bacterial infections
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
S. Mumtaz ◽  
S. Mumtaz ◽  
S. Ali ◽  
H. M. Tahir ◽  
S. A. R. Kazmi ◽  

Abstract Now a day’s multidrug resistance phenomenon has become the main cause for concern and there has been an inadequate achievement in the development of novel antibiotics to treat the bacterial infections. Therefore, there is an unmet need to search for novel adjuvant. Vitamin C is one such promising adjuvant. The present study was aimed to elucidate the antibacterial effect of vitamin C at various temperatures (4°C, 37°C and 50°C) and pH (3, 8, and 11), against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria at various concentrations (5-20 mg/ml) through agar well diffusion method. Growth inhibition of all bacterial strains by vitamin C was concentration-dependent. Vitamin C significantly inhibited the growth of Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus licheniformis (25.3 ± 0.9 mm), Staphylococcus aureus (22.0 ± 0.6 mm), Bacillus subtilis (19.3 ± 0.3 mm) and Gram-negative bacteria: Proteus mirabilis (27.67 ± 0.882 mm), Klebsiella pneumoniae (21.33±0.9 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18.0 ± 1.5 mm) and Escherichia coli (18.3 ± 0.3 mm). The stability of vitamin C was observed at various pH values and various temperatures. Vitamin C showed significant antibacterial activity at acidic pH against all bacterial strains. Vitamin C remained the stable at different temperatures. It was concluded that vitamin C is an effective and safe antibacterial agent that can be used in the future as an adjunct treatment option to combat infections in humans.

2022 ◽  
Ilanila Ilangumaran Ponmalar ◽  
Jitendriya Swain ◽  
Jaydeep Kumar Basu

Prevalence of wide spread bacterial infections bring forth a critical need in understanding the molecular mechanisms of the antibiotics as well as the bacterial response to those antibiotics. Improper usage of antibiotics, which can be in sub-lethal concentrations is one among the multiple reasons for acquiring antibiotic resistance which makes it vital to understand the bacterial response towards sub-lethal concentrations of antibiotics. In this work, we have used colistin, a well-known membrane active antibiotic used to treat severe bacterial infections and explored the impact of its subminimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) on the lipid membrane dynamics and morphological changes of E. coli. Upon investigation of live cell membrane properties such as lipid dynamics using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we observed that colistin disrupts the lipid membrane at sub-MIC by altering the lipid diffusivity. Interestingly, filamentationlike cell elongation was observed upon colistin treatment which led to further exploration of surface morphology with the help of atomic force spectroscopy. The changes in the surface roughness upon colistin treatment provides additional insight on the colistin-membrane interaction corroborating with the altered lipid diffusion. Although altered lipid dynamics could be attributed to an outcome of lipid rearrangement due to direct disruption by antibiotic molecules on the membrane or an indirect consequence of disruptions in lipid biosynthetic pathways, we were able to ascertain that altered bacterial membrane dynamics is due to direct disruptions. Our results provide a broad overview on the consequence of the cyclic polypeptide, colistin on membrane specific lipid dynamics and morphology of a live Gram-negative bacterial cell.

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 110
Dóra Kovács ◽  
Nikolett Palkovicsné Pézsa ◽  
Ákos Jerzsele ◽  
Miklós Süth ◽  
Orsolya Farkas

Intestinal epithelium provides the largest barrier protecting mammalian species from harmful external factors; however, it can be severely compromised by the presence of bacteria in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Antibiotics have been widely used for the prevention and treatment of GI bacterial infections, leading to antimicrobial resistance in human and veterinary medicine alike. In order to decrease antibiotic usage, natural substances, such as flavonoids, are investigated to be used as antibiotic alternatives. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are potential candidates for this purpose owing to their various beneficial effects in humans and animals. In this study, protective effects of grape seed oligomeric proanthocyanidins (GSOPs) were tested in IPEC-J2 porcine intestinal epithelial cells infected with Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium of swine origin. GSOPs were able to alleviate oxidative stress, inflammation and barrier integrity disruption inflicted by bacteria in the co-culture. Furthermore, GSOPs could decrease the adhesion of both bacteria to IPEC-J2 cells. Based on these observations, GSOPs seem to be promising candidates for the prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal bacterial infections.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 185
Davide Roncarati ◽  
Vincenzo Scarlato ◽  
Andrea Vannini

Since the discovery of penicillin in the first half of the last century, antibiotics have become the pillars of modern medicine for fighting bacterial infections. However, pathogens resistant to antibiotic treatment have increased in recent decades, and efforts to discover new antibiotics have decreased. As a result, it is becoming increasingly difficult to treat bacterial infections successfully, and we look forward to more significant efforts from both governments and the scientific community to research new antibacterial drugs. This perspective article highlights the high potential of bacterial transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulators as targets for developing new drugs. We highlight some recent advances in the search for new compounds that inhibit their biological activity and, as such, appear very promising for treating bacterial infections.

