spastic cerebral palsy
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Irene Moll ◽  
Rik G. J. Marcellis ◽  
Marcel L. P. Coenen ◽  
Sabine M. Fleuren ◽  
Paul J. B. Willems ◽  

Abstract Background Spastic cerebral palsy is the most common cause of motor disability in children. It often leads to foot drop or equinus, interfering with walking. Ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) are commonly used in these cases. However, AFOs can be too restrictive for mildly impaired patients. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the ankle-dorsiflexors is an alternative treatment as it could function as a dynamic functional orthosis. Despite previous research, high level evidence on the effects of FES on activities and participation in daily life is missing. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate whether FES improves the activity and participation level in daily life according to patients, and the secondary aim is to provide evidence of the effect of FES at the level of body functions and activities. Furthermore, we aim to collect relevant information for decisions on its clinical implementation. Methods A randomized crossover trial will be performed on 25 children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy. Patients aged between 4 and 18 years, with Gross Motor Functioning Classification System level I or II and unilateral foot drop of central origin, currently treated with AFO or adapted shoes, will be included. All participants will undergo twelve weeks of conventional treatment (AFO/adapted shoes) and 12 weeks of FES treatment, separated by a six-week washout-phase. FES treatment consists of wearing the WalkAide® device, with surface electrodes stimulating the peroneal nerve during swing phase of gait. For the primary objective, the Goal Attainment Scale is used to test whether FES improves activities and participation in daily life. The secondary objective is to prove whether FES is effective at the level of body functions and structures, and activities, including ankle kinematics and kinetics measured during 3D-gait analysis and questionnaire-based frequency of falling. The tertiary objective is to collect relevant information for clinical implementation, including acceptability using the device log file and side effect registration, cost-effectiveness based on quality adjusted life years (QALYs) and clinical characteristics for patient selection. Discussion We anticipate that the results of this study will allow evidence-based use of FES during walking in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy. Trial registration NCT03440632.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-7
N. Ismail ◽  
S. H. Hamzah ◽  
I. Wan Mokhtar

Cerebral palsy is a neurological and motor condition characterised by muscle balance and posture impairments. Bruxism and malocclusion were frequently observed in patients with cerebral palsy, in contrast to other oral anomalies. The report outlines how severe awake bruxism is managed in a 16-year-old Korean boy who has nonverbal spastic cerebral palsy and global developmental delay. The treatment protocol involved the fabrication of soft occlusal splints of three and four millimetres in thickness, followed by the placement of stainless-steel crowns on all first permanent molars whilst video recording and a bruxism diary was kept. Fixed restorations demonstrate increased endurance in withstanding bruxism force in persons who are dependent on their caretaker.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (2) ◽  
pp. 105-109
Ikhyun Lim ◽  
Sang Hee Park ◽  
Mi Ri Suh ◽  
Hyunseok Kwak ◽  
Wookyung Park ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (6-2) ◽  
pp. 82-91
O. V. Bugun ◽  
A. V. Mashanskaya ◽  
A. V. Atalyan ◽  
V. I. Mikhnovich ◽  
T. A. Belogorova ◽  

