Cause Of Death
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Александра Алексеевна Троценко ◽  
Александр Викторович Кобелев ◽  
Александр Петрович Николаев ◽  
Аза Валерьевна Писарева

В статье представлена разработка технического проекта по созданию прибора для неинвазивной оценки параметров центральной гемодинамики. Сердечно-сосудистые заболевания являются основной причиной смерти во всем мире: ни по какой другой причине ежегодно не умирает столько людей, сколько от патологий сердца. По оценкам, за последние годы от сердечных заболеваний умерло 17,9 миллиона человек, что составило 31% всех случаев смерти в мире. Другой известной причиной смертей являются различные аритмии. Таким образом, из-за растущего количества людей, страдающих патологий сердца, необходимо во время лечения как можно подробнее изучать состояние сердечно-сосудистой системы во избежание негативных последствий. Чтобы обеспечить более высокую результативность лечения, используется метод электроимпедансной реокардиографии, который позволяет оценить суммарное кровенаполнение органов и тканей. Целью данной статьи являлась разработка технического проекта по созданию прибора для неинвазивной оценки параметров центральной гемодинамики. Представлен теоретический этап разработки технического устройства. Описаны существующие методы измерений - трансторакальные или прекордиальные для нахождения необходимых параметров сердечно-сосудистой системы с помощью реокардиографии. Предложены технические характеристики разрабатываемой биотехнической системы, а также схема и описание прибора The article presents the development of a technical project for the creation of a device for non-invasive assessment of the parameters of central hemodynamics. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide: for no other reason as many people die every year as from heart disease. An estimated 17.9 million people have died from heart disease in recent years, accounting for 31% of all deaths worldwide. Various arrhythmias are another known cause of death. Thus, due to the growing number of people suffering from heart pathologies, it is necessary during treatment to study the state of the cardiovascular system in as much detail as possible in order to avoid negative consequences. To ensure a higher efficiency of treatment, the method of electrical impedance rheocardiography is used, which allows to assess the total blood volume of organs and tissues. The purpose of this article was to develop a technical project to create a device for non-invasive assessment of the parameters of central hemodynamics. The theoretical stage of the development of a technical device is presented. The existing measurement methods are described - transthoracic or precordial to find the necessary parameters of the cardiovascular system using rheocardiography. The technical characteristics of the developed biotechnical system, as well as the scheme and description of the device are proposed

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (6) ◽  
pp. 1338-1342
Moch Sahri ◽  
Gilang Nugraha ◽  
Abraham Ahmad Ali Firdaus ◽  
Rizka Wahyu Safitri ◽  
Nur Muhamad Nuzulul Syufi

ABSTRAK Berdasarkan penelitain sebelumnya diketahui bahwa lokasi kegiatan pengabdian masyarakat, didapatkan hasil pengukuran kadar uap benzene dilingkungan kerja   dengan kisaran 0,3-1,5 ppm. Anemia aplastik yang disebabkan oleh penekanan sumsum tulang adalah penyebab klasik kematian akibat keracunan benzena kronis. Tujuan dari kegiatan ini adalaha untuk melakukan pemeriksaan profil darah pekerja yang terpapar benzene dilingkungan kerjanya sebagai upaya antisipasi dan deteksi dini penyakit akibat paparan benzene. Kegiatan pemeriksaan profil darah dilakukan dengan menerapkan protokol Kesehatan. Pengambilan dan anlisa profil darah dilakukan oleh laboratorium yang kompeten. Jumlah pekerja yang terlibat dalam kegiatan  ini  sebanyak 10 pekerja dengan jenis kelamin laki-laki dengan kriteria pekerja yang terpapar langsung dengan uap benzene dilingkungan kerjanya. Hasil dari pemeriksaan 10 orang pekerja didapatkan hasil leukosit 6,97 ± 0,8, hemoglobin 15,3 ± 0,92 dan trombonist 212,1 ± 25,07. Kegiatan pengabdian masayarakat berjalan sesuai dengan jadwal yang telah direncanakan. Hasil pemeriksaan profil darah pada 10 pekerja masih dalam batas nilai rujukan. Kata Kunci : benzene, profil darah, industri percetakan  ABSTRACT Based on previous research, it is known that the location of community service activities, the results of measurements of benzene vapor levels in the work environment are in the range of 0.3-1.5 ppm. Aplastic anemia caused by bone marrow compression is the classic cause of death from chronic benzene poisoning. The purpose of this activity is to examine the blood profile of workers exposed to benzene in their work environment to anticipate and detect diseases due to benzene exposure. Blood profile examination activities were carried out by applying the Covid Health protocol 19. Blood profile collection and analysis were carried out by a competent laboratory. The number of workers involved in this activity was 10 workers of the male gender with the criteria that workers were directly exposed to benzene vapor in their work environment. The results of the examination of 10 workers showed leukocytes 6.97 ± 0.8, hemoglobin 15.3 ± 0.92, and trombone 212.1 ± 25.07. Community service activities go according to the planned schedule. The results of blood profile examinations on 10 workers are still within the reference value limit. Keywords: benzene, blood profile, printing industry

