belowground biomass
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2022 ◽  
Vol 505 ◽  
pp. 119942
Author(s):  
Peter Annighöfer ◽  
Martina Mund ◽  
Dominik Seidel ◽  
Christian Ammer ◽  
Aitor Ameztegui ◽  
...  
Keyword(s):  

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 199
Author(s):  
Aisjah R. Ryadin ◽  
Dennis Janz ◽  
Dominik Schneider ◽  
Aiyen Tjoa ◽  
Bambang Irawan ◽  
...  

To secure high yield, tropical oil palm plantations are fertilized, and understory vegetation is controlled by chemical clearing with herbicides. These treatments cause a drastic turnover of soil microbes and cause loss of beneficial mycorrhizal fungi. Here, we tested if reduced fertilization and weeding instead of conventional treatments restored beneficial ecological groups associated with roots. We conducted our study one year after the start of the reduced management in large-scale oil palm plantations. We hypothesized that reduced fertilizer application and weeding result in shifts of the root-associated species composition because changes in the management regimes affect belowground biomass and nutrients in soil and roots. Alternatively, we hypothesized that the legacy of massive soil fertilization and herbicide application preclude compositional shifts of root-associated biota within short time periods. We did not find any significant treatment effects on root nutrient contents, root biomass, and nutrients in soil. At the level of species (based on operational taxonomic units obtained by Illumina sequencing) or phyla, no significant effects of reduced management were observed. However, distinct functional groups showed early responses to the treatments: nematodes decreased in response to weeding; yeasts and ectomycorrhizal-multitrophic fungi increased under fertilizer treatments; arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increased under fertilizer reduction. Since the responsive ecological groups were represented by low sequence abundances, their responses were masked by very high sequence abundances of saprotrophic and pathotrophic fungi. Thus, the composition of the whole root-associated community was unaffected by reduced management. In conclusion, our results show that changes in management regimes start to re-wire critical constituents of soil–plant food webs.


PeerJ ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. e12771
Author(s):  
Jinlan Wang ◽  
Wen Li ◽  
Wenxia Cao ◽  
Shilin Wang

Grazing is the main grassland management strategy applied in alpine shrubland ecosystems on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. However, how different intensities of long-term grazing affect plant diversity, biomass accumulation and carbon (C) stock in these ecosystems is poorly understood. In this study, alpine shrubland with different long-term (more than 30 years) grazing intensities (excluded from grazing for 5 years (EX), light grazing (LG), moderate grazing (MG) and heavy grazing (HG)) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau were selected to study changes in plant diversity, aboveground biomass and C accumulation, as well as distribution of C stock among biomass components and soil depths. A structural equation model was used to illustrate the impact of grazing on the soil carbon stock (SOC). The results showed that the Shannon–Wiener diversity index and richness index of herbaceous plants, shrubs, and communities first significantly increased and then decreased with increasing grazing intensity, reaching maxima at the LG site. The aboveground and belowground and litter biomass of understory herbaceous plants, shrubs and communities decreased with increasing grazing intensity, reaching maxima at the EX site. The aboveground and belowground biomass C storage decreased with increasing grazing intensity, reaching maxima at the EX site. The SOC stock and total ecosystem C stock decreased with increasing grazing intensity, reaching maxima at the EX and LG sites. A structural equation model showed that grazing-induced changes in the belowground biomass of understory herbaceous plants greatly contributed to the SOC stock decrease. Thus, considering the utilization and renewal of grassland resources, as well as local economic benefits and ecological effects, LG may be a more rational grazing intensity for species diversity conservation and ecosystem C sequestration in alpine shrubland. Our results provide new insights for incorporating grazing intensity into shrub ecosystem C stock and optimizing grazing management and grassland ecosystem C management.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jiale Yu ◽  
Lingfan Wan ◽  
Guohua Liu ◽  
Keming Ma ◽  
Hao Cheng ◽  
...  

