The Yellow River Basin (YRB), located in the northern region of China, has a fragile ecological environment. With the construction of urbanization and ecological restoration projects, the YRB LULC has undergone significant change. In this study, we used the coupled Markov-FLUS model by combining natural and social driver factors to predict and simulate the LULC of the YRB in 2030, and then the LULC transfer matrix was used to analyze the characteristics of LULC change in the YRB from 1990 to 2030. The results of the study are as follows. (1) For the simulated result of LULC compared with the same period observed result, the Kappa coefficient is 0.92, indicating the coupled Markov-FLUS model has good applicability in the YRB. (2) The LULC in the YRB shows significant spatial autocorrelation. The cropland is mainly distributed in the eastern region, which is dominated by plain; woodland is mainly distributed in the central region; grassland is mainly distributed in the northern, central, and western region; waterbody is mainly distributed in the western region; built-up land is mainly distributed in the northern, south-central, and eastern region; unused land is mainly distributed in the central, northern, and western region. (3) From 1990 to 2000, the area of cropland transferred in significantly and the area of grassland transferred out significantly; from 2000 to 2015, the area of construction land transferred in significantly and the area of cultivated land transferred out significantly; from 2015 to 2030, the amount of cropland transferred out will be large, and the conversion of each other LULC type will be not significant compared with the previous periods, and the conversion structure of LULC will tend to be stable. This study is a crucial reference value for the high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin.
Alpine grassland is the main ecosystem on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). Degradation and restoration of alpine grassland are related to ecosystem function and production, livelihood, and wellbeing of local people. Although a large number of studies research degraded alpine grassland, there are debates about degradation patterns of alpine grassland in different areas and widely applicable ecological restoration schemes due to the huge area of the QTP. In this study, we used the meta-analysis method to synthesize 80 individual published studies which were conducted to examine aboveground and underground characteristics in non-degradation (ND), light degradation (LD), moderate degradation (MD), heavy degradation (HD), and extreme degradation (ED) of alpine grassland on the QTP. Results showed that aboveground biomass (AGB), belowground biomass (BGB), Shannon-Wiener index (H′), soil moisture (SM), soil organic carbon (SOC), soil total nitrogen (TN), and available nitrogen (AN) gradually decreased along the degradation gradient, whereas soil bulk density (BD) and soil pH gradually increased. In spite of a tendency to soil desertification, losses of other soil nutrients and reduction of enzymes, there was no linear relationship between the variations with degradation gradient. Moreover, the decreasing extent of TN was smaller in areas with higher precipitation and temperature, and the decreasing extent of AGB, SOC, and TN was larger in areas with a higher extent of corresponding variables in the stage of ND during alpine grassland degradation. These findings suggest that in areas with higher precipitation and temperature, reseeding and sward cleavage can be used for restoration on degraded alpine grassland. Fencing and fertilization can be used for alpine grassland restoration in areas with lower precipitation and temperature. Microbial enzymes should not be used to restore degraded alpine grassland on a large scale on the QTP without detailed investigation and analysis. Future studies should pay more attention to the effects of climate factors on degradation processes and specific ecological restoration strategies in different regions of the QTP.
PurposeIn this paper, the authors show that ecological restoration potential through natural regeneration of degraded tropical rainforest is possible. This is significant because at present most of the tropical forest of the world, including of Bangladesh, are degraded.Design/methodology/approachRegeneration status of Chunati Wildlife Sanctuary (CWS) was assessed through stratified random sampling method using sample plots of 5 × 5 m in size covering 269 sample plots.FindingsA total of 3,256 regenerating seedlings/saplings of 105 species belonging to 35 families were recorded from CWS. From regenerating tree species, maximum (37.83) family importance value (FIV) index was found for Euphorbiaceae followed by Myrtaceae (18.03). Maximum importance value index (IVI) was found for Aporosa wallichii (21.62) followed by Grewia nervosa (16.41). Distribution of seedlings into different height classes of regenerating tree species was also calculated.Practical implicationsForest scientists are working to find out the best nature-based solution for ecological restoration of tropical rainforests to attain climate resilient ecosystem in a sustainable way. Tropical rain forest has huge plant diversity, and we find that ecological restoration is possible through natural regeneration from its rich soil seed bank. Natural regeneration is the best nature-based solution for sustainable management of the forest.Social implicationsThe authors believe that the findings presented in our paper will appeal to the forest and environmental scientists. The findings will allow readers to understand degraded tropical hill forest ecosystem and its management strategy.Originality/value The authors believe that this manuscript will give a clear picture about degraded tropical hill forest ecosystem and its genetic composition, diversity and soil seed bank status to apply appropriate management strategy.