2021 ◽  
pp. 073346482110538
Shannon T. Mejía ◽  
Tai-Te Su ◽  
Qingyi Lan ◽  
Ajiang Zou ◽  
Aileen Griffin ◽  

Falls are not only a leading cause of death and disability, but also a strain on the capacity for caregivers to provide care. This study examined how the context of caregiving relates to the importance of caregiver-defined mobile fall prevention feature sets. A sample of 266 family caregivers, recruited from a Chinese social media platform, reported care for an older adult and interest in mobile fall prevention technology features. Factor analysis identified three caregiver-defined feature sets: automatic fall response, digitized fall prevention tools, and social features. Multiple regression showed caregivers’ concern about falling was the most robust predictor of a feature set’s importance. Poisson regression revealed that caregiver concern and assistance with instrumental activities of daily living were associated with rating more features as important. Our findings suggest that caregivers are interested in mobile fall prevention technologies that support older adults’ independence while also alleviating concerns about falling.

Ya-Wen Lin ◽  
Che-Huei Lin ◽  
Lee-Wen Pai ◽  
Chih-Hsin Mou ◽  
Jong-Yi Wang ◽  

Cancer is increasing in rate globally and is leading cause of death among no communicable chronic diseases (NCDs) after cardiovascular disease (CVD). Most of the research focuses on the risk of occupational injury, job stress, mental illness, substance abuse and workplace safety in physicians and nurses. However, fewer studies have investigated the risk of cancer in pharmacists. We compared the matched general population to investigate the risk of cancer in pharmacists in Taiwan. Data were obtained from the Health and Welfare Data Science Center of the Ministry of Health and Welfare in Taiwan. We established a pharmacist group that included 11,568 pharmacists and selected a 4-fold comparison (n = 46,272) for the non-clinics comparison group, frequency being matched by age, gender and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score. The pharmacists had a lower but non-significant risk of all cancer (Adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.85–1.07) compared with the general population. Female pharmacists had a higher risk of cancer than male pharmacists ([aHR] = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.06–1.43). Pharmacists had higher risks of breast cancer in females (aHR = 1.68; 95% CI = 1.35–2.08) and of prostate cancer in males (aHR = 2.18; 95% CI = 1.35–2.08) when compared with the general population. Occupational risk factors could play a role, but they were not evaluated. These epidemiological findings require additional studies to clarify cancer risk mechanisms in pharmacists.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 104
Devyana Dyah Wulandari ◽  
Hotimah Masdan Salim ◽  
Andreas Putro Ragil Santoso ◽  
Endah Budi Permana Putri

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease caused by the pancreas not being able to produce enough insulin so that glucose levels in the blood cannot be controlled. Symptoms of this disease are characterized by polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia and elevated blood glucose levels. Diabetes mellitus is a non-communicable disease that ranks 7th in the world's cause of death and Indonesia is a country with diabetes which is ranked 4th in the world. Prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus patients can be done through various efforts, one of which is traditional herbal medicine. Therefore, the community development team held a training event for preparation scientific herbs in the context of preventing diabetes mellitus for residents of Wonokromo Surabaya. The results showed that there was an increase in public understanding about the dangers of diabetes mellitus with an increase in the average value from 45% to 90% and an increase in skills in preparation scientific herbal medicine from 40% to 95%. So it can be concluded that this activity brings very good benefits for the residents of Wonokromo Surabaya.

Religions ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1056
Simone Zimmermann Kuoni

The Minoan peak sanctuaries call for systematic comparative research as an island-bound phenomenon whose significance to the (pre)history of medicine far transcends the Cretan context: they yield clay anatomical offerings attesting to the earliest known healing cult in the Aegean. The peak sanctuary of Petsophas produced figurines of weasels, which are usually interpreted as pests, ignoring their association with votives that express concerns about childbirth, traditionally the first single cause of death for women. The paper draws from primary sources to examine the weasel’s puzzling bond with birth and midwives, concluding that it stems from the animal’s pharmacological role in ancient obstetrics. This novel interpretation then steers the analysis of archaeological evidence for rituals involving mustelids beyond and within Bronze Age Crete, revealing the existence of a midwifery koine across the Near East and the Mediterranean, a net of interconnections relevant to female therapeutics which brings to light a package of animals and plants bespeaking of a Minoan healing tradition likely linked to the cult of the midwife goddess Eileithyia. Challenging mainstream accounts of the beginnings of Western medicine as a male accomplishment, this overlooked midwifery tradition characterises Minoan Crete as a unique crucible of healing knowledge, ideas, and practices.