Until now, there is no radical method of treating children with cerebral palsy, which allows us to consider scientific research in this direction reasonable and promising.The aim of the research: to study the effect of exercises on the mini-simulator “Kinesioplatform-swing” with biofeedback on the indicators of motor skills in children with spastic cerebral palsy.Materials and methods. We conducted an open, non-randomized, prospective, comparative, controlled study in pairs (each participant in the main group corresponds to a participant in the control group). The study involved 53 patients aged 4–12 years with cerebral palsy: the intervention group (group 1: n = 27 (13 boys, 14 girls)) and the control group (group 2: n = 26 (11 boys, 15 girls)), comparable in terms of gender, age and severity of movement disorders. Characteristics of the medical intervention: group 1 – botulinum toxin type A (BTA, for exercising against the background of relative muscular normotonus) + exercise therapy + exercises on the mini-simulator “Kinesioplatform-swing” with biofeedback (BFB); group 2 – BTA + exercise therapy. Duration of the study: 2019–2020. The difference between groups in terms of motor skills on the day of hospitalization and after completion of the training program (10 sessions each) was determined. Motor skills were assessed according to the GMFM-66/88 (Gross Motor Function Measure) table using the “Scales for measuring global motor functions”.Results. The inclusion of additional exercises on the mini-simulator “Kinesioplatformswing” with biofeedback in the rehabilitation of patients with movement disorders with spastic cerebral palsy (BTA + exercise therapy) in comparison with the control group. However, the question of the long-term effects of such training remains open and requires further study.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (6) ◽  
pp. 410-417
Eun-Ju Song ◽  
Eun-Jung Lee ◽  
Hae-Yeon Kwon

The purpose of this study was to investigate the static and dynamic balance and body activities after administering a trunk stability exercise program using a sling for children with spastic cerebral palsy of Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels III–IV. This study was conducted based on a quasi-experimental study design. Six of the study participants were assigned to the control group and six were assigned to the experimental group using simple random sampling. Both groups underwent a double-blind clinical trial study in which exercise therapy was performed for 40 min twice a week for 8 weeks. The experimental group underwent the sling exercise program and the control group underwent neuro-developmental treatment. The results showed that static and dynamic balance were significantly different before and after intervention in both the experimental and control groups (P<0.05), and there was also a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05). Gross motor function and activities of daily life showed significant improvement before and after intervention in the experimental group (P<0.05), but there was no statistically significant difference in the control group (P<0.05). There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05). Therefore, the sling exercise program can be used as an effective treatment for improving balance and physical activity in children with cerebral palsy of GMFCS levels III–IV who have difficulty walking. In addition, such exercise will have a positive impact on the independence of such children and help them to participate in social activities.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Faustyna Manikowska ◽  
Sabina Brazevic ◽  
Anna Krzyżańska ◽  
Marek Jóźwiak

Background: Gait dysfunction is a crucial factor that restricts independence and quality of life in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Gait training based on robotic-assisted therapy (RAT) is widely used, but information about effectiveness and ideal patient profile is not sufficient. Aim of this study was to assess the effect of RAT on gait parameters in spastic children with CP, and to determine whether changes in gait parameters are different among patients on different ambulatory levels.Method: A total of 26 children with bilateral spastic CP were divided into two groups based on their functional ability: non-assisted ambulator (NAS) or assisted ambulator (AS); and underwent a RAT program (30 training sessions of RAT during 10 weeks). Gait analysis was performed: before the therapy (t1), right after (t2), and 6 weeks later (t3).Results: No significant changes in spatiotemporal parameters or gait deviation index at t2 or t3. Double support symmetry significantly improved (t1 vs. t3, p = 0.03) for the whole group (NAS + AS). Walking speed symmetry significantly improved (t2 vs. t3, p = 0.02) for group AS.Conclusion: RAT based on our protocol did not change spatiotemporal parameters and kinematics of walking except limited improvement in some aspects of gait symmetry. We did not find differences in changes in selected objective gait parameters among children with CP in different ambulatory levels.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Piedad R. Lerma-Castaño ◽  
Mónica V. Chanaga-Gelves ◽  
José M. Llanos-Mosquera ◽  
Laura E. Castro-Serrato ◽  
Luisa Romana-Cabrera

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Jiamin Li ◽  
Cen Chen ◽  
Shenyu Zhu ◽  
Xiulian Niu ◽  
Xidan Yu ◽  

