The uncontrolled invasion of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) dramatically alters soil nitrogen cycling and destroys the natural habitat of Alsophila spinulosa. Nevertheless, no clear evidence points out the role of denitrifying bacteria in the invasion of bamboo into the habitat of A. spinulosa. In the present study, we found that low (importance value 0.0008), moderate (0.6551), and high (0.9326) bamboo invasions dramatically altered the underground root biomass of both P. pubescens and A. spinulosa. The root biomass of A. spinulosa was maximal at moderate invasion, indicating that intermediate disturbance might contribute to the growth and survival of the colonized plant. Successful bamboo invasion significantly increased rhizospheric soil available nitrogen content of A. spinulosa, coupled with elevated denitrifying bacterial abundance and diversity. Shewanella, Chitinophaga, and Achromobacter were the primary genera in the three invasions, whereas high bamboo invasion harbored more denitrifying bacteria and higher abundance than moderate and low invasions. Further correlation analysis found that most soil denitrifying bacteria were positively correlated with soil organic matter and available nitrogen but negatively correlated with pH and water content. In addition, our findings illustrated that two denitrifying bacteria, Chitinophaga and Sorangium, might be essential indicators for evaluating the effects of bamboo invasion on the growth of A. spinulosa. Collectively, this study found that moso bamboo invasion could change the nitrogen cycling of colonized habitats through alterations of denitrifying bacteria and provided valuable perspectives for profound recognizing the invasive impacts and mechanisms of bamboo expansion.
In nutrient-poor habitats, competition for limited resources is thought to select for organisms with an enhanced ability to scavenge nutrients and utilize them efficiently. Such adaptations characterize the cyanobacterium
, the most abundant photosynthetic organism in the nutrient-limited open ocean.
Biochar, a carbon-rich material obtained by pyrolysis of organic wastes, is an attractive matrix for loading nutrients and producing enhanced efficiency fertilizers. In this study, poultry litter (PL) was enriched with phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and MgO to produce a biochar-based fertilizer (PLB), which was loaded with urea in a 4:5 ratio (PLB:urea, w/w) to generate a 15–15% N–P slow-release fertilizer (PLB–N) to be used in a single application to soil. A greenhouse experiment was carried out in which a common bean was cultivated followed by maize to evaluate the agronomic efficiency and the residual effect of fertilization with PLB–N in Ultisol. Six treatments were tested, including four doses of N (100, 150, 200, and 250 mg kg−1) via PLB–N in a single application, a control with triple superphosphate (TSP—applied once) and urea (split three times), and a control without N-P fertilization. The greatest effect of PLB–N was the residual effect of fertilization, in which maize showed a linear response to the N doses applied via PLB–N but showed no response to conventional TSP + urea fertilization. Biochar has the potential as a loading matrix to preserve N availability and increase residual effects and N-use efficiency by plants.
Alpine grassland is the main ecosystem on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). Degradation and restoration of alpine grassland are related to ecosystem function and production, livelihood, and wellbeing of local people. Although a large number of studies research degraded alpine grassland, there are debates about degradation patterns of alpine grassland in different areas and widely applicable ecological restoration schemes due to the huge area of the QTP. In this study, we used the meta-analysis method to synthesize 80 individual published studies which were conducted to examine aboveground and underground characteristics in non-degradation (ND), light degradation (LD), moderate degradation (MD), heavy degradation (HD), and extreme degradation (ED) of alpine grassland on the QTP. Results showed that aboveground biomass (AGB), belowground biomass (BGB), Shannon-Wiener index (H′), soil moisture (SM), soil organic carbon (SOC), soil total nitrogen (TN), and available nitrogen (AN) gradually decreased along the degradation gradient, whereas soil bulk density (BD) and soil pH gradually increased. In spite of a tendency to soil desertification, losses of other soil nutrients and reduction of enzymes, there was no linear relationship between the variations with degradation gradient. Moreover, the decreasing extent of TN was smaller in areas with higher precipitation and temperature, and the decreasing extent of AGB, SOC, and TN was larger in areas with a higher extent of corresponding variables in the stage of ND during alpine grassland degradation. These findings suggest that in areas with higher precipitation and temperature, reseeding and sward cleavage can be used for restoration on degraded alpine grassland. Fencing and fertilization can be used for alpine grassland restoration in areas with lower precipitation and temperature. Microbial enzymes should not be used to restore degraded alpine grassland on a large scale on the QTP without detailed investigation and analysis. Future studies should pay more attention to the effects of climate factors on degradation processes and specific ecological restoration strategies in different regions of the QTP.