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (7) ◽  
pp. 3039
O. M. Drapkina ◽  
I. V. Samorodskaya ◽  
T. K. Chernyavskaya ◽  
E. P. Kakorina

The role of heart failure (HF) in mortality rates is ambiguous, and much depends on assessment criteria and accounting potential.Aim. Using medical certificates of cause of death (MCCD), to assess rates of HF, taking into account different types of coronary artery disease (CAD), sex, age and place of death.Material and methods. Data on deceased persons for 2020 were obtained from the electronic database of the Main Department of Civil Registry Office of Moscow Oblast, using the 4-digit codes of the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10). All deaths with CAD codes (I20-25) were selected. A total of 23193 deaths were included in the analysis. The codes and verbal descriptions of complications were assessed and 3 groups were formed: without indication of heart failure (HF), with indication of HF (without chronic HF) and CHF in MCCD. Comparison of the average age of deceased, the proportion of women and men, the detection rates of certain CAD types and the place of death was carried out. Using logistic regression, the probability of chronic HF/HF as a death cause was determined, taking into account other factors.Results. Any HF was indicated in 78,9% of the MCCD (acute CAD  — 44,5%, chronic CAD — in 89,1%). Chronic HF was indicated in 27% of the MCCD (men, 30,9%; women, 22,9%; p<0,0001). The highest values were obtained in heart aneurysm — 47%; in other chronic CAD forms — slightly more than a third of the MCCD. HF was not indicated in men in 23,3% of deaths, in women — in 19%; maximum — 90% in “other acute CADs”; minimum — 11% in heart aneurysm. Average age of deceased was 73,6±12,5 years (men, 68,8±10,5; women, 78,4±12,5) (p<0,0001). In all CAD forms, the average age of deceased was significantly higher in subgroups with chronic HF than in groups with (not chronic HF) or without HF. Age, sex, CAD type, place of death (in-hospital deaths were ~2 times less common).Conclusion. According to the MCCD data, chronic HF is not the dominant complication leading to death. The results obtained require clarification in studies based on primary medical documentation. 

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (23) ◽  
pp. 7947
Min Wu ◽  
Navchetan Awasthi ◽  
Nastaran Mohammadian Rad ◽  
Josien P. W. Pluim ◽  
Richard G. P. Lopata

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of death worldwide. An effective management and treatment of CVDs highly relies on accurate diagnosis of the disease. As the most common imaging technique for clinical diagnosis of the CVDs, US imaging has been intensively explored. Especially with the introduction of deep learning (DL) techniques, US imaging has advanced tremendously in recent years. Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is one of the most promising new imaging methods in addition to the existing clinical imaging methods. It can characterize different tissue compositions based on optical absorption contrast and thus can assess the functionality of the tissue. This paper reviews some major technological developments in both US (combined with deep learning techniques) and PA imaging in the application of diagnosis of CVDs.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (23) ◽  
pp. 5593
Lucía Méndez ◽  
Pedro Castro ◽  
Jorge Ferreira ◽  
Cátia Caneiras

Pneumonia is one of the main causes of hospitalization and mortality. It’s the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. Healthcare-associated infections are the most frequent complication of healthcare and affect hundreds of millions of patients around the world, although the actual number of patients affected is unknown due to the difficulty of reliable data. The main goal of this manuscript is to describe the epidemiological characteristics of patients admitted with pneumonia and the impact of healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) in those patients. It is a quantitative descriptive study with retrospective analysis of the clinical processes of 2436 individuals for 1 year (2018) with the diagnosis of pneumonia. The individuals with ≤5 years old represented 10.4% (n = 253) and ≥65 were 72.6% (n = 1769). 369 cases resulted in death, which gives a sample lethality rate of 15.2%. The severity and mortality index were not sensitive to the death event. We found 30.2% (n = 735) individuals with HCAP and 0.41% (n = 59) with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). In only 59 individuals (2.4%) the agent causing pneumonia was isolated. The high fatality rate obtained shows that pneumonia is a major cause of death in vulnerable populations. Moreover, HCAP is one of the main causes of hospital admissions from pneumonia and death and the most pneumonias are treated empirically. Knowledge of the epidemiology characterization of pneumonia, especially associated with healthcare, is essential to increase the skills of health professionals for the prevention and efficient treatment of pneumonia.

Biomedicines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 1785
Nikolaos Vlachos ◽  
Marios Lampros ◽  
Spyridon Voulgaris ◽  
George A. Alexiou

Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, with approximately 19 million new cases each year. Lately, several novel chemotherapeutic drugs have been introduced, efficiently inhibiting tumor growth and proliferation. However, developing a new drug is a time- and money-consuming process, requiring around 1 billion dollars and nearly ten years, with only a minority of the initially effective anti-cancer drugs experimentally finally being efficient in human clinical trials. Drug repurposing for cancer treatment is an optimal alternative as the safety of these drugs has been previously tested, and thus, in case of successful preclinical studies, can be introduced faster and with a lower cost into phase 3 clinical trials. Antipsychotic drugs are associated with anti-cancer properties and, lately, there has been an increasing interest in their role in cancer treatment. In the present review, we discussed in detail the in-vitro and in-vivo properties of the most common typical and atypical antipsychotics, along with their mechanism of action.

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