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 104
James V. Rogers ◽  
Veronica L. Hall ◽  
Charles C. McOsker

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a concerning global threat that, if not addressed, could lead to increases in morbidity and mortality, coupled with societal and financial burdens. The emergence of AMR bacteria can be attributed, in part, to the decreased development of new antibiotics, increased misuse and overuse of existing antibiotics, and inadequate treatment options for biofilms formed during bacterial infections. Biofilms are complex microbiomes enshrouded in a self-produced extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) that is a primary defense mechanism of the resident microorganisms against antimicrobial agents and the host immune system. In addition to the physical protective EPS barrier, biofilm-resident bacteria exhibit tolerance mechanisms enabling persistence and the establishment of recurrent infections. As current antibiotics and therapeutics are becoming less effective in combating AMR, new innovative technologies are needed to address the growing AMR threat. This perspective article highlights such a product, CMTX-101, a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets a universal component of bacterial biofilms, leading to pathogen-agnostic rapid biofilm collapse and engaging three modes of action—the sensitization of bacteria to antibiotics, host immune enablement, and the suppression of site-specific tissue inflammation. CMTX-101 is a new tool used to enhance the effectiveness of existing, relatively inexpensive first-line antibiotics to fight infections while promoting antimicrobial stewardship.

Toxins ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 58
Jonas Krämer ◽  
Tim Lüddecke ◽  
Michael Marner ◽  
Elena Maiworm ◽  
Johanna Eichberg ◽  

Linear cationic venom peptides are antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that exert their effects by damaging cell membranes. These peptides can be highly specific, and for some, a significant therapeutic value was proposed, in particular for treatment of bacterial infections. A prolific source of novel AMPs are arthropod venoms, especially those of hitherto neglected groups such as pseudoscorpions. In this study, we describe for the first time pharmacological effects of AMPs discovered in pseudoscorpion venom. We examined the antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and insecticidal activity of full-length Checacin1, a major component of the Chelifer cancroides venom, and three truncated forms of this peptide. The antimicrobial tests revealed a potent inhibitory activity of Checacin1 against several bacteria and fungi, including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and even Gram-negative pathogens. All peptides reduced survival rates of aphids, with Checacin1 and the C-terminally truncated Checacin11−21 exhibiting effects comparable to Spinosad, a commercially used pesticide. Cytotoxic effects on mammalian cells were observed mainly for the full-length Checacin1. All tested peptides might be potential candidates for developing lead structures for aphid pest treatment. However, as these peptides were not yet tested on other insects, aphid specificity has not been proven. The N- and C-terminal fragments of Checacin1 are less potent against aphids but exhibit no cytotoxicity on mammalian cells at the tested concentration of 100 µM.

2022 ◽  
Tina I Bui ◽  
Ann Lindley Gill ◽  
Robert A Mooney ◽  
Steven R Gill

Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen causing osteomyelitis through hematogenous seeding or contamination of implants and open wounds following orthopedic surgeries. The severity of S. aureus-mediated osteomyelitis is enhanced in obesity-related type 2 diabetes (obesity/T2D) due to chronic inflammation impairing both adaptive and innate immunity. Obesity-induced inflammation is linked to gut dysbiosis, with modification of the gut microbiota by high-fiber diets leading to a reduction in the symptoms and complications of obesity/T2D. However, our understanding of the mechanisms by which modifications of the gut microbiota alter host infection responses is limited. To address this gap, we monitored tibial S. aureus infections in obese/T2D mice treated with the inulin-like fructan fiber, oligofructose. Treatment with oligofructose significantly decreased S. aureus colonization and lowered proinflammatory signaling post-infection in obese/T2D mice, as observed by decreased circulating inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α) and chemokines (IP-10, KC, MIG, MCP-1, and RANTES), indicating partial reduction in inflammation. Oligofructose markedly shifted diversity in the gut microbiota of obese/T2D mice mice, with notable increases in the anti-inflammatory bacterium, Bifidobacterium pseudolongum. Analysis of the cecum and plasma metabolome suggested polyamine production was increased, specifically spermine and spermidine. Oral administration of these polyamines to obese/T2D mice resulted in reduced infection severity similar to oligofructose supplementation, suggesting polyamines can mediate the beneficial effects of fiber on osteomyelitis severity. These results demonstrate the contribution of gut microbiota metabolites to the control of bacterial infections distal to the gut and polyamines as an adjunct therapeutic for osteomyelitis in obesity/T2D.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 178
Magdalena Grochowska ◽  
Dominika Ambrożej ◽  
Aneta Wachnik ◽  
Urszula Demkow ◽  
Edyta Podsiadły ◽  

