Juliana Pérez-Pérez ◽  
Nicolás Forero-Pineda ◽  
Omar Triana Chávez ◽  
Winston Rojas-Montoya ◽  

Aedes spp. comprise the primary group of mosquitoes that transmit arboviruses such as dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses to humans, and thus these insects pose a significant burden on public health worldwide. Advancements in next-generation sequencing and metagenomics have expanded our knowledge on the richness of RNA viruses harbored by arthropods such as Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus ; increasing evidence suggests that vectorial competence can be modified by the microbiome (comprising both bacteriome and virome) of mosquitoes present in endemic zones. Using an RNA-seq-based metataxonomic approach, this study determined the virome structure of field-caught Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes in Medellín, Colombia, a municipality with a high incidence of mosquito-transmitted arboviruses. The two species are sympatric, but their core viromes differed considerably in richness, diversity, and abundance; the viromes were dominated by a few viruses. BLAST searches of assembled contigs suggested that at least 17 virus species (16 of which are insect-specific viruses [ISVs]) infect the Ae. aegypti population. Dengue virus 3 was detected in one sample. In Ae. albopictus , up to 11 ISVs and one plant virus were detected. Therefore, the virome composition was species-specific. The bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia was identified in all Ae. albopictus samples and in some Ae. aegypti samples collected after 2017. The presence of Wolbachi a sp. in Ae. aegypti was not related to significant changes in the richness, diversity, or abundance of this mosquito’s virome, although it was related to an increase in the abundance of Aedes aegypti To virus 2 (unclassified). The mitochondrial diversity of these mosquitoes suggested that the Ae. aegypti population underwent a change that started in the second half of 2017, which coincides with the release of Wolbachia -infected mosquitoes in Medellín, indicating that the population of w Mel-infected mosquitoes has expanded. However, additional studies are required on the dispersal speed and intergenerational stability of w Mel in Medellín and nearby areas as well as on the introgression of genetic variants in the native mosquito population.

Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 131
Peter Hodoameda ◽  
Linus Addae ◽  
Rollie J. Clem

The mechanisms involved in determining arbovirus vector competence, or the ability of an arbovirus to infect and be transmitted by an arthropod vector, are still incompletely understood. It is well known that vector competence for a particular arbovirus can vary widely among different populations of a mosquito species, which is generally attributed to genetic differences between populations. What is less understood is the considerable variability (up to several logs) that is routinely observed in the virus titer between individual mosquitoes in a single experiment, even in mosquitoes from highly inbred lines. This extreme degree of variation in the virus titer between individual mosquitoes has been largely ignored in past studies. We investigated which biological factors can affect titer variation between individual mosquitoes of a laboratory strain of Aedes aegypti, the Orlando strain, after Sindbis virus infection. Greater titer variation was observed after oral versus intrathoracic infection, suggesting that the midgut barrier contributes to titer variability. Among the other factors tested, only the length of the incubation period affected the degree of titer variability, while virus strain, mosquito strain, mosquito age, mosquito weight, amount of blood ingested, and virus concentration in the blood meal had no discernible effect. We also observed differences in culture adaptability and in the ability to orally infect mosquitoes between virus populations obtained from low and high titer mosquitoes, suggesting that founder effects may affect the virus titer in individual mosquitoes, although other explanations also remain possible.

2022 ◽  
Mia Elisa Martin ◽  
Ana Carolina Alonso ◽  
Janinna Faraone ◽  
Marina Stein ◽  
Elizabet L Estallo

The presence, abundance and distribution of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus 1762) and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse 1894) could be conditioned by different data obtained from satellite remote sensors. In this paper, we aim to estimate the effect of landscape coverage and spectral indices on the abundance of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus from the use of satellite remote sensors in Eldorado, Misiones, Argentina. Larvae of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus were collected monthly from June 2016 to April 2018, in four outdoor environments: tire repair shops, cemeteries, family dwellings, and an urban natural park. The proportion of each land cover class was determined by Sentinel-2 image classification. Furthermore spectral indices were calculated. Generalized Linear Mixed Models were developed to analyze the possible effects of landscape coverage and vegetation indices on the abundance of mosquitoes. The model's results showed the abundance of Ae. aegypti was better modeled by the minimum values of the NDVI index, the maximum values of the NDBI index and the interaction between both variables. In contrast, the abundance of Ae. albopictus has to be better explained by the model that includes the variables bare soil, low vegetation and the interaction between both variables.

2022 ◽  
Vol 103 (1) ◽  
Michael Leitner ◽  
Kayvan Etebari ◽  
Sassan Asgari

Mosquito-borne flaviviruses are responsible for viral infections and represent a considerable public health burden. Aedes aegypti is the principal vector of dengue virus (DENV), therefore understanding the intrinsic virus–host interactions is vital, particularly in the presence of the endosymbiont Wolbachia, which blocks virus replication in mosquitoes. Here, we examined the transcriptional response of Wolbachia -transinfected Ae. aegypti Aag2 cells to DENV infection. We identified differentially expressed immune genes that play a key role in the activation of anti-viral defence such as the Toll and immune deficiency pathways. Further, genes encoding cytosine and N6-adenosine methyltransferases and SUMOylation, involved in post-transcriptional modifications, an antioxidant enzyme, and heat-shock response were up-regulated at the early stages of DENV infection and are reported here for the first time. Additionally, several long non-coding RNAs were among the differentially regulated genes. Our results provide insight into Wolbachia -transinfected Ae. aegypti’s initial virus recognition and transcriptional response to DENV infection.

2022 ◽  
Nicole E Wynne ◽  
Karthikeyan Chandrasegaran ◽  
Lauren Fryzlewicz ◽  
Clément Vinauger

The diurnal mosquitoes Aedes aegypti are vectors of several arboviruses, including dengue, yellow fever, and Zika viruses. To find a host to feed on, they rely on the sophisticated integration of olfactory, visual, thermal, and gustatory cues reluctantly emitted by the hosts. If detected by their target, this latter may display defensive behaviors that mosquitoes need to be able to detect and escape. In humans, a typical response is a swat of the hand, which generates both mechanical and visual perturbations aimed at a mosquito. While the neuro-sensory mechanisms underlying the approach to the host have been the focus of numerous studies, the cues used by mosquitoes to detect and identify a potential threat remain largely understudied. In particular, the role of vision in mediating mosquitoes' ability to escape defensive hosts has yet to be analyzed. Here, we used programmable visual displays to generate expanding objects sharing characteristics with the visual component of an approaching hand and quantified the behavioral response of female mosquitoes. Results show that Ae. aegypti is capable of using visual information to decide whether to feed on an artificial host mimic. Stimulations delivered in a LED flight arena further reveal that landed females Ae. aegypti display a stereotypical escape strategy by taking off at an angle that is a function of the distance and direction of stimulus introduction. Altogether, this study demonstrates mosquitoes can use isolated visual cues to detect and avoid a potential threat.

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