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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
C. Chaimontri ◽  
S. Iamsaard

Abstract Although Dolichandrone serrulata flower (DSF) aqueous extract has been shown to possess pharmacological properties, its systemic toxicity has still to be evaluated. The present study aimed to investigate the sub-chronic toxicity effect of DSF extract on biochemical parameters and histological structures of liver, kidney, testis, and epididymis plus vas deferens. Adult male rats were administered DSF at 100, 300, and 600 mg/kgBW via oral gavage for 48 consecutive days while control rats received distilled water. At the end of the experiment, blood, liver, kidney, testis, and epididymis plus vas deferens samples were collected to determine any changes to serum biochemical components including ALT, ALP, and creatinine levels and histological structures. The results revealed no significant difference in body weight and food or water consumption between control and the DSF-treated groups. It was found that DSF significantly increases the weight of epididymis plus vas deferens, while the kidney and liver showed a decrease in the high dose group (P value < 0.05). Histological changes in these vital and reproductive tissues including fibrosis were not observed after administration but ALT, ALP, and creatinine levels were significantly altered in the treated groups (P value < 0.05). These altered levels, however, were still within normal ranges. In conclusion, these findings demonstrated that D. serrulata flower extract had no sub-chronic toxicity on vital and reproductive structures but slightly altered some liver and kidney functions.

Medicina ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 58 (1) ◽  
pp. 133
Domenico M. Romeo ◽  
Martina Ricci ◽  
Federica Mirra ◽  
Ilaria Venezia ◽  
Maria Mallardi ◽  

Background and Objectives: Preterm infants are at higher risk of neurodevelopmental impairment both at preschool and school ages, even in the absence of major neurological deficits. The early identification of children at risk is essential for early intervention with rehabilitation to optimize potential outcomes during school years. The aim of our study is to assess cognitive outcomes at preschool age in a cohort of low-risk very preterm infants, previously studied at 12 and 24 months using the Griffiths scales. Materials and Methods: Sixty-six low-risk very preterm infants born at a gestational age of <32 weeks were assessed at 12 and 24 months corrected age using the Griffiths Mental Development Scales (second edition) and at preschool age with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence (third edition) (WPPSI-III). Results: At 12 and 24 months and at preschool age, low-risk very preterm infants showed scores within normal ranges with similar scores in males and females. A statistically significant correlation was observed in the general developmental quotient between 12 and 24 months; a further significant correlation was observed between the early cognitive assessments and those performed at preschool age, with a better correlation using the assessments at 24 months. Conclusion: The present study showed a favourable trajectory of cognitive development in low-risk very preterm infants, from 12 months to preschool age.

Yayat Hidayat ◽  
Wahyu Purwakusuma ◽  
Sri Malahayati Yusuf ◽  
Latief Mahir Rachman ◽  
Enni Dwi Wahjunie ◽  

The research is aimed to analyze leachate, surface water and ground water characteristics around  Galuga landfill site, Bogor District. Water samples had been taken in dry season of 2014 and in the end of rainy season of 2015 from several sites in areas around Galuga landfills which included leachate water, surface water, and ground water.  Leachate, surface water and ground water had   temperature and pH in normal ranges; whereas nitrate and Pb contents were high to very high levels, especially in  site adjacent to waste piles. The concentrations decreased in line with increasing distance from waste piles. Higher content of nitrate in leachate occurred in dry season, but in well water it was found in rainy season. Meanwhile,  Pb content in well water were high, both in dry and rainy seasons. Concentrations of nitrate and Pb in leachate water were higher than wastewater quality standard, so that the leachate water were not safe to be discharged directly to natural water body. The high content of nitrate and Pb caused the well water unsuitable to be consumed without water treatment processing.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 514
Graciela Guerrero ◽  
Fernando José Mateus da Silva ◽  
Antonio Fernández-Caballero ◽  
António Pereira

Augmented humanity (AH) is a term that has been mentioned in several research papers. However, these papers differ in their definitions of AH. The number of publications dealing with the topic of AH is represented by a growing number of publications that increase over time, being high impact factor scientific contributions. However, this terminology is used without being formally defined. The aim of this paper is to carry out a systematic mapping review of the different existing definitions of AH and its possible application areas. Publications from 2009 to 2020 were searched in Scopus, IEEE and ACM databases, using search terms “augmented human”, ”human augmentation” and “human 2.0”. Of the 16,914 initially obtained publications, a final number of 133 was finally selected. The mapping results show a growing focus on works based on AH, with computer vision being the index term with the highest number of published articles. Other index terms are wearable computing, augmented reality, human–robot interaction, smart devices and mixed reality. In the different domains where AH is present, there are works in computer science, engineering, robotics, automation and control systems and telecommunications. This review demonstrates that it is necessary to formalize the definition of AH and also the areas of work with greater openness to the use of such concept. This is why the following definition is proposed: “Augmented humanity is a human–computer integration technology that proposes to improve capacity and productivity by changing or increasing the normal ranges of human function through the restoration or extension of human physical, intellectual and social capabilities.”