Since the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, many countries have introduced measures to limit the transmission. The data based on ICD-10 codes of lower respiratory tract infections and microbiological analysis of respiratory and gastrointestinal infections were collected. The retrospective five-year analysis of the medical records revealed a substantial decrease in respiratory tract infections during the pandemic year (from April 2020 to March 2021). We noted an 81% decline in the LRTI-associated hospital admissions based on the ICD-10 analysis (from a mean of 1170 admissions per year in the previous four years to 225 admissions between April 2020 through March 2021). According to microbiological analysis, there were 100%, 99%, 87%, and 47% drops in influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, rotavirus, and norovirus cases reported respectively during the pandemic season until April 2021 in comparison to pre-pandemic years. However, the prevalence of gastrointestinal bacterial infections was stable. Moreover, in August 2021, an unexpected rise in RSV-positive cases was observed. The measures applied during the COVID-19 pandemic turned out to be effective but also had a substantial contribution to the so-far stable epidemiological situation of seasonal infections.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Guochao Chen ◽  
Wanqiao Zhang ◽  
Lingbo Kong ◽  
Chengxiang Wang ◽  
Xiaojing Lai ◽  

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), a Gram-negative bacterium, has a high detection rate in hospital-acquired infections. Recently, the frequent appearance of multidrug-resistant (MDR) PA strain with high morbidity and mortality rates has aggravated the difficulty in treating infectious diseases. Due to its multiple resistance mechanisms, the commonly used antibiotics have gradually become less effective. Qiguiyin decoction (QGYD) is a clinically experienced prescription of Chinese herbal medicine, and its combined application with antibiotics has been confirmed to be effective in the clinical treatment of MDR PA infection, which could be a promising strategy for the treatment of drug-resistant bacterial infections. However, the mechanism of QGYD restoring antibiotics susceptibility to MDR PA remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of QGYD and levofloxacin (LEV) singly or in combination on MDR PA-induced pneumonia rat models. Further analysis was carried out in the serum differential expression profiles of inflammatory cytokines by cytokine antibody array. Besides, the lung TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway was detected by RT-qPCR. Our results showed that based on the treatment of MDR PA-infected rat model with LEV, the combination of QGYD improved the general state and immune organ index. Furthermore, it moderately increased the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the early stage of infection and decreased their release rapidly in the later stage, while regulated the same phase change of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. In addition, the adhesion molecule ICAM-1 was significantly downregulated after QGYD combined with LEV treatment. Moreover, the mRNA expressions of TLR4, MyD88, NF-κB, and ICAM-1 were significantly downregulated. These results indicated that the mechanism of QGYD restoring LEV susceptibility to MDR PA was related to its regulation of inflammatory cytokines and the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway, which provides theoretical support for the clinical application of QGYD combined with LEV therapy to MDR PA infection.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Nanxin Liu ◽  
Xiaoxiao Pang ◽  
Hua Zhang ◽  
Ping Ji

Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMP)-adenosine monophosphate (AMP) (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS), along with the adaptor stimulator of interferon genes (STING), are crucial components of the innate immune system, and their study has become a research hotspot in recent years. Many biochemical and structural studies that have collectively elucidated the mechanism of activation of the cGAS-STING pathway with atomic resolution have provided insights into the roles of the cGAS-STING pathway in innate immunity and clues to the origin and evolution of the modern cGAS-STING signaling pathway. The cGAS-STING pathway has been identified to protect the host against viral infection. After detecting viral dsDNA, cGAS synthesizes a second messenger to activate STING, eliciting antiviral immune responses by promoting the expression of interferons (IFNs) and hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). Recently, the cGAS-STING pathway has also been found to be involved in response to bacterial infections, including bacterial pneumonia, melioidosis, tuberculosis, and sepsis. However, compared with its functions in viral infection, the cGAS-STING signaling pathway in bacterial infection is more complex and diverse since the protective and detrimental effects of type I IFN (IFN-I) on the host depend on the bacterial species and infection mode. Besides, STING activation can also affect infection prognosis through other mechanisms in different bacterial infections, independent of the IFN-I response. Interestingly, the core protein components of the mammalian cGAS-STING signaling pathway have been found in the bacterial defense system, suggesting that this widespread signaling pathway may have originated in bacteria. Here, we review recent findings related to the structures of major molecules involved in the cGAS-STING pathway and the effects of the cGAS-STING pathway in various bacterial infections and bacterial immunity, which may pave the way for the development of new antibacterial drugs that specifically kill bacteria without harmful effects on the host.

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