Alpine grassland is the main ecosystem on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). Degradation and restoration of alpine grassland are related to ecosystem function and production, livelihood, and wellbeing of local people. Although a large number of studies research degraded alpine grassland, there are debates about degradation patterns of alpine grassland in different areas and widely applicable ecological restoration schemes due to the huge area of the QTP. In this study, we used the meta-analysis method to synthesize 80 individual published studies which were conducted to examine aboveground and underground characteristics in non-degradation (ND), light degradation (LD), moderate degradation (MD), heavy degradation (HD), and extreme degradation (ED) of alpine grassland on the QTP. Results showed that aboveground biomass (AGB), belowground biomass (BGB), Shannon-Wiener index (H′), soil moisture (SM), soil organic carbon (SOC), soil total nitrogen (TN), and available nitrogen (AN) gradually decreased along the degradation gradient, whereas soil bulk density (BD) and soil pH gradually increased. In spite of a tendency to soil desertification, losses of other soil nutrients and reduction of enzymes, there was no linear relationship between the variations with degradation gradient. Moreover, the decreasing extent of TN was smaller in areas with higher precipitation and temperature, and the decreasing extent of AGB, SOC, and TN was larger in areas with a higher extent of corresponding variables in the stage of ND during alpine grassland degradation. These findings suggest that in areas with higher precipitation and temperature, reseeding and sward cleavage can be used for restoration on degraded alpine grassland. Fencing and fertilization can be used for alpine grassland restoration in areas with lower precipitation and temperature. Microbial enzymes should not be used to restore degraded alpine grassland on a large scale on the QTP without detailed investigation and analysis. Future studies should pay more attention to the effects of climate factors on degradation processes and specific ecological restoration strategies in different regions of the QTP.


Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 142
Author(s):  
Katherin Meza ◽  
Steven J. Vanek ◽  
Yulissa Sueldo ◽  
Edgar Olivera ◽  
Raúl Ccanto ◽  
...  

Soils of the Andean highlands are under threat from cropping system intensification. Improved forage-based fallows offer great promise to address this issue, but research is needed to better understand the potential of species mixtures vs. monocultures to support multiple farmer objectives, especially forage production and soil conservation. We used a pot study to quantify above- and belowground biomass production as well as the total N uptake of grass–legume pairs between five grasses: (1) oat (Avena sativa), (2) ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), (3) festulolium (Lolium × Festuca genera), (4) brome grass (Bromus catharticus), and (5) orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata), and four legumes: (1) vetch (Vicia dasycarpa), (2) red clover (Trifolium pratense), (3) black medic (Medicago lupulina), and (4) alfalfa (Medicago sativa) relative to the performance of each species in monoculture within two soils from the central Peruvian Andes. Grass–legume bicultures demonstrated significant overyielding, producing 65% and 28% more total dry biomass and total N uptake on average than monocultures. Aboveground biomass of bicultures was significantly influenced by the species of legume present, while belowground biomass was more affected by the grass species in the mixture. When evaluating the growth of each species separately, our findings indicate that overyielding was driven more by the enhanced growth of grasses relative to legumes. Our findings indicate that combining key functional groups (e.g., grass and legume, annual and perennial) offers great promise for developing improved fallows for supporting soil health and productivity in Andean agroecosystems.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Richard Nair ◽  
Martin Strube ◽  
Martin Hertel ◽  
Olaf Kolle ◽  
Markus Reichstein ◽  
...  

Minirhizotrons (paired camera systems and buried observatories) are the best current method to make repeatable measurements of fine roots in the field. Automating the technique is also the only way to gather high resolution data necessary for comparison with phenology-relevant above-ground remote sensing, and, when appropriately validated, to assess with high temporal resolution belowground biomass, which can support carbon budgets estimates. Minirhizotron technology has been available for half a century but there are many challenges to automating the technique for global change experiments. Instruments must be cheap enough to replicate on field scales given their shallow field of view, and automated analysis must both be robust to changeable soil and root conditions because ultimately, image properties extracted from minirhizotrons must have biological meaning. Both digital photography and computer technology are rapidly evolving, with huge potential for generating belowground data from images using modern technological advantages. Here we demonstrate a homemade automatic minirhizotron scheme, built with off-the-shelf parts and sampling every two hours, which we paired with a neural network-based image analysis method in a proof-of-concept mesocosm study. We show that we are able to produce a robust daily timeseries of root cover dynamics. The method is applied at the same model across multiple instruments demonstrating good reproducibility of the measurements and a good pairing with an above-ground vegetation index and root biomass recovery through time. We found a sensitivity of the root cover we extracted to soil moisture conditions and time of day (potentially relating to soil moisture), which may only be an issue with high resolution automated imagery and not commonly reported as encountered when training neural networks on traditional, time-distinct minirhizotron studies. We discuss potential avenues for dealing with such issues in future field applications of such devices. If such issues are dealt with to a satisfactory manner in the field, automated timeseries of root biomass and traits from replicated instruments could add a new dimension to phenology understanding at ecosystem level by understanding the dynamics of root properties and traits.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (2) ◽  
pp. 65
Author(s):  
Serlina H. Oktian ◽  
Luluk Setyaningsih ◽  
Nengsih Anen ◽  
Wahyu C. Adinugroho