Buried wood is an important but understudied component of reclamation soils. We examined the impacts of buried wood amounts and species on the growth of the common reclamation tree species trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides). In a greenhouse study, aspen seedlings were planted into four soil types, upland derived fine forest floor-mineral mix (fFFMM), coarse forest floor-mineral mix (cFFMM), and lowland derived peat and peat-mineral mix (PMM), that were mixed with either aspen or pine wood shavings at four concentrations (0%, 10%, 20% and 50% of total volume). Height and diameter growth, chlorophyll concentration, and leaf and stem biomass were measured. Soil nutrients and chemical properties were obtained from a parallel study. Buried wood primarily represents an input of carbon to the soil, increasing the C:N ratio, reducing the soil available nitrogen and potentially reducing plant growth. Soil type had the largest impact on aspen growth with fFFMM = peat > PMM > cFFMM. Buried wood type, i.e., aspen or pine, did not have an impact on aspen development, but the amount of buried wood did. In particular, there was an interaction between wood amount and soil type with a large reduction in aspen growth with wood additions of 10% and above on the more productive soils, but no reduction on the less productive soils.
The agricultural sector is the mainstay of the economy in Central Moluccas. However, most agricultural soils on the island have low soil fertility. One of the efforts that farmers can make to improve soil fertility is to apply organic matter, which is widely found in Central Moluccas. This study aimed at elucidating the effect of mixing high-quality organic material (Glicidia sepium pruning) with low-quality organic material (sago pulp waste) on the improvement of available nitrogen in an acid soil (Dystrudept) and growth of maize. Two experiments were carried out in a laboratory and a greenhouse. The compositions of the mixtures of sago pulp waste (A) and pruning of Gliricidia sepium (G) were A0 G100; A20G80; A40G60; A60G40; A80G20, and A100G0. Six treatments and one control (no application of residues) were arranged in a completely randomized design. The results showed that the application of the mixture of 20% and 80% of Gliricidia sepium pruning (A20G80) increased the cumulative amount of mineral N in the soil higher than that of the other organic material mixtures, which in turn improved maize growth.
The present study deals with the assessment of soil nutrients at four adjacent villages, 15 km NE of Almora, to understand the soil fertility and suitability of crops to help rejuvenate the agricultural activities in the region which subsequently will be used as a testing ground to mitigate prevailing Human-Wildlife Conflict in the study area. Soil samples were analyzed for textural classification, power of hydrogen (pH), Electrical Conductivity (EC), Organic Carbon percentage (OC%), available Nitrogen (N), Potassium (K), Sulphur (S), Boron (B), Manganese (Mn), 0.1M Hydrochloric Acid (HCl), and Diethylene Triamine Pentaacetic Acid (DTPA) extractable, Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), and Copper (Cu) to examine the soil fertility of the area. The soils of the region vary from loam to sandy loam. The soil reaction varies from slight to extremely acidic whereas the salinity was varying from non-saline to slightly saline. Low soil fertility index of N, P, K, Zn, B, and Fe; and medium soil fertility index of S, Mn, and Cu were observed, which is suggestive of additional requirement of Farm Yard Manure (FYM) and fertilizers to make them suitable for plantation. Through this study, an attempt has been made to recommend the selection and cultivation of high yield indigenous cash crops with the support of bio-fertilizers to maximize the use and production of these fallow lands and enhance the agricultural activities in the region and provide better livelihood options. The shift from the traditional method of plowing and sowing to new basic techniques has brought about encouraging results to the extent that these fields have now become favorite destinations of wild boars and monkeys. Hence, allowing us to mitigate this problem through various means.
Elemental stoichiometry reflects the interaction between plants, soil, and microorganisms, and links biogeochemical patterns with physiological limitations. The stoichiometry of elements in farmland soil is an important part of the function of the agroecosystem. Soil nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) are the main macronutrients in terrestrial ecosystems, which are closely related to biogeochemical cycles. Studying the temporal and spatial variability of soil nutrients in tropical farmland is of great significance for exploring the variation of soil nutrients and promoting the sustainable development of tropical agriculture. In this study, soil samples in the farmland of Hainan Island were collected at three different stages for exploring temporal and spatial variations of N, P, and K stoichiometry. Results showed that soil concentrations of available N, P, and K changed markedly with the temporal and spatial variability. The highest available N, P, and K concentrations appeared at the stage of 2016–2020 with values of 110.40 mg/kg, 51.91 mg/kg, and 82.76 mg/kg, respectively, while their lowest values were observed in 2010–2015 with 66.34 mg/kg, 11.27 mg/kg, and 45.77 mg/kg, respectively. The available nitrogen content in the three time periods first increased and then decreased with the increase of available potassium content, an opposite trend was observed between available nitrogen and phosphorus. The content of N increased in Haikou, Lingao, Ding’an, and P increased in Wengchang, and Lingshui and K increased in Danzhou and Wanning as time increased.
The comparably low genotype-by-nitrogen level interaction suggests that selection in early generations can be done under high-input conditions followed by selection under different nitrogen levels to identify genotypes ideally suited for the target environment.
Breeding high-yielding, nitrogen-efficient crops is of utmost importance to achieve greater agricultural sustainability. The aim of this study was to evaluate nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of triticale, investigate long-term genetic trends and the genetic architecture, and develop strategies for NUE improvement by breeding. For this, we evaluated 450 different triticale genotypes under four nitrogen fertilization levels in multi-environment field trials for grain yield, protein content, starch content and derived indices. Analysis of temporal trends revealed that modern cultivars are better in exploiting the available nitrogen. Genome-wide association mapping revealed a complex genetic architecture with many small-effect QTL and a high level of pleiotropy for NUE-related traits, in line with phenotypic correlations. Furthermore, the effect of some QTL was dependent on the nitrogen fertilization level. High correlations of each trait between N levels and the rather low genotype-by-N-level interaction variance showed that generally the same genotypes perform well over different N levels. Nevertheless, the best performing genotype was always a different one. Thus, selection in early generations can be done under high nitrogen fertilizer conditions as these provide a stronger differentiation, but the final selection in later generations should be conducted with a nitrogen fertilization as in the target environment.
Biological nitrogen fixation catalyzed by Mo-nitrogenase of symbiotic diazotrophs has attracted interest because its potential to supply plant-available nitrogen offers an alternative way of using chemical fertilizers for sustainable agriculture. Phototrophic purple nonsulfur bacteria (PNSB) diazotrophically grow under light anaerobic conditions and can be isolated from photic and microaerobic zones of rice fields. Therefore, PNSB as asymbiotic diazotrophs contribute to nitrogen fixation in rice fields. An attempt to measure nitrogen in the oxidized surface layer of paddy soil estimates that approximately 6–8 kg N/ha/year might be accumulated by phototrophic microorganisms. Species of PNSB possess one of or both alternative nitrogenases, V-nitrogenase and Fe-nitrogenase, which are found in asymbiotic diazotrophs, in addition to Mo-nitrogenase. The regulatory networks control nitrogenase activity in response to ammonium, molecular oxygen, and light irradiation. Laboratory and field studies have revealed effectiveness of PNSB inoculation to rice cultures on increases of nitrogen gain, plant growth, and/or grain yield. In this review, properties of the nitrogenase isozymes and regulation of nitrogenase activities in PNSB are described, and research challenges and potential of PNSB inoculation to rice cultures are discussed from a viewpoint of their applications as nitrogen biofertilizer.