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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
A. Lillo ◽  
F. Carvajal-Caiconte ◽  
W. Vital ◽  
P. I. Silva Junior ◽  
E. J. Paredes-Gamero ◽  

Abstract Persea lingue Ness is a tree species that lives mainly in temperate forests of south-central Chile. Its leaves are used in ethnomedicine, the fruit is a drupe similar to that of the avocado and has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity in leukemia cell and antibacterial activity, along with some chemical content characteristics of P. lingue fruit and leaf extracts. The antibacterial activity was determined by the inhibition of bacterial growth in liquid medium assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The leukemia cell lines Kasumi-1 and Jurkat were used to evaluate the cytotoxic activity by using propidium iodide and AlamarBlue assays. Total phenolic, flavonoid, condensed tannin, alkaloid and lipid contents were evaluated in the fruit and in the leaf extracts. The antioxidant activity of both extracts were also elavaluated. Leaf extract presented the highest content of total phenols, condensed tannins and flavonoids, and also the highest antioxidant activity. While the fruit extract has a higher amount of lipids and alkaloids and the high antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium and Micrococcus luteus. The leaf extract only showed activity against M. luteus. Concerning the cytotoxic activity, only the fruit extract showed cytotoxicity against the cell lines Jurkat and Kasumi-1. P. lingue fruit extract is a potential source of biologically active molecules for the development of new drugs to be used in some types of leukemia, as well as antibacterial agent.

2022 ◽  
Vol 41 ◽  
pp. 103264
Juliana Gómez-Mejía ◽  
Delia Aponte ◽  
Luis Pezo-Lanfranco ◽  
Sabine Eggers

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262619
Seifu Awgchew Mamo ◽  
Girum Sebsibie Teshome ◽  
Tewodros Tesfaye ◽  
Abel Tibebu Goshu

Introduction Perinatal asphyxia continues to be a significant clinical concern around the world as the consequences can be devastating. World Health Organization data indicates perinatal asphyxia is encountered amongst 6–10 newborns per 1000 live full-term birth, and the figures are higher for low and middle-income countries. Nevertheless, studies on the prevalence of asphyxia and the extent of the problem in poorly resourced southern Ethiopian regions are limited. This study aimed to determine the magnitude of perinatal asphyxia and its associated factors. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study design was used from March to April 2020. Data was collected from charts of neonates who were admitted to NICU from January 2016 to December 31, 2019. Result The review of 311 neonates’ medical records revealed that 41.2% of the neonates experienced perinatal asphyxia. Preeclampsia during pregnancy (AOR = 6.2, 95%CI:3.1–12.3), antepartum hemorrhage (AOR = 4.5, 95%CI:2.3–8.6), gestational diabetes mellitus (AOR = 4.2, 95%CI:1.9–9.2), premature rupture of membrane (AOR = 2.5, 95%CI:1.33–4.7) fetal distress (AOR = 3,95%CI:1.3–7.0) and meconium-stained amniotic fluid (AOR = 7.7, 95%CI: 3.1–19.3) were the associated factors. Conclusion Substantial percentages of neonates encounter perinatal asphyxia, causing significant morbidity and mortality. Focus on early identification and timely treatment of perinatal asphyxia in hospitals should, therefore, be given priority.

2022 ◽  
pp. 223386592110729
Uwomano Benjamin Okpevra

The Isoko, like other peoples of Nigeria, played significant roles in the historical process and evolution of Nigeria and should be acknowledged as such. The paper teases out much more clearly—and, more importantly, the multiple stages of the British expansion into Isoko. That is, how does that multi-stage, multi-phase process affect how we think more broadly about British colonial expansion in Africa in the 19th century? The paper deposes that the Isoko as a people did not accept British rule until the “punitive expedition” to the area in 1911 brought the whole of the Isoko country under British control. This is done within the context of the military conquest and subjugation of the people, colonial prejudices, and the resulting social economic, and political changes. The paper deploying both primary and secondary data highlights the role played by the Isoko in resisting British penetration into and subjugation of their country between 1896 and 1911. The year 1896 marked the beginning of British formal contact with the Isoko when the first treaty was signed with Owe (Owhe), while 1911 was when the Isoko were conquered by the British and brought under British control.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 395-418
Xiao Lu ◽  
Daniel J. Jacob ◽  
Haolin Wang ◽  
Joannes D. Maasakkers ◽  
Yuzhong Zhang ◽  

Abstract. We quantify methane emissions and their 2010–2017 trends by sector in the contiguous United States (CONUS), Canada, and Mexico by inverse analysis of in situ (GLOBALVIEWplus CH4 ObsPack) and satellite (GOSAT) atmospheric methane observations. The inversion uses as a prior estimate the national anthropogenic emission inventories for the three countries reported by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC), and the Instituto Nacional de Ecología y Cambio Climático (INECC) in Mexico to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and thus serves as an evaluation of these inventories in terms of their magnitudes and trends. Emissions are optimized with a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) at 0.5∘×0.625∘ resolution and for individual years. Optimization is done analytically using lognormal error forms. This yields closed-form statistics of error covariances and information content on the posterior (optimized) estimates, allows better representation of the high tail of the emission distribution, and enables construction of a large ensemble of inverse solutions using different observations and assumptions. We find that GOSAT and in situ observations are largely consistent and complementary in the optimization of methane emissions for North America. Mean 2010–2017 anthropogenic emissions from our base GOSAT + in situ inversion, with ranges from the inversion ensemble, are 36.9 (32.5–37.8) Tg a−1 for CONUS, 5.3 (3.6–5.7) Tg a−1 for Canada, and 6.0 (4.7–6.1) Tg a−1 for Mexico. These are higher than the most recent reported national inventories of 26.0 Tg a−1 for the US (EPA), 4.0 Tg a−1 for Canada (ECCC), and 5.0 Tg a−1 for Mexico (INECC). The correction in all three countries is largely driven by a factor of 2 underestimate in emissions from the oil sector with major contributions from the south-central US, western Canada, and southeastern Mexico. Total CONUS anthropogenic emissions in our inversion peak in 2014, in contrast to the EPA report of a steady decreasing trend over 2010–2017. This reflects offsetting effects of increasing emissions from the oil and landfill sectors, decreasing emissions from the gas sector, and flat emissions from the livestock and coal sectors. We find decreasing trends in Canadian and Mexican anthropogenic methane emissions over the 2010–2017 period, mainly driven by oil and gas emissions. Our best estimates of mean 2010–2017 wetland emissions are 8.4 (6.4–10.6) Tg a−1 for CONUS, 9.9 (7.8–12.0) Tg a−1 for Canada, and 0.6 (0.4–0.6) Tg a−1 for Mexico. Wetland emissions in CONUS show an increasing trend of +2.6 (+1.7 to +3.8)% a−1 over 2010–2017 correlated with precipitation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 789
Can Yang ◽  
Tianxing Wei ◽  
Yiran Li

The Yellow River Basin (YRB), located in the northern region of China, has a fragile ecological environment. With the construction of urbanization and ecological restoration projects, the YRB LULC has undergone significant change. In this study, we used the coupled Markov-FLUS model by combining natural and social driver factors to predict and simulate the LULC of the YRB in 2030, and then the LULC transfer matrix was used to analyze the characteristics of LULC change in the YRB from 1990 to 2030. The results of the study are as follows. (1) For the simulated result of LULC compared with the same period observed result, the Kappa coefficient is 0.92, indicating the coupled Markov-FLUS model has good applicability in the YRB. (2) The LULC in the YRB shows significant spatial autocorrelation. The cropland is mainly distributed in the eastern region, which is dominated by plain; woodland is mainly distributed in the central region; grassland is mainly distributed in the northern, central, and western region; waterbody is mainly distributed in the western region; built-up land is mainly distributed in the northern, south-central, and eastern region; unused land is mainly distributed in the central, northern, and western region. (3) From 1990 to 2000, the area of cropland transferred in significantly and the area of grassland transferred out significantly; from 2000 to 2015, the area of construction land transferred in significantly and the area of cultivated land transferred out significantly; from 2015 to 2030, the amount of cropland transferred out will be large, and the conversion of each other LULC type will be not significant compared with the previous periods, and the conversion structure of LULC will tend to be stable. This study is a crucial reference value for the high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin.

Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 102
Fabrizio Michelangeli ◽  
Federico Di Di Rita ◽  
Alessandra Celant ◽  
Nadine Tisnérat-Laborde ◽  
Fabrizio Lirer ◽  

This study presents the first Late Holocene marine pollen record (core ND2) from SE Sicily. It encompasses the last 3000 years and is one of the most detailed records of the south-central Mediterranean region in terms of time resolution. The combined approach of marine palynology and historical ecology, supported by independent palaeoclimate proxies, provides an integrated regional reconstruction of past vegetational dynamics in relation to rapid climatic fluctuations, historical socio-economic processes, and past land-use practices, offering new insights into the vegetation history of SE Sicily. Short-term variations of sparse tree cover in persistently open landscapes reflect rapid hydroclimatic changes and historical land-use practices. Four main phases of forest reduction are found in relation to the 2.8 ka BP event, including the Late Antique Little Ice Age, the Medieval Climate Anomaly, and the Little Ice Age, respectively. Forest recovery is recorded during the Hellenistic and Roman Republican Periods, the Early Middle Ages, and the last century. Agricultural and silvicultural practices, as well as stock-breeding activities, had a primary role in shaping the current vegetational landscape of SE Sicily.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 73-83
Jamal M Haider ◽  
Haque M Aminul ◽  
Hossain Md Jahid ◽  
Haque Anisul

Coastal region of Bangladesh possesses a fragile ecosystem and is exposed to hazards like cyclones, floods, storm surges, and water-logging. A detail understanding on the impact of water-logging due to various natural, man-made and climate change scenarios is still lacking. Considering this research gap, the present research is aimed to study impacts of these scenarios inside polders-24 and 25 which are situated on the western part of the coastal region. In this Study as natural scenario, sedimentation in the Hari River; as man-made scenario, new polders in the south-central region and as SLR scenario, an extreme sea level rise of 1.48m are considered. Long-term satellite images are analyzed, and numerical model is applied in the study area. The result shows that water-logging is more acute inside polder-25 compared to polder-24. Sedimentation in Hari River aggravates the water-logging condition. Dredging in Hari River does improve the situation. Journal of Engineering Science 12(3), 2021, 73-83

Francesca Papini ◽  
Sara Mazzilli ◽  
Dania Paganini ◽  
Lucia Rago ◽  
Guglielmo Arzilli ◽  

Vaccination of healthcare workers (HCWs) is a crucial element to overcome the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this survey was to assess attitudes, sources of information and practices among Italian Healthcare workers (HCWs) in relation to COVID-19 vaccination. Methods: From 19 February to 23 April 2021, an anonymous voluntary questionnaire was sent to the mailing list of the main National Health Service structures. Data were collected through the SurveyMonkey platform. Results: A total of 2137 HCWs answered. Hesitancy towards COVID-19 vaccination was more frequent in females, in those with lower concern about COVID-19, and in nurses, auxiliary nurses (AN) and healthcare assistants. Hesitant professionals were more likely to not recommend vaccination to their patients or relatives, while a high concern about COVID-19 was related to an increased rate of recommendation to family members. HCWs were mostly in favor of mandatory vaccination (61.22%). Female sex, a lower education level, greater hesitancy and refusal to adhere to flu vaccination campaigns were predictors influencing the aversion to mandatory vaccination. All categories of HCWs referred mainly to institutional sources of information, while scientific literature was more used by professionals working in the northern regions of Italy and in infection control, infectious diseases, emergencies and critical areas. HCWs working in south-central regions, nurses, AN, healthcare technicians, administrators and HCWs with a lower education level were more likely to rely on internet, television, newspapers, and the opinions of family and friends. Conclusions: Communication in support of COVID-19 immunization campaigns should consider the differences between the various HCWs professional categories in order to efficiently reach all professionals, including the most hesitant ones.

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