high positive correlation
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 341-349
Ajmery Sultana Chowdhury

Background: Oxygen saturation measures the quantity of haemoglobin in the blood that is saturated with oxygen. Hemoglobin is a component of red blood cells that binds oxygen and transports it to outlying tissues. Oxygen is commonly used throughout the world in neonatal units. Injudicious use of Oxygen may not maintain appropriate oxygen status rather can lead to hypoxemia or hyperoxemia, both of the conditions are injurious to neonatal health. Objective: To assess the oxygen saturation in neonate after birth.Methods:A cross-sectional study conducted in the Department of Neonatology BSMMU, Shahbag, Dhaka, Lab Aid Specialized Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh from October 2013 to March 2014. A total 317 patients were selected according to selection criteria. The parents were interviewed with a specific pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire and some information were gathered by document review. All neonate both term and late preterm (˃34weeks) who would not be anticipated for resuscitation was included.Results:A total 317 neonate were selected according to selection criteria. Among the study subjects more than half were male (57.1%). Rests were female (42.9%). Average gestational age of the study subjects was 37.47± 1.16 (SD) with the range of 34-40. On the other hand average birth weight was 2.88±0.46 (SD) with the minimum birth weight 2.0 kg and maximum weight 4.2 kg. Illustrates the median (IQR) heart rate from one to ten min for preterm versus term births. At one to three minutes and at five minutes after birth preterm infants had significantly lower SpO2 measurements. From six to 10 minutes after birth and four minutes after birth there was no significant difference between SpO2 measurements for mode of delivery. Paired sample t test showed that average SpO2 was less in 1 minute[88.42±4.8(SD)] than in 5 minute [94.25±3.5(SD)] and statistically this differences were highly significant (t=24.44, p=0.000). Pearson correlation showed high positive correlation (p=0.000) and correlation co-efficient r=0.479. Correlation was significant at the 0.01 level.Conclusion:It is “normal” to have low oxygen saturation measurements in the first minutes after birth. It takes time for infants to reach oxygen saturation levels described as “normal” in the later postnatal period. Oxygen saturation increased with time i.e., it was more in 5 minutes than in 1 minute and similarly more in 10 minutes than in 5 minutes. Conversely heart rate was found more in one minute than to five and ten minutes. Oxygen saturation was ≥ 90% within 3 to 4 minutes. Significant changes were found in Oxygen saturation by mode of delivery in three minutes & in heart rate by two minutes after birth. At one to ten minutes after birth preterm infants had lower SpO2 measurements.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Tengfei Zhou ◽  
Yaoqi Zhou ◽  
Hanjie Zhao ◽  
Manjie Li ◽  
Hongyu Mu

A suite of source rock consists of mudstone and shale, with great thickness and continuous deposition was found in the well LK-1 in Lingshan island in Ri-Qing-Wei basin. In order to evaluate the hydrocarbon generation prospects of these source rock and find the mechanism of organic matter enrichment, shale samples were selected from the core for TOC (total organic carbon) and element geochemistry analysis. The results show that organic matter abundance of the source rocks are generally high with average TOC content of 1.26 wt%, suggesting they are good source rocks. The geochemical features show that the sedimentary environment is mostly anoxic brackish water to salt water environment with arid to semiarid climate condition. The enrichment mechanism of organic matter varied with the evolution of the basin, which was divided into three stages according to the sedimentary characteristics. In the initial-middle period of rifting evolution (stage 1 and early stage 2), paleoproductivity is the major factor of OM-enrichment reflecting by high positive correlation between the TOC contents and paleoproductivity proxies. While with the evolution of the rift basin, redox condition and terrigenous clastic input became more and more important until they became the major factor of OM enrichment in the middle stage of rift evolution (stage 2). In the later stage of rift evolution (latest stage 2 and stage 3), besides terrigenous clastic input, the effect of paleoclimate on OM-enrichment increased gradually from a minor factor to a major factor.

