BMC Pediatrics
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Published By Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)

1471-2431, 1471-2431

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Shan Shan ◽  
Shuyu Wang ◽  
Xue Yang ◽  
Fan Liu ◽  
Linying Xiu

Abstract Background Previous studies did not comprehensively examine the effect of adenotonsillectomy on growth and development, emotional state, quality of life, attention ability, and cognitive dysfunction in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This study aimed to explore the improvement effects of adenotonsillectomy on the growth, development, quality of life, and attention ability in children with OSA. Methods This prospective single-arm study involved children with OSA admitted at The No. 980 Hospital, Joint Logistics Support Force, PLA, China (02/2017–02/2018). The Myklebust Pupil Rating Scale (PRS), Inventory of Subjective Life Quality (ISLQ), Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Conners Parent Symptom Questionnaire (PSQ), and Continuous Performance Task (CPT) were examined before and at 6 months after adenotonsillectomy. Results Forty-nine patients were enrolled. They all completed the 6-month follow-up. The body mass index increased after surgery (from 18.8 ± 4.9 to 19.3 ± 4.3 kg/m2, P = 0.008). The total PRS score increased 6 months after surgery (from 73.8 ± 12.7 to 84.6 ± 10.3, P < 0.001). All aspects of the ISLQ, except anxiety experience and physical emotion, were improved at 6 months after adenotonsillectomy (all P < 0.01). The SAS score also decreased from 20.1 ± 10.0 to 12.8 ± 6.6 (P < 0.001). All six dimensions of the PSQ, as assessed by the legal guardians, decreased after adenotonsillectomy (all P < 0.01). The proportions of children with auditory and/or visual sustained attention abnormalities decreased after surgery. Conclusions After adenotonsillectomy, the PRS, ISLQ, and PSQ improved, and anxiety and auditory/visual sustained attention abnormalities decreased, suggesting positive impacts on the growth, development, quality of life, and comprehensive cognitive abilities of children with OSA.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
You Jia ◽  
Li Shuang ◽  
Wang Jun ◽  
Li Gang ◽  
Chen Hai-tao

Abstract Background Urogenital small foreign bodies (FBs) have rarely been reported in children, and their management is still challenging. This study aimed to describe the characteristics and treatment of spherical FBs no larger than 0.6 cm in the children’s genitourinary tracts.  Methods The clinical data of spherical FBs removed in our hospital from June 2013 to June 2020 were recorded and retrospectively analyzed, including demographics, location, symptoms, imaging examinations and treatment methods. Results A total of 10 patients were enrolled: 6 girls and 4 boys. Their ages ranged from 5.1 to 16.8 years old, with a mean age of 9.2 years. The course of the disease ranged from 3 h to 1 year, and symptoms recurred in some cases. Their imaging characteristics were reviewed and analyzed, 6 patients underwent color Doppler ultrasonography, 1 patient was suspected to have an FB in the vagina, 7 patients underwent an X-ray examination, and FBs were revealed in 6 patients. All FBs were removed under endoscopic minimally invasive surgery. Six vaginal FBs were successfully retrieved via vaginoscopy, and in the other four cases, removal by transurethral cystoscopy failed because of mutual attraction, which was eliminated by laparoscopy under pneumovesicum. Postoperative recovery was uneventful; in a follow-up of 3 months to 2 years, there was no perforation or fistula formation, and there were no urethral strictures in boys. Conclusion Small spherical FBs are clinically rare; they are sometimes difficult to detect by imaging examinations and can be easily overlooked. Minimally invasive endoscopy remains the first-line approach for the diagnosis and removal of genitourinary spherical FBs.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ermias Sisay Chanie ◽  
Getasew Legas ◽  
Shimeles Biru Zewude ◽  
Maru Mekie ◽  
Dagne Addisu Sewyew ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Although severe acute malnutrition is a major public issue among HIV infected children, there is no prior evidence in Ethiopia. Hence, this study aims to assess the time to develop severe acute malnutrition and its predictors among children living with human immunodeficiency virus in Ethiopia, 2012. Methods An institution based retrospective cohort study was conducted in South Gondar hospitals among 363 HIV infected children from February 10, 2014, to January 7, 2021. Epi-data version 3.1 was used to enter data, which was then exported to STATA version 14 for analysis. Besides, WHO (World Health Organization) Anthro Plus software was used to assess the nutritional status of the children. A standardized data extraction tool was used to collect the data. The Kaplan Meier survival curve was used to estimate the median survival time. The Cox-proportional hazard model assumption was checked via the Schoenfeld residual ph test and a stph plot. Bivariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were employed at 95% confidence intervals (CI). A variable having a p-value < 0.05 was considered a statistically significant predictor of severe acute malnutrition. Results A total of 363 children living with HIV, 97 (26.72%) developed severe acute malnutrition during the follow-up period. The overall incidence rate was 5.4 (95% CI: 4.7–5.9) person per year with a total of 21, 492 months or 1791 years of observation. Moreover, the median survival time was 126 months. Treatment failure [AHR =3.4 (95% CI: 2.05–5.75)], CD4 count below threshold [AHR =2.5 (95% CI: 1.64–3.95)], and WHO stage III & IV [AHR =2.9 (95% CI: 1.74–4.73)] were all significant predictors of severe acute malnutrition. Conclusion The time to develop severe acute malnutrition was found to be very low. Treatment failure, CD4 count below threshold, and WHO stage III were all significant predictors of severe acute malnutrition. Hence, emphasizing those predictor variables is essential for preventing and controlling the occurrence of severe acute malnutrition among HIV infected children.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Rasmus F.W. Olander ◽  
Johnny K.M. Sundholm ◽  
Sanna Suonsyrjä ◽  
Taisto Sarkola

Abstract Background Abnormal fetal growth is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in adulthood. We investigated the effect of fetal programming on arterial health and morphology during early childhood. Methods We examined 90 children (median age 5.81 years, interquartile range: 5.67; 5.95), born small for gestational age with fetal growth restriction, large or appropriate for gestational age (SGA, N = 23, LGA, N = 19, AGA N = 48). We measured body composition, anthropometrics, blood pressure, pulse wave velocity (PWV), lipids, glucose and inflammatory markers, and assessed carotid, brachial, radial and femoral arterial morphology and stiffness using very-high resolution ultrasound (46–71 MHz). Results LGA showed increased anthropometry, lean body mass and body mass index. SGA displayed decreased anthropometry and lean body mass. Blood pressure, PWV, carotid artery stiffness and blood work did not differ groupwise. Differences in lumen diameters, intima-media thicknesses (IMT) and adventitia thicknesses disappeared when adjusted for lean body mass and sex. In multiple regression models arterial dimensions were mainly predicted by lean body mass, with birth weight remaining associated only with carotid and brachial lumen dimensions, and not with IMTs. Carotid-femoral PWV was predicted by height and blood pressure only. No independent effect of adiposity was observed. Conclusions Arterial dimensions in childhood associate with current anthropometrics, especially lean body mass, and sex, explaining differences in arterial layer thickness. We found no signs of fetal programming of cardiovascular risk or arterial health in early childhood.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Malin Lindell Pettersson ◽  
Marie Bladh ◽  
Elizabeth Nedstrand ◽  
Agneta Skoog Svanberg ◽  
Claudia Lampic ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Advanced maternal age, single status and use of assisted reproductive technology (ART) are increasing in mothers in high-income countries, and all are known risk factors for negative obstetric outcomes. Less is known about their long-term consequences for childhood morbidity. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate morbidity up to five years of age, in the children of older, single, and/or ART-treated mothers. Methods A cross-sectional using Swedish registers was performed comprising 23 772 children. The prevalence of diagnosis and the number of hospital visits for specialist care, were compared and analyzed in relation to maternal age at childbirth, maternal civil status, and mode of conception. The odds ratio for specialized care within each ICD-chapter were estimated using single and multiple logistic regression. Results Children born to single mothers and children conceived using ART had significantly more outpatient visits for specialist care and significantly more diagnoses compared to children with married/cohabiting mothers, and spontaneously conceived children. Children born to mothers of advanced maternal age (≥40) had fewer in- and outpatient visits. However, they were significantly more often diagnosed within ICD-chapters XVI, XVII i.e., they experienced more morbidity in the neonatal period. Conclusion The results indicate that children born to single mothers and children of ART-treated mothers have a higher morbidity and consume more specialist care than children of married/cohabiting and spontaneously pregnant mothers. We conclude that the use of ART, maternal single status and advanced maternal age are risk factors of importance to consider in pediatric care and when counseling women who are considering ART treatment.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Irene Moll ◽  
Rik G. J. Marcellis ◽  
Marcel L. P. Coenen ◽  
Sabine M. Fleuren ◽  
Paul J. B. Willems ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Spastic cerebral palsy is the most common cause of motor disability in children. It often leads to foot drop or equinus, interfering with walking. Ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) are commonly used in these cases. However, AFOs can be too restrictive for mildly impaired patients. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the ankle-dorsiflexors is an alternative treatment as it could function as a dynamic functional orthosis. Despite previous research, high level evidence on the effects of FES on activities and participation in daily life is missing. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate whether FES improves the activity and participation level in daily life according to patients, and the secondary aim is to provide evidence of the effect of FES at the level of body functions and activities. Furthermore, we aim to collect relevant information for decisions on its clinical implementation. Methods A randomized crossover trial will be performed on 25 children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy. Patients aged between 4 and 18 years, with Gross Motor Functioning Classification System level I or II and unilateral foot drop of central origin, currently treated with AFO or adapted shoes, will be included. All participants will undergo twelve weeks of conventional treatment (AFO/adapted shoes) and 12 weeks of FES treatment, separated by a six-week washout-phase. FES treatment consists of wearing the WalkAide® device, with surface electrodes stimulating the peroneal nerve during swing phase of gait. For the primary objective, the Goal Attainment Scale is used to test whether FES improves activities and participation in daily life. The secondary objective is to prove whether FES is effective at the level of body functions and structures, and activities, including ankle kinematics and kinetics measured during 3D-gait analysis and questionnaire-based frequency of falling. The tertiary objective is to collect relevant information for clinical implementation, including acceptability using the device log file and side effect registration, cost-effectiveness based on quality adjusted life years (QALYs) and clinical characteristics for patient selection. Discussion We anticipate that the results of this study will allow evidence-based use of FES during walking in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03440632.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Yongxiang Zhao ◽  
Ruimin Zhang ◽  
Ye Yun ◽  
Xiangming Wu ◽  
Haowei Li ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Renal calyx diverticulum refers to a cystic lesion covered with the transitional epithelium in the renal parenchyma. Although there is no clear evidence that calyx diverticulum can cause hypertension, there exists a close association between the two, and there are few related reports. Herein, we reported the case of a child with renal calyx diverticulum complicated with hypertension and summarized the diagnosis and treatment. Case presentation Physical examination of the patient, an 11-year-old child, revealed a left renal cyst with hypertension (155/116 mmHg). There were no related symptoms. Routine urine and blood biochemical examinations showed no abnormalities. Imaging revealed left renal cyst compression causing the hypertension. She underwent renal cyst fluid aspiration and injection of a sclerosing agent into the capsule, but her blood pressure increased again 3 days postoperatively. Color Doppler ultrasonography showed that the size of the left renal cyst was the same as that preoperatively. To further confirm the diagnosis, cystoscopic retrograde ureteropyelography was performed to confirm the diagnosis of renal calyx diverticulum. Subsequently, renal calyceal diverticulum resection and calyx neck enlargement were performed. The operation went smoothly and the blood pressure returned to normal postoperatively. No abnormalities were noted at the 7-month postoperative follow-up. Conclusion There exists an association between renal calyx diverticulum and hypertension. Therefore, hypertension can be considered a surgical indication for renal calyx diverticulum. Moreover, renal calyceal diverticulum in children can be easily misdiagnosed as a renal cyst. Therefore, it is important to be vigilant to prevent a series of complications, such as postoperative urine leakage, in such cases.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Karen McConnell ◽  
Daniel Topley ◽  
Jason McKeown ◽  
Claire Kerr

Abstract Background Research suggests electrical Vestibular Nerve Stimulation (VeNS) may improve balance for people with neurological impairments. This study aimed to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a VeNS headset protocol in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods Children aged 5–18 years with ambulant CP, their parents, and healthcare professionals were recruited via social media. Children completed a battery of balance tests and wore a sham VeNS headset one hour per day for four weeks. Perspectives on the balance tests and headset were ascertained from children, parents and healthcare professionals using semi-structured interviews. Interview data were analysed thematically. Results Two families and four healthcare professionals participated. Balance outcome measures were fully completed and deemed acceptable. Adherence with wearing the headset was 89–100% but discomfort with self-adhesive electrodes was reported. Four themes emerged from interview data: headset issues, perceptions about VeNS, the importance of balance, and modifications for future study. Conclusions Although the VeNS headset had high acceptability, the volunteer sample was small, potentially suggesting limited interest in VeNS as a treatment for children with CP, or reluctance to trial a ‘non-active’ headset. Recruitment via clinicians known to the family and use of an ‘active’ headset may increase participation in future research.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Mare Lõhmus ◽  
Mehdi Osooli ◽  
Frida I. H. Pilgaard ◽  
Per-Olof Östergren ◽  
Anna Olin ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Swimming ability among children in the city of Malmö, Sweden is strongly affected by socioeconomic differences. We investigated to what extent mediating health and lifestyle factors, such as children’s eating, sleeping and physical activity habits, as well as the characteristics of the social and working environment at both school and home, could explain the socioeconomic gradient in swimming ability. Methods Our study population included children who started their first-grade school-year in 2012 or 2013 at any of the public primary schools of Malmö, Sweden. Cross-sectional, self-reported questionnaire-based data about health status and swimming ability in the fourth grade (age 10) were included from the Pupil Health Database (ELSA) for 3468 children. Results Children’s self-reported swimming ability was strongly associated with both individual- and school-based sociodemographic variables. Nine health, lifestyle and environmental variables were identified as potential mediators and included in the final model. Four of these variables, “Activity”, “Outdoor time”, “Social relationships at home and on the free time”, and “Positivity about future”, were significantly and positively associated with children’s ability to swim. Conclusions Social support, optimism for the future and an active lifestyle were positively associated with children’s swimming skills; however, compared to the socioeconomic factors, these health- and lifestyle factors contributed very little. It is possible, that interventions concerning children’s swimming ability in lower socioeconomic neighbourhoods, should in addition to children’s swimming lessons, target the whole families with the goal of increasing their possibilities for socialising and engaging in different kinds of recreational activities.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Tisungane Mvalo ◽  
Eric D. McCollum ◽  
Elizabeth Fitzgerald ◽  
Portia Kamthunzi ◽  
Robert H. Schmicker ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Pneumonia is the leading infectious cause of death in children aged under 5 years in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). World Health Organization (WHO) pneumonia diagnosis guidelines rely on non-specific clinical features. We explore chest radiography (CXR) findings among select children in the Innovative Treatments in Pneumonia (ITIP) project in Malawi in relation to clinical outcomes. Methods When clinically indicated, CXRs were obtained from ITIP-enrolled children aged 2 to 59 months with community-acquired pneumonia hospitalized with treatment failure or relapse. ITIP1 (fast-breathing pneumonia) and ITIP2 (chest-indrawing pneumonia) trials enrolled children with non-severe pneumonia while ITIP3 enrolled children excluded from ITIP1 and ITIP2 with severe pneumonia and/or selected comorbidities. A panel of trained pediatricians classified the CXRs using the standardized WHO CXR research methodology. We analyzed the relationship between CXR classifications, enrollee characteristics, and outcomes. Results Between March 2016 and June 2018, of 114 CXRs obtained, 83 met analysis criteria with 62.7% (52/83) classified as having significant pathology per WHO standardized interpretation. ITIP3 (92.3%; 12/13) children had a higher proportion of CXRs with significant pathology compared to ITIP1 (57.1%, 12/21) and ITIP2 (57.1%, 28/49) (p-value = 0.008). The predominant pathological CXR reading was “other infiltrates only” in ITIP1 (83.3%, 10/12) and ITIP2 (71.4%, 20/28), while in ITIP3 it was “primary endpoint pneumonia”(66.7%, 8/12,; p-value = 0.008). The percent of CXRs with significant pathology among children clinically cured (60.6%, 40/66) vs those not clinically cured (70.6%, 12/17) at Day 14 was not significantly different (p-value = 0.58). Conclusions In this secondary analysis we observed that ITIP3 children with severe pneumonia and/or selected comorbidities had a higher frequency of CXRs with significant pathology, although these radiographic findings had limited relationship to Day 14 outcomes. The proportion of CXRs with “primary endpoint pneumonia” was low. These findings add to existing data that additional diagnostics and prognostics are important for improving the care of children with pneumonia in LMICs. Trial registration ITIP1, ITIP2, and ITIP3 were registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02760420, NCT02678195, and NCT02960919, respectively).


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