Providing comprehensive information on carbon stock data on all carbon pools needs to be done to plan and measure climate change mitigation efforts that are carried out. This research was conducted by analyzing spatial characteristics and estimating carbon stocks with model development. Spatial analysis is carried out to provide an overview of the distribution of spatial values that can use the built model. Estimation of carbon stock is carried out by building a carbon stock estimator model that correlates the value of remote sensing parameters with the value of carbon stocks in all carbon storage sources. The characteristics of the vegetation index value in the forest category are greater than in the non-forest category and vice versa for the distribution of the digital number average value. The model development is only carried out on aboveground biomass and belowground biomass carbon pools. The results of the analysis of the estimation of carbon stocks based on the selected model showed the potential for aboveground biomass was 5,200,841.45 tC and the potential for belowground biomass was 1,317,948.10 tC.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Michael Opoku Adomako ◽  
Wei Xue ◽  
Sergio Roiloa ◽  
Qian Zhang ◽  
Dao-Lin Du ◽  
...  

Soil heterogeneity (uneven distribution of soil nutrients and/or other properties) is ubiquitous in nature and can greatly affect plant growth. As earthworm activity can influence nutrient redistribution in the soil, we hypothesize that earthworms may alter the effect of soil heterogeneity on plant growth and this effect may depend on the scale of soil heterogeneity. To test these hypotheses, we grew the clonal grass Leymus chinensis in three soil treatments (heterogeneous large vs. heterogeneous small patch vs. homogeneous soil treatment) with or without earthworms [i.e., Eisenia fetida Savigny (Lumbricidae, epigeic redworm)]. In the heterogeneous treatments, the soil consisted of patches with and without 15N-labeled litter (referred to as high- and low-quality patches, respectively), and in the homogeneous treatment, the soil was an even mixture of the two types of soil patches. Biomass of L. chinensis was significantly higher in the high- than in the low-quality patches, showing the foraging response; this foraging response occurred at both scales and under both earthworm treatments. Compared to the homogeneous treatment, the heterogeneous large patch treatment increased biomass of L. chinensis without earthworms, but decreased it with earthworms. In contrast, biomass of L. chinensis in the heterogeneous small patch treatment did not differ from that in the homogeneous treatment, irrespective of earthworms. Belowground biomass was much greater in the heterogeneous small than in the heterogeneous large patch treatment without earthworms, but it did not differ between these two scale treatments with earthworms. In the heterogeneous treatments, soil 15N was greater in the high- than in the low-quality patches, but this effect became much weaker with than without earthworms, suggesting that earthworm activity homogenized the soil. We conclude that earthworms can change the impact of soil heterogeneity on plant growth via homogenizing the soil, and that this effect of earthworms varies with patch scale. Such scale-dependent interactive effects of soil heterogeneity and earthworms could be a potential mechanism modulating plant community structure and productivity.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Michaela Jungová ◽  
Vladimíra Jurasová Müllerová ◽  
Michal Hejcman ◽  
Michael Asare Opare

Abstract Background and aimsRumex alpinus is a native plant in the mountains of Europe whose distribution has partly been affected by its utilization as a vegetable and medicinal herb. The distribution of micro and risk elements in its organs is not well-known. The study examined the safety of consuming Rumex alpinus from the Krkonoše Mountains, Czech Republic, and the Alps (Austria and Italy).MethodsWe determined the total and plant-available content of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Al, As, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Cd in the soil and total content in organs of Rumex alpinus.ResultsThe uptake and distribution of elements by plants were characterized by bioaccumulation (BF) and translocation (TF) factors. The intensity of elements accumulation by Rumex alpinus is considerably different, depending on locality. Rumex alpinus has considerable tolerance to Zn, Cu, As, Cr, Ni, with an easy accumulation strategy. High Al and Cd content in belowground biomass (rhizome) indicate a defensive mechanism for them. Although the aboveground biomass (emerging, senescent, mature leaves, petiole) has some degree of accumulation of risk elements, the results showed that Rumex alpinus is an excluder.ConclusionRumex alpinus does not accumulate risk elements in organs that are consumed based on the World Health Organization (2001) and can therefore be consumed without concern.


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