2022 ◽  
Xiaoxiao Zhou ◽  
Yan Wang ◽  
Jing Yu ◽  
Yujie Liu ◽  
Shousheng Xu

BACKGROUND - OBJECTIVE To explore and discuss the influences on 7~9-year-old children’s physical activity and cardiopulmonary endurance. METHODS Recruiting 1st and 2nd-grade elementary school students and their parents at an elementary school in Changping District, Beijing. The study made an investigation of PA level, economic and educational status on the subject families, and the other main contents including medical history and family history. The PA data of the parents were measured by the ActiGraph GT3X + accelerometer (Actigraph, Pensacola, FL, USA), and the children’s PA data were obtained by the revised PAQ-A. 50m*8 shuttle run were carried out to test the children’s cardiopulmonary endurance. RESULTS 36 families were recruited and completed the examination. There was a significant difference in the children’ PA scores between sPAf(PA sufficient family) (3.02±0.53) and iPAf(PA insufficient family) (2.61±0.58)(P<0.05), and the BMI of the two groups (15.63±1.95 vs17.77±3.67) showed great difference(P<0.01). The child from sPAf had better cardiopulmonary endurance than those from iPAf. The parent of high income, a high educational background had higher moderate to vigorous PA, and so did their child. There was a high positive correlation of the sedentary time and light PA every day of the husband and wife in a family. CONCLUSIONS The influence factors that affected the 7~9-year-old children’s PA level and cardiopulmonary endurance included their parent’s PA level, economic income, educational background, especially the mother’s PA played a prominent part. The study found there existed interaction of respective PA levels inside the couple.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Qibao Liu ◽  
Libei Li ◽  
Zhen Feng ◽  
Shuxun Yu

Senescence in plants is a complex trait, which is controlled by both genetic and environmental factors and can affect the yield and quality of cotton. However, the genetic basis of cotton senescence remains relatively unknown. In this study, we reported genome-wide association studies (GWAS) based on 185 accessions of upland cotton and 26,999 high-quality single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to reveal the genetic basis of cotton senescence. To determine cotton senescence, we evaluated eight traits/indices. Our results revealed a high positive correlation (r&gt;0.5) among SPAD value 20 days after topping (SPAD20d), relative difference of SPAD (RSPAD), nodes above white flower on topping day (NAWF0d), nodes above white flower 7 days after topping (NAWF7d), and number of open bolls on the upper four branches (NB), and genetic analysis revealed that all traits had medium or high heritability ranging from 0.53 to 0.86. Based on a multi-locus method (FASTmrMLM), a total of 63 stable and significant quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) were detected, which represented 50 genomic regions (GWAS risk loci) associated with cotton senescence. We observed three reliable loci located on chromosomes A02 (A02_105891088_107196428), D03 (D03_37952328_38393621) and D13 (D13_59408561_60730103) because of their high repeatability. One candidate gene (Ghir_D03G011060) was found in the locus D03_37952328_38393621, and its Arabidopsis thaliana homologous gene (AT5G23040) encodes a cell growth defect factor-like protein (CDF1), which might be involved in chlorophyll synthesis and cell death. Moreover, qRT-PCR showed that the transcript level of Ghir_D03G011060 was down-regulated in old cotton leaves, and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) indicated that silencing of Ghir_D03G011060 resulted in leaf chlorosis and promoted leaf senescence. In addition, two candidate genes (Ghir_A02G017660 and Ghir_D13G021720) were identified in loci A02_105891088_107196428 and D13_59408561_60730103, respectively. These results provide new insights into the genetic basis of cotton senescence and will serve as an important reference for the development and implementation of strategies to prevent premature senescence in cotton breeding programs.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Jucilene Cavali ◽  
Beatriz Andrade Nóbrega ◽  
Jerônimo Vieira Dantas Filho ◽  
Elvino Ferreira ◽  
Marlos Oliveira Porto ◽  