Objective: The goal of this study is to explore the effect of wrist-ankle acupuncture combined with 5-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on improving spastic state and motor function of children with spastic cerebral palsy by measuring electrophysiological parameters and behaviors.Methods: Twenty-five children with spastic cerebral palsy were enrolled in a single-blind and randomized controlled trial. The control group received 20 sessions of 5-Hz rTMS over the affected hemisphere with 1,000 pulses. The experimental group was given wrist-ankle acupuncture on the basis of the control group. Gross motor function measure (GMFM-66), muscle tension, and electrophysiological parameters of the two groups were assessed at baseline and after intervention.Results: After treatment, the GMFM-66 scores in the same groups were significantly improved (p &lt; 0.001). Besides, the R-value of soleus, gastrocnemius, and hamstring muscle decreased (p &lt; 0.05), and the results showed a trend of shortening MEP latency, increasing amplitude and duration (p &lt; 0.05). Compared to the controlled group, the experimental group displayed more excellent changes in the GMFM-66 scores and motor evoked potential (MEP) latency. The statistical results showed that the increase of GMFM-66 score and the shortening of MEP latency in the experimental group were greater than that in the control group (p &lt; 0.05). However, no significant differences were found in the assessment of muscle tension, amplitude, and duration of MEPs between two groups (p &gt; 0.05).Conclusion: Wrist-ankle acupuncture combined with 5-Hz rTMS is optimal to improve gross motor function and enhance the conductivity of corticospinal tract in children with cerebral palsy but cannot highlight its clinical superiority in improving spasticity.Clinical Trial Registration: [], identifier [chictr2000039495].

2021 ◽  
Vol 100 (6) ◽  
pp. 132-142
N.A. Maslova ◽  
N.G. Zvonkova ◽  
T.E. Borovik ◽  
A.P. Fisenko ◽  

Children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) are at risk of undernutrition, which increases with the severity of movement disorders. Objective of the study: to assess and compare anthropometric indicators and body composition in children with cerebral palsy, depending on the level of impairment of gross motor function classification system (GMFCS). Materials and methods of research: 102 children were included in a prospective open-label comparative single-center non-randomized study: 58 (56.8%) boys and 44 (43.1%) girls with cerebral palsy aged 2 years to 16 years and 9 months who were undergoing rehabilitation in the National Medical Research Center of Children's Health in the period from 2019 to 2021. Anthropometric measurements (body weight, length, knee height, triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses) were performed on admission. Body fat percentage (%FM) was calculated by CP-modified (Gurka) equations and compared with results obtained using bioelectrical impedance analysis. A survey on the EDACS scale was performed to determine the ability to eat and drink. Results: patients were divided into 2 groups: the main group – 53 children (52%) with GMFCS levels IV–V and a comparison group – 49 children (48%) with GMFCS levels I–III. The groups did not differ statistically significantly in terms of gender (p=0.956) and age (p=0.207). The median age in the main group was 7.1 years, in the comparison group – 5.3 years. Children of the main group had statistically significantly lower growth indicators (HAZ1 –1.5 [–2.6; –0.74] and HAZ2 –0.58 [–1.59; 0.44], p=0.003), BMI (BAZ1 –2.43 [–3.67; –0.93]; BAZ2 –0.91 [–1.942; 0.28], p<0.001), higher frequency of oromotor dysfunction (42% and 4%, p< 0.001), the percentage of severe wasting (59% and 16%, p<0.001; OR 7.2 (95% CI 2.8–18.4) (p<0.001). There was no significant difference in %FM between children of main and comparison groups. Patients even with moderate and severe undernutrition according to WHO criteria had normal or excess %FM. A moderate positive correlation was found between %FM calculated using the Gurka equations and those obtained by bioelectrical impedance analysis (r=0.565, p=0.002). Conclusions: anthropometric indicators in children with CP deteriorate with an increase in the degree of neurological deficit. The use of BMI as the only marker of nutritional status is insufficient to properly diagnose of undernutrition and identify patients needed in nutritional interventions. For an adequate analysis of the nutritional status of children with CP, it is necessary to assess the body composition (measurement of the skinfold thicknesses or bioelectrical impedance analysis).

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document