brain activity
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2022 ◽  
Vol 240 ◽  
pp. 186-192
Kevin C.A. van Gool ◽  
Guusje Collin ◽  
Clemens C.C. Bauer ◽  
Elena Molokotos ◽  
Raquelle I. Mesholam-Gately ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Jing Ren ◽  
Qun Yao ◽  
Minjie Tian ◽  
Feng Li ◽  
Yueqiu Chen ◽  

Abstract Background Migraine is a common and disabling primary headache, which is associated with a wide range of psychiatric comorbidities. However, the mechanisms of emotion processing in migraine are not fully understood yet. The present study aimed to investigate the neural network during neutral, positive, and negative emotional stimuli in the migraine patients. Methods A total of 24 migraine patients and 24 age- and sex-matching healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Neuromagnetic brain activity was recorded using a whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) system upon exposure to human facial expression stimuli. MEG data were analyzed in multi-frequency ranges from 1 to 100 Hz. Results The migraine patients exhibited a significant enhancement in the effective connectivity from the prefrontal lobe to the temporal cortex during the negative emotional stimuli in the gamma frequency (30–90 Hz). Graph theory analysis revealed that the migraine patients had an increased degree and clustering coefficient of connectivity in the delta frequency range (1–4 Hz) upon exposure to positive emotional stimuli and an increased degree of connectivity in the delta frequency range (1–4 Hz) upon exposure to negative emotional stimuli. Clinical correlation analysis showed that the history, attack frequency, duration, and neuropsychological scales of the migraine patients had a negative correlation with the network parameters in certain frequency ranges. Conclusions The results suggested that the individuals with migraine showed deviant effective connectivity in viewing the human facial expressions in multi-frequencies. The prefrontal-temporal pathway might be related to the altered negative emotional modulation in migraine. These findings suggested that migraine might be characterized by more universal altered cerebral processing of negative stimuli. Since the significant result in this study was frequency-specific, more independent replicative studies are needed to confirm these results, and to elucidate the neurocircuitry underlying the association between migraine and emotional conditions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Marcia A. Saul ◽  
Xun He ◽  
Stuart Black ◽  
Fred Charles

Social anxiety disorder has been widely recognised as one of the most commonly diagnosed mental disorders. Individuals with social anxiety disorder experience difficulties during social interactions that are essential in the regular functioning of daily routines; perpetually motivating research into the aetiology, maintenance and treatment methods. Traditionally, social and clinical neuroscience studies incorporated protocols testing one participant at a time. However, it has been recently suggested that such protocols are unable to directly assess social interaction performance, which can be revealed by testing multiple individuals simultaneously. The principle of two-person neuroscience highlights the interpersonal aspect of social interactions that observes behaviour and brain activity from both (or all) constituents of the interaction, rather than analysing on an individual level or an individual observation of a social situation. Therefore, two-person neuroscience could be a promising direction for assessment and intervention of the social anxiety disorder. In this paper, we propose a novel paradigm which integrates two-person neuroscience in a neurofeedback protocol. Neurofeedback and interbrain synchrony, a branch of two-person neuroscience, are discussed in their own capacities for their relationship with social anxiety disorder and relevance to the paradigm. The newly proposed paradigm sets out to assess the social interaction performance using interbrain synchrony between interacting individuals, and to employ a multi-user neurofeedback protocol for intervention of the social anxiety.

2022 ◽  
Xu Yang ◽  
Zhe-Yuan Li ◽  
Li-Hong Si ◽  
Bo Shen ◽  
Xia Ling

Abstract The study aimed to investigate resting-state functional brain activity alterations in patients with definite vestibular migraine (dVM). Seventeen patients with dVM, 8 patients with migraine, 17 health controls (HCs) were recruited. The amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF), fractional ALFF (fALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) were calculated to observe the changes in spontaneous brain activity. Then brain regions with altered fALFF were selected for seed-based functional connectivity analysis. Compared with HCs, VM patients showed significantly increased ALFF values in the right temporal lobe (Cluster size = 91 voxels, P=0.002, FWE corrected), and significantly increased ReHo values in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG), middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) (Cluster size = 136 voxels, P=0.013, FWE corrected). Compared with patients with migraine, patients with VM showed significantly increased fALFF values in the right parietal lobe (Cluster size = 43 voxels, P=0.011, FWE corrected) and right frontal lobe (Cluster size =36 voxels, P=0.026, FWE corrected), significantly increased ReHo values in the right thalamus (Cluster size = 92 voxels, P=0.043, FWE corrected). Our findings documented that patients with VM showed enhanced spontaneous functional activity in the right temporal lobe (STG, MTG, and ITG) compared with HCs, and increased spontaneous activity in the right parietal lobe-frontal lobe-thalamus compared with patients with migraine. Patients with VM and migraine both had altered brain function, but the regions involved are different.

2022 ◽  
Marilena Wilding ◽  
Christof Koerner ◽  
Anja Ischebeck ◽  
Natalia Zaretskaya

The constructive nature of human perception sometimes leads us to perceiving rather complex impressions from simple sensory input. Bistable stimuli give us a rare opportunity to study the neural mechanisms behind this process. Such stimuli can be visually interpreted as simple or as more complex on the basis of the same sensory input. Previous studies demonstrated increased activity in the superior parietal cortex when participants perceived an illusory Gestalt impression compared to a simpler interpretation of individual elements. Here we tested whether activity related to the illusory Gestalt can be detected not only during, but also prior to it, by examining the slow fluctuations of resting-state-fMRI activity before the stimulus onset. We presented 31 participants with a bistable motion stimulus, which can be perceived either as four moving dot pairs (local) or two moving illusory squares (global). This allowed us to isolate the specific neural mechanisms that accompany the experience of an illusion under matched sensory input. fMRI was used to measure brain activity in a sparse event-related design. We observed stronger IPS and putamen responses to the stimulus when participants perceived the global interpretation compared to local, confirming the previously reported role of these areas in perceptual grouping. Most importantly, we also observed that the global stimulus interpretation was preceded by an increased activity of the bilateral dorsal insula, which is known to process saliency and gate information for conscious access. Our data suggest an important role of the dorsal insula in shaping an internally generated illusory Gestalt percept.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Jan Cimbalnik ◽  
Jaromir Dolezal ◽  
Çağdaş Topçu ◽  
Michal Lech ◽  
Victoria S. Marks ◽  

AbstractData comprise intracranial EEG (iEEG) brain activity represented by stereo EEG (sEEG) signals, recorded from over 100 electrode channels implanted in any one patient across various brain regions. The iEEG signals were recorded in epilepsy patients (N = 10) undergoing invasive monitoring and localization of seizures when they were performing a battery of four memory tasks lasting approx. 1 hour in total. Gaze tracking on the task computer screen with estimating the pupil size was also recorded together with behavioral performance. Each dataset comes from one patient with anatomical localization of each electrode contact. Metadata contains labels for the recording channels with behavioral events marked from all tasks, including timing of correct and incorrect vocalization of the remembered stimuli. The iEEG and the pupillometric signals are saved in BIDS data structure to facilitate efficient data sharing and analysis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 108
Thomas Gerhard Wolf ◽  
Karin Anna Faerber ◽  
Christian Rummel ◽  
Ulrike Halsband ◽  
Guglielmo Campus

Hypnosis has proven a powerful method in indications such as pain control and anxiety reduction. As recently discussed, it has been yielding increased attention from medical/dental perspectives. This systematic review (PROSPERO-registration-ID-CRD42021259187) aimed to critically evaluate and discuss functional changes in brain activity using hypnosis by means of different imaging techniques. Randomized controlled trials, cohort, comparative, cross-sectional, evaluation and validation studies from three databases—Cochrane, Embase and Medline via PubMed from January 1979 to August 2021—were reviewed using an ad hoc prepared search string and following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A total of 10404 articles were identified, 1194 duplicates were removed and 9190 papers were discarded after consulting article titles/abstracts. Ultimately, 20 papers were assessed for eligibility, and 20 papers were included after a hand search (ntotal = 40). Despite a broad heterogenicity of included studies, evidence of functional changes in brain activity using hypnosis was identified. Electromyography (EMG) startle amplitudes result in greater activity in the frontal brain area; amplitudes using Somatosensory Event-Related Potentials (SERPs) showed similar results. Electroencephalography (EEG) oscillations of θ activity are positively associated with response to hypnosis. EEG results showed greater amplitudes for highly hypnotizable subjects over the left hemisphere. Less activity during hypnosis was observed in the insula and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC).

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
Maite Aznárez-Sanado ◽  
Luis Eudave ◽  
Martín Martínez ◽  
Elkin O. Luis ◽  
Federico Villagra ◽  

The human brain undergoes structural and functional changes across the lifespan. The study of motor sequence learning in elderly subjects is of particularly interest since previous findings in young adults might not replicate during later stages of adulthood. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study assessed the performance, brain activity and functional connectivity patterns associated with motor sequence learning in late middle adulthood. For this purpose, a total of 25 subjects were evaluated during early stages of learning [i.e., fast learning (FL)]. A subset of these subjects (n = 11) was evaluated after extensive practice of a motor sequence [i.e., slow learning (SL) phase]. As expected, late middle adults improved motor performance from FL to SL. Learning-related brain activity patterns replicated most of the findings reported previously in young subjects except for the lack of hippocampal activity during FL and the involvement of cerebellum during SL. Regarding functional connectivity, precuneus and sensorimotor lobule VI of the cerebellum showed a central role during improvement of novel motor performance. In the sample of subjects evaluated, connectivity between the posterior putamen and parietal and frontal regions was significantly decreased with aging during SL. This age-related connectivity pattern may reflect losses in network efficiency when approaching late adulthood. Altogether, these results may have important applications, for instance, in motor rehabilitation programs.

2022 ◽  
Ana Rocio Conde-Moro ◽  
Florbela Rocha-Almeida ◽  
Elias Gebara ◽  
Jose Maria Delgado-Garcia ◽  
Carmen Sandi ◽  

Social behaviors such as cooperation are crucial for mammals. A deeper knowledge of the neuronal mechanisms underlying cooperation can be beneficial for people suffering from pathologies with impaired social behavior. Our aim was to study the brain activity when two animals synchronize their behavior to obtain a mutual reinforcement. In a previous work, we showed that the activity of the prelimbic cortex (PrL) was enhanced during cooperation in rats, especially in the ones leading most cooperative trials (leader rats). In this study, we investigated the specific cell type/s in the PrL contributing to cooperative behaviors. To this end, we collected rats' brains at key moments of the learning process to analyze the levels of c-FOS expression in the main cellular groups of the PrL (glutamatergic cells containing D1 and D2 receptors and interneurons). Leader rats showed increased c-FOS activity in cells expressing D1 receptors during cooperation. In addition, we analyzed the levels of anxiety, dominance, and locomotor behavior, finding that leader rats are in general less anxious and less dominant than followers. We also recorded local field potentials (LFPs) from the PrL, the nucleus accumbens septi (NAc), and the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Spectral analysis showed that delta activity in PrL and NAc increased when rats cooperated, while BLA activity in delta and theta bands decreased considerably during cooperation. The PrL and NAc also increased their connectivity in the high theta band during cooperation. Thus, the present work identifies the specific PrL cell types engaged in this behavior, as well as its connectivity with subcortical brain regions (BLA, NAc) during cooperation.

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