Status Quo
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2022 ◽  
Abdishakur W. Diriye ◽  
Osman M. Jama ◽  
Jama Warsame Diriye ◽  
Abdulhakim M Abdi

Public preferences for sustainable land use policy instruments and the motivations behind such preferences are important to make appropriate policies. Based on survey data (n = 309) from northeastern Somalia, we examined preferences for a set of land use policy instruments relative to no policy (i.e. the current status quo) and how cultural worldviews predict such preferences. We used a multinomial logit model to analyze the comparative evaluation of choices due to its interpretability and robustness to violations of normality. Overall, the results show that the respondents are likely to consent to all types of land use policy instruments relative to no policy and are more inclined to market-based and informational policy instruments. Specifically, preferences for regulatory policy instruments are positively associated with hierarchy and egalitarian worldviews and are negatively associated with fatalism and individualistic worldviews with only hierarchy and fatalism are significant. The market-based policy instrument is desirable to all cultural worldviews except fatalism, but only egalitarian and individual worldviews are significant. Preferences for informational policy instruments are positively associated with all cultural worldviews but only egalitarian worldviews showed a significant effect. Although there are some contradictions, these results are broadly consistent with the proposition of the cultural theory of risk. This study highlights that preferences for land use policies are heterogeneous with cultural worldviews mainly explaining the sources of this heterogeneity. It is evident that the respondents were willing to consent to land use policies relative to the status quo of no policy and indicates the need for concerted effort to reduce land degradation and deforestation in the country. We, therefore, recommend that policymakers incorporate the different ways that humans perceive and interpret social-environmental relations into policy decisions to achieve sustainable policy outcomes.

2022 ◽  
pp. 025764302110691
Rakesh Ankit

When the Gandhian Jayaprakash Narayan (JP) gave the clarion call of Total Revolution, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi responded heavy-handedly by imposing the Emergency in India in 1974–5. This all-encompassing duel has dominated politics and political scholarship since. Their domestic clash has established many analytical prisms for the contemporary public sphere in India, particularly personality politics versus people’s power, single party versus coalition grouping, electoral democracy versus authoritarian dictatorship, and student/youth movements versus generational status quo. Simultaneously, it has also highlighted their differences in a way that has served to bury their affinities and agreements—not only on obscure matters. This article seeks to soften this dichotomy on the basis of their correspondence, and complemented by other primary material, to sketch their consensus in an earlier period. It shows that before their break, the socialist JP and the statist Indira Gandhi exhibited complementary stands on national issues regarding Nagaland, Kashmir and Bangladesh. This national nearness complicates their later adversarial politics on domestic issues, adds dimension to our understanding of the mid-1960s and mid-1970s, and contributes to contemporary understandings of their respective places in narratives of the state against society in India.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Yun Wei ◽  
Feiyue Wang ◽  
Zhaolu Pan ◽  
Meirong Wang ◽  
Guanghui Jin ◽  

Abstract Background Physical examination is a core component of consultation. Little is known about the status quo of physical examinations performed by general practitioners in community health service institutions in China. The aim of this study was to investigate general practitioners’ performance of physical examinations in consultations. Methods An observational study was conducted in 5 community health service institutions in Beijing between November 2019 and January 2020. Eleven general practitioners were observed for one workday. Information of consecutive consultations was recorded including patient characteristics, reasons for encounter, physical examinations performed by general practitioners, length of consultation time and time spent on specific activities in consultations. Results A total of 682 consultations of 11 general practitioners were recorded. Physical examinations were performed in 126 consultations (15.8%). Physical examination was more likely to be performed in patients visiting with symptoms (P < 0.001). Majority of the 126 physical examinations were distributed in “Head, face, and neck examination” (n = 54, 42.9%) and “Cardiovascular examination” (n = 55, 43.7%). No physical examination was performed on skin, male genitalia, female breasts and genitalia, and neurological systems. Total 2823 min of activities were observed and recorded. General practitioners only spent 3.1% of the recorded time on physical examination, which was less than the time spent on taking history (18.2%), test (4.9%), diagnosis (22.7%), therapy (38.4%), and health education (8.6%). The average time spent on physical examinations was 0.8±0.4 min per consultation. Conclusion Physical examination was insufficiently performed by general practitioners in community health service institutions in Beijing. More time and commitment should be advocated for improving the quality of physical examinations in primary care.

2022 ◽  
Avni Shah ◽  
Hal Hershfield ◽  
David Munguia Gomez ◽  
Alissa Fishbane

Abstract One psychological barrier impeding saving behavior is the inability to fully empathize with one’s future self. Future self interventions have improved savings by helping people overcome this obstacle. Despite the promise of such interventions, previous research has focused predominantly on hypothetical contexts and western settings where the target sample has been predominantly undergraduate. Do interventions that encourage people to more concretely consider their future selves during retirement still have a positive effect on behavior in consequential, real-world savings decisions? Using a field experiment in Mexico (N = 7,603), where less than 1% make a voluntary savings contribution annually, we developed a low-cost, easy-to-implement intervention to test whether concrete thinking about one’s future life improves recurring retirement savings signups relative to a status quo, control group. We find that future self decision aids significantly improved the likelihood of signing up for an automatic recurring savings plan by nearly four times compared to the control.

Humanities ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 15
Marie-Luise Kohlke

This article explores the convergence, inversion, and collapse of heterotopic spaces in E. S. Thomson’s neo-Victorian Jem Flockhart series about a cross-dressing female apothecary in mid-nineteenth-century London. The eponymous first-person narrator becomes embroiled in the detection of horrific murder cases, with the action traversing a wide range of Michel Foucault’s exemplary Other spaces, including hospitals, graveyards, brothels, prisons, asylums, and colonies, with the series substituting the garden for Foucault’s ship as the paradigmatic heterotopia. These myriad juxtaposed sites, which facilitate divergence from societal norms while seemingly sequestering forms of alterity and resistance, repeatedly merge into one another in Thomson’s novels, destabilising distinct kinds of heterotopias and heterotopic functions. Jem’s doubled queerness as a cross-dressing lesbian beloved by their Watsonean side-kick, the junior architect William Quartermain, complicates the protagonist’s role in helping readers negotiate the re-imagined Victorian metropolis and its unequal power structures. Simultaneously defending/reaffirming and contesting/subverting the status quo, Jem’s body itself becomes a microcosmic heterotopia, problematising the elision of agency in Foucault’s conceptualisation of the term. The proliferation of heterotopias in Thomson’s series suggests that neo-Victorian fiction reconfigures the nineteenth century into a vast network of confining, contested, and liberating Other spaces.

RELC Journal ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 003368822110729
Zhenhao Cao ◽  
Zhicheng Mao

While a surge of research has investigated the use of reformulations and models as positive evidence feedback (PEF) in second language (L2) writing, so far no research synthesis seeking to review the status quo of this particular topic has been published. To fill the gap, the present study synthesized 23 studies on reformulations and models as PEF in L2 writing and examined the salient findings regarding three major research strands: (1) students’ noticing and incorporation from reformulations; (2) students’ noticing and incorporation from models; and (3) effects of PEF on L2 writing. Informed by the study findings, we suggest L2 teachers vary their feedback decisions with flexibility, consider individual and contextual factors in PEF practices, combine PEF and corrective feedback to maximize student learning, and provide guidance to support student actions in response to PEF. We also propose three areas for further research, namely going beyond linguistic issues to explore the potential of PEF, systematically investigating factors influencing students’ engagement with PEF, and collecting longitudinal data to examine the long-term effect of PEF. This study enhances our understanding of this emerging research area and provides implications for L2 pedagogy, as well as suggestions for future investigations.

2022 ◽  
pp. 136346152110673
Heidi Mitton

This study sought to understand interpretations of interconnections between historical trauma, contemporary violence, and resilience in a Maya Achi community currently engaged in promoting peace and social change through popular education. In particular, the ways in which participants drew upon identity and memory in articulating characteristics of community distress and resilience are discussed. The research is informed by liberation psychology and critical perspectives of mental health, particularly considering the challenges inherent in the promotion of collective memory of trauma and resistance in contexts of violence and humanitarian settings. Participant reflections on historical and contemporary violence highlight elements of collective distress, connecting identity and memory with acts of both oppression and resistance. Education and development are signaled as possible sites of resilience but also experienced as sites of power upholding the status quo. Diverse experiences and applications of identity and memory provide insight into the ways in which community organizations working in contexts of political violence might navigate polarizing and paradoxical discourses in order to subvert, co-opt, or adapt to hegemonic cultural, political, and economic power relations in the process of transformation for collective resilience.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 513
Kexue Zhang ◽  
Lei Kang ◽  
Xuexi Chen ◽  
Manchao He ◽  
Chun Zhu ◽  

Intelligent unmanned mining is a key process in coal mine production, which has direct impact on the production safety, coal output, economic benefits and social benefits of coal mine enterprises. With the rapid development and popularization of 5G+ intelligent mines and coal mine intelligent equipment in China, the intelligentization of intelligent unmanned mining has become an important research topic. Especially with the promulgation of some Chinese policies and regulations, intelligent unmanned mining technology has become one of the key technologies of coal mine production. To understand the connotation, status quo and development trends of intelligent unmanned mining, this paper takes the relationship between key technologies and engineering application of intelligent unmanned mining in China as the perspective. It is proposed that the intelligent unmanned mining technology is in the whole process of working face mining. A research structure of unmanned follow-up operation and safe patrol is changing to the mode of intelligent adaptive mining, followed by the basic concepts and characteristics of intelligent unmanned mining. Relevant researches that maybe beneficial to the proposed research content are reviewed in four layers, which include basic theory, key technology, mining mode, and overall design system theory and technology. Finally, the current intelligent unmanned mining mode and future trends in this field in China are summarized.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 29-33
Jialiang Yang ◽  
Feng Ding ◽  
Jing Sun ◽  
Yujie Deng

Changes in social structure and macro-environment have gradually made “delayed employment” a key area of social concern. This paper assumes the college students from Shenzhen University as research subjects, conducts a special research on delayed employment, explores the employment needs and status quo of college students, analyzes the causes and results of this phenomenon, as well as provides students with a more comprehensive and accurate understanding of employment. This paper also aims to increase the employment rate of graduates, enable reasonable allocation and management of human resources, as well as improve the quality of employment in the society.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Jenny Ries ◽  
Katharina Charlotte Jensen ◽  
Kerstin-Elisabeth Müller ◽  
Christa Thöne-Reineke ◽  
Roswitha Merle

Veterinary Herd Health Management plays an important role in veterinary medicine on dairy farms and has also been mandatory at the European Union level since April 21, 2021. Despite the increasing importance of VHHM, little is known about the extent of utilization of VHHM by dairy farmers and their view on this type of collaboration. Therefore, this cross-sectional study aimed to determine the status quo of the currently practiced VHHM in Germany. For this purpose, an online survey was conducted among dairy farmers in November and December 2020. From 216 analyzed questionnaires, about half (n = 106) of the surveyed dairy farmers used VHHM at different scopes. However, regardless of the group, the term “veterinary herd health management” generally was given most relative importance by the participants as a veterinary service for herd fertility improvement, rather than the actual definition of a holistic approach. In contrast to this, the actual motivation of the VHHM participants, to take part in such a program was primarily based on the desire to safeguard animal health by employing preventive measures, that is, to avoid the occurrence of diseases via improved management and to improve farm performance (and profitability). Dairy farmers who opted for VHHM tended to manage larger higher yielding herds than those who did not. Additionally, the farmers in latter farms were more likely to make joint animal health decisions with their veterinarians. Using a latent class analysis, two groups of farmers among farms that were not currently using VHHM were identified, one of which expressed great interest in using VHHM while the other did not. Since the new legal basis makes the topic even more relevant than before, dairy farmers, animals, and veterinarians might benefit from the study to exploit hidden opportunities for VHHM collaboration.

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