Amelie Isabell Stritzke ◽  
Rana Ismail ◽  
Sarah Rose ◽  
Andrew Lyon ◽  
Tanis Fenton

Objectives: Guidelines recommend preterm infants be supported to maintain their serum electrolytes within “normal” ranges. In term babies, cord blood values differed in pathological pregnancies from healthy ones. Study design: We examined cord blood sodium, chloride, potassium, glucose, and creatinine to derive maturity-related reference intervals. We examined associations with gestational age, delivery mode, singleton versus multiple, and prenatal maternal adverse conditions. We compared preterm cord values to term, and to adult reference ranges. Results: There were 591 infants, 537 preterm and 54 term. Preterm cord glucose levels were steady (3.7+/-1.1mmol/l), while sodium, chloride and creatinine increased over GA by 0.17, 0.14 and 1.07 micromol/week respectively (p<0.003). Average preterm cord potassium and chloride were higher than term (p<0.05). Compared to adult reference intervals, cord preterm reference intervals were higher for chloride (100-111 vs 98-106 mmol/l), lower for creatinine (29-84 vs 62-115 micromol/l), more variable for potassium (2.7-7.9 vs. 3.5-5.0 mmol/l) and sodium (130-141 vs. 136-145 mmol/l). Cesarean section was associated with higher potassium and lower glucose; multiple births with higher chloride and creatinine and lower glucose; SGA with lower glucose. Conclusions: Cord blood values vary across the GA range with increases in sodium, chloride and creatinine while glucose remained steady. Average preterm reference values were higher than term values for potassium and chloride. Preterm reference values differed from published adults’ reference values. The varies across GA and by delivery mode, SGA, and being a multiple, which may have direct implications for neonatal care and fluid management.

Mihok Tomáš ◽  
Bujňák Lukáš ◽  
Hreško Šamudovská Alena ◽  
Maskaľová Iveta ◽  
František Zigo

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding dairy cows in different stages of reproductive cycle on biochemical parameters and oxidative stress. To evaluate the effect of oxidative stress on lipids and lipid metabolism and to determine the impact of nutrition and energy balance on oxidative stress in peripartum period and in early lactation. Concentrations of different biochemical parameters were measured but for this paper the most important ones were indicators of oxidative stress, cholesterol and triglycerides and also albumin. Factors associated with oxidative stress were period 3 weeks before calving and related to that negative energy balance and also content of nonfiber carbohydrates in the diet in peripartum period. However, further studies will be needed to more precisely determine the specific effects of diet and energy balance on oxidative stress in cows and to establish normal ranges for these biomarkers of oxidative stress.

Healthcare ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 47
Jae-Gyeong Jeong ◽  
Seock Hwan Choi ◽  
Ae-Ryoung Kim ◽  
Jong-Moon Hwang

Background: Rhabdomyolysis is a clinical symptom caused by the rapid release of intracellular components such as myoglobin, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase into the blood circulation. It is commonly caused by muscular injury including compartment syndrome, infection, drugs, etc. Although it rarely occurs during surgery, the incidence may increase if risk factors such as long operation time, improper posture, and condition of being overweight exist. Case Presentation: A 46-year-old male patient complained of pain and weakness in the right hip area and several abnormal findings were observed in the blood sample, reflecting muscle injury and decreased renal function after prolonged urological surgery. He was confirmed as having rhabdomyolysis, which was caused by compartment syndrome of the right gluteal muscle. After the diagnosis, conservative cares were performed in the acute phase and rehabilitation treatments were performed in the chronic phase. After conservative treatment and rehabilitation, blood sample values returned to almost normal ranges and both level of pain and muscle strength were significantly improved. In addition, about 25 days after discharge, he almost recovered to pre-operative condition. Conclusion: Careful attention is required to prevent intraoperative compartment syndrome. It also suggests that not only medical treatment but also early patient-specific rehabilitation is important in patients with rhabdomyolysis after prolonged surgery.

Nežka Hribernik ◽  
Daniel T Huff ◽  
Andrej Studen ◽  
Katarina Zevnik ◽  
Žan Klaneček ◽  

Abstract Purpose To develop quantitative molecular imaging biomarkers of immune-related adverse event (irAE) development in malignant melanoma (MM) patients receiving immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) imaged with 18F-FDG PET/CT. Methods 18F-FDG PET/CT images of 58 MM patients treated with anti-PD-1 or anti-CTLA-4 ICI were retrospectively analyzed for indication of irAE. Three target organs, most commonly affected by irAE, were considered: bowel, lung, and thyroid. Patient charts were reviewed to identify which patients experienced irAE, irAE grade, and time to irAE diagnosis. Target organs were segmented using a convolutional neural network (CNN), and novel quantitative imaging biomarkers — SUV percentiles (SUVX%) of 18F-FDG uptake within the target organs — were correlated with the clinical irAE status. Area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was used to quantify irAE detection performance. Patients who did not experience irAE were used to establish normal ranges for target organ 18F-FDG uptake. Results A total of 31% (18/58) patients experienced irAE in the three target organs: bowel (n=6), lung (n=5), and thyroid (n=9). Optimal percentiles for identifying irAE were bowel (SUV95%, AUROC=0.79), lung (SUV95%, AUROC=0.98), and thyroid (SUV75%, AUROC=0.88). Optimal cut-offs for irAE detection were bowel (SUV95%>2.7 g/mL), lung (SUV95%>1.7 g/mL), and thyroid (SUV75%>2.1 g/mL). Normal ranges (95% confidence interval) for the SUV percentiles in patients without irAE were bowel [1.74, 2.86 g/mL], lung [0.73, 1.46 g/mL], and thyroid [0.86, 1.99 g/mL]. Conclusions Increased 18F-FDG uptake within irAE-affected organs provides predictive information about the development of irAE in MM patients receiving ICI and represents a potential quantitative imaging biomarker for irAE. Some irAE can be detected on 18F-FDG PET/CT well before clinical symptoms appear.

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