For the Amazon, it is important to encourage the production of native fish, since there are several species of zootechnical interest. For this, it is necessary to know the species since its acquisition, production, processing, and marketing. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the yield, correlations, and profitability of different cuts of black pacu (Colossoma macropomum) in five weight categories. Data from 220 black pacus were obtained, with a weight range of 2725 ± 1975 g. Yields of commercial cuts and morphometric measurements were evaluated in five weight classes. Kruskal–Wallis test (α = 0.05) was used to compare the average income. And, to verify the correlation between the morphometric measures and the yields, Spearman’s correlation was performed (α = 0.05). To obtain the profit of the weight classes due to the cut produced, an economic analysis was carried out considering the cost of buying the fish. Yields of fillet, ribs, and steak were higher in classes 3 and 4, while in the same classes, the yield of residues was the lowest. Despite classes 1, 2, and 5 showing lower yields, the economic analysis presented that the production of fillet and ribs was profitable. The measures of total length and standard length have a high positive correlation with the yield of meat in all classes, as well as the average circumference and caudal circumference in classes 1, 2, and 4, which can be used to determine the yields of this commercial cut.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 79-87
Binta Dansoko ◽  
Souleymane Sidi Traore

The study analyses the Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) dynamics as an important environmental factor and links it to migration trends towards the study area. The work uses data collected across two (2) villages, both located in the Dano watershed. Three sets of 30-m Landsat images were used to measure the changes in LULC types for the years 1986, 1999 and 2014. Cumulatively focus group discussion and household interview were employed for socio-economic data collection. Census data for the periods 1987, 1996 and 2006 were also collected from the national census reports. LULC analysis revealed that vegetation area was progressively converted into croplands with an annual rate of 0.92% during the period of study. Pearson correlation analysis between population and cropland on one hand and population and vegetation on the second hand revealed a high positive correlation between population size and cropland (r = 0.99), while there was a high negative correlation between population size and vegetation (r = 0.96). The survey of 180 farmers revealed a diversity of questions about environmental change on their livelihood. Most 78% of farmers believe that deforestation is the main driver of environmental change as a result of the decrease of rainfall and strong wind. Many strategies are used by local communities as a response to environmental changes and migration is seen by 31% of the respondents as a common strategy used by the affected communities. These results from the study showed that migration is one of the major local responses to environmental change.

2021 ◽  
Vol 52 (6) ◽  
pp. 1541-1548
H. K. Khrbeet

A field experiment was conducted at the experimental fields in the collage of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad, Iraq during the period from mid. March 2019 to to end of July 2020. The main objective was to find out the effect of humic acid (HA) concentration (0, 1, 2 and 3 cm3.L-1) and three stages of foliar application (vegetative, growth, flowers buds emergence and 50% flowering) on seeds yield and its components of alfalfa local variety. Layout of the experiment was R.C.B.D arranged in split-plot, with three replications. Foliar application stages were used as main-plots, while humic acid concentrations were used as sub-plots. Results showed that spraying of HA at conc. 3 cm3.L-1 resulted in a significant increment in number of florets per raceme and number of pods per raceme, in contrast, % of florets abortion in and 1000 seeds weight were not significantly influenced by HA conc. and spraying stages. Highest number of the stems.m-2, number of racemes per stem, seed set and seeds yield (441.0) Kg.ha-1 were obtained from plants sprayed with HA at conc. 3 cm3.L-1. Plants sprayed at vegetative growth produce highest number of stems.m-2 number of raceme per stem, number of seeds per pod and seeds yield (423.6) Kg.ha-1. There was high positive correlation between seeds yield and each of, number of stems.m-2, number of pods per raceme and number of raceme per stem (+0.88**, +0.70** and +0.82**) respectively. There was a significant interaction between HA concentration and spraying stages on seeds yield. The higher seeds yield (485.) Kg.ha-1 was obtained when alfalfa plants were sprayed with HA at the conc. of 2 cm3.L-1 in vegetative growth.

2021 ◽  
Vol 62 (3) ◽  
pp. 391-402
R.P. SAMUI ◽  
G. JOHN ◽  

Evaporation, rainfall and meteorological data for the period 1971-2004 for 58 well distributed stations over India were selected for the study. Trends of evaporation and rainfall in five regions, viz., Northwest, North, Northeast, Central and Peninsular regions of India during different crop growing seasons, viz., kharif, rabi and summer and the meteorological factors contributing towards the trend were analyzed. Annual evaporation shows decreasing trend in all the regions of the country. Trends in seasonal evaