<p style="text-align: justify;">The purposes of this study were to explore factors and indicators of life and career skills and to develop a life and career skills in the 21st century test for undergraduate students. This research employed a mixed-method study adopting an exploratory design: instrument development model to generate research tools. This study was divided into two phases; Phase 1 was to explore factors and indicators of life and career skills in 21st century, by using a qualitative method to analyze relevant documents; Phase 2 was the development of a life and career skills in 21st century test by adopting a quantitative method to collect data from students studying in 12 universities of the north-eastern region of Thailand via the test. In the second phase, the data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) Results revealed that the skills consisted of 6 factors and 35 indicators, and the test comprised 105 items. The quality of the test has been examined by five expertise, the reliability of all test items is acceptable, and all 6 factors demonstrated good construct validity. Factor loadings of six factors were 0.7940 -1.7816. This study can be implemented to measure the life and career skills of undergraduate students in any university to obtain data for establishing a policy and plans for maximizing students’ potential to achieve their careers and a happy living in 21st century after their graduation.</p>
Climate change and farmland environmental pollution have put greater pressure on the sustainability of agricultural production. Based on the provincial panel data of mainland China from 1978 to 2018, climate variables such as precipitation, temperature, and sunshine hours are included into the input indicators, and agricultural non-point source pollution and carbon emissions are taken as undesirable outputs, the agricultural production efficiency (APE) under the dual constraints of climate change and the resource environment was estimated by the super slacks-based measure (SBM)-undesirable model. On the basis of the trajectory of the imbalanced spatiotemporal evolution of APE shown by Kernel density estimation and the standard deviational ellipse (SDE)–center of gravity (COG) transfer model, the spatial convergence model was used to test the convergence and differentiation characteristics of APE. Under the dual constraints, APE presents a “bimodal” distribution with a stable increase in fluctuation, but it is still at a generally low level and does not show polarization, among which the APE in the northeast region is the highest. The COG of APE tends to transfer towards the northeast, and the coverage of the SDE is shrinking, so the overall spatial pattern is characterized by a tendency of clustering towards the north in the north-south direction and a tendency of imbalance in the east-west direction. APE has significant spatial convergence, and there is a trend of “latecomer catching-up” in low-efficiency regions. The introduction of spatial correlation accelerates the convergence rate and shortens the convergence period. The convergence rate is the highest in the central and western regions, followed by that in the northeastern region, and the convergence rate is the lowest in the eastern region. In addition, the convergence rate in different time periods has a phase change. The process of improving the quality and efficiency of agricultural production requires enhancing the adaptability of climate change, balancing the carrying capacity of the resource environment, and strengthening inter-regional cooperation and linkage in the field of agriculture.
Background Sub-Saharan African countries, especially the Eastern region, present the dismal picture of neonatal mortality (NM) in the globe. The majority of these deaths could be avoided if effective health measures are provided throughout pregnancy and childbirth. Although antenatal care (ANC) is assumed as one of the viable interventions that contribute to neonatal survival, the effect of ANC on NM was not systematically analyzed in Eastern Africa. Thus, the study aimed to determine the pooled effect of ANC on NM in Eastern Africa. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and HINARI databases were searched using appropriate keywords from January 1, 1990 to February 12, 2021. Independent authors selected eligible articles and extracted data. The risk of a bias assessment tool for nonrandomized studies was used to assess the quality of the study. Comprehensive meta-analysis version 2 was used for meta-analysis. The random-effect model was employed, and the outcome is expressed as a risk ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results In total, 1149 studies were identified through database search, and only 27 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Having at least 1 ANC visit during pregnancy reduced the risk of neonatal death by 42% compared to their counterparts (RR = 0.58, 95% CI [0.47, 0.71]). The pooled prevalence of NM was 8.5% (95% CI [7.3, 9.6]), with NM rate of 46.3/1000 live births. Conclusion The study indicated that NM might be decreased even with a single ANC visit when compared to no visits. Scaling up ANC services through ANC promotion and tackling service-related barriers could potentially reduce NM in Eastern Africa.
Background: This study aimed to determine whether people living in the Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia would prefer to continue the practice of physical distancing after the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic or to return to their previous way of life. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from August 2020 to October 2020 in the Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia. A pre-tested questionnaire was sent electronically through social media. Data on participants’ demographics and their perspectives regarding post-pandemic physical distancing were collected. The calculated sample size was 1,066; however, the total number of responses included in the analysis was 989. Results: The average age of the participants was 31.15±11.93 years. There were 435 men and 554 women in the study. Participants showed significantly high levels of disagreement with statements indicating that they were willing to use public transportation (61%), attend social gatherings (36%), and hug relatives or colleagues (40%) after the pandemic (p<0.001); however, 43% agreed that they would spend time with family or friends (p<0.001). The level of education was also found to be significantly related to the responses, and the level of disagreement increased as the level of education increased (p<0.001). Conclusions: One-third of the study participants planned to continue engaging in physical distancing even after the current pandemic and if the COVID-19 related restriction will remain in place for longer, there is chance to increase in this proportion. However, it cannot be concluded whether or not this behavior will prevail in the long run, after the ease in restrictions. If so, it may greatly affect some businesses and perhaps some social norms and values as well.
Severe thunderstorms accompanied by squalls are the most hazardous weather phenomena during pre-monsoon season in north-eastern region of India. An attempt has been made in this paper to study some parameters for forecasting thundersqualls over Calcutta (Airport) during pre-monsoon season. Parameterisation of thermodynamic components alongwith the synoptic support during thundersqualls over Calcutta has been discussed here. A forecasting aspect for propagation speed of thunderstorm cell at Calcutta in pre-monsoon season has been examined with respect to radar-echo positions, mid-level winds and convective available potential energy (CAPE). Occurrences of multiple thundersqualls over Calcutta Airport within a few hours’ interval have been discussed and examined through hodograph analysis, radar observations and synoptic situations.
Industrial green technology innovation has become an important content in achieving high-quality economic growth and comprehensively practicing the new development concept in the new era. This paper measures the efficiency of industrial green technology innovation and regional differences based on Chinese provincial panel data from 2005 to 2018, using a combination of the super efficiency slacks-based measure (SBM) model for considering undesirable outputs and the Dagum Gini coefficient method, and discusses and analyses the factors influencing industrial green technology innovation efficiency by constructing a spatial econometric model. The results show that: firstly, industrial green technology innovation efficiency in China shows a relatively stable development trend, going through three stages: “stationary period”, “recession period” and “growth period”. However, the efficiency gap between different regions is obvious, specifically in the eastern > central > western regions of China, and the industrial green technology efficiency innovation in the central and western regions is lower than the national average. Secondly, regional differences in the efficiency of industrial green technology innovation in China are evident but tend to narrow overall, with the main reason for the overall difference being regional differences. In terms of intra-regional variation, variation within the eastern region is relatively stable, variation within the central region is relatively low and shows an inverted ‘U’ shaped trend, and variation within the western region is high and shows a fluctuating downward trend. Thirdly, the firm size, government support, openness to the outside world, environmental regulations and education levels contribute to the efficiency of industrial green technology innovation. In addition, the industrial structure hinders the efficiency of industrial green technology innovation, and each influencing factor has different degrees of spatial spillover effects.
Background: Rates of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) after intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) differ depending regard are scarce in the Middle Eastern region.
Methods: The present retrospective study was performed on data extracted from the Safe Implementation of Treatments in Stroke (SITS) registry. Computed tomography (CT) image analysis was based on the SITS-Monitoring Study (SITS-MOST) definition for symptomatic ICH (SICH). Functional outcome at 3 months was assessed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Multivariate logistic regression including adjusted analysis was used for comparison between groups.
Results: Of 6615 patients, 1055 were enrolled. A total of 86% (n = 906) received a standard dose and 14% (n = 149) received a low dose of alteplase. Favorable 3-month outcome was achieved in 481 (53%) patients in the standard group and 71 (48%) patients in the low-dose group [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.24, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87-1.75, P = 0.218]. SICH occurred in 14 (1.5%) patients in the standard group and 3 (2%) patients in the low-dose group [odds ratio (OR) = 2.77, 95% CI: 0.36-21.04, P = 0.120]. At 3 months, mortality occurred in 145 (16.0%) patients in the standard group and 29 (19.4%) patients in the low-dose group (OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 0.78-1.91, P = 0.346).
Conclusion: Low-dose compared to standard-dose alteplase for patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) was not associated with fewer hemorrhagic events and there was no significant difference in the favorable 3-month outcome (mRS: 0-2) or mortality rate.
How to utilize financial instrument to deal with environmental issues has been a focal topic. Taking the introduction of green credit program as a “quasi-natural experiment,” the propensity score matching and difference-in-difference approach (PSM-DID) are used to investigate the impact of the green credit policy implemented by Chinese government on firm-level industrial pollutant emissions. The estimation results indicate that the green credit policy significantly reduces corporate sulfur dioxide emissions. Heterogeneity analysis shows this impact is more pronounced for large-scale enterprises and enterprises located in the eastern region. The estimated mediation models reveal that after the implementation of the green credit policy, reduction in sulfur dioxide emissions can be attribute to the increased environmental investment and improved energy consumption intensity. Moreover, the green credit policy is also significantly effective in mitigating the discharge of other common industrial pollutants. Our findings highlight the importance of green credit policies in achieving greener industrial production and more sustainable economic development.
Data from a moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer instrument onboard the Terra satellite along with a radiative transfer model and a machine learning technique were integrated to predict direct solar irradiance on a horizontal surface over the Arabian Peninsula (AP). In preparation for building appropriate residual network (ResNet) prediction models, we conducted some exploratory data analysis (EDA) and came to some conclusions. We noted that aerosols in the atmosphere correlate with solar irradiance in the eastern region of the AP, especially near the coastlines of the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman. We also found low solar irradiance during March 2016 and March 2017 in the central (~20% less) and eastern regions (~15% less) of the AP, which could be attributed to the high frequency of dust events during those months. Compared to other locations in the AP, high solar irradiance was recorded in the Rub Al Khali desert during winter and spring. The effect of major dust outbreaks over the AP during March 2009 and March 2012 was also noted. The EDA indicated a correlation between high aerosol loading and a decrease in solar irradiance. The analysis showed that the Rub Al Khali desert is one of the best locations in the AP to harvest solar radiation. The analysis also showed the ResNet prediction model achieves high test accuracy scores, indicated by a mean absolute error of ~0.02, a mean squared error of ~0.005, and an R2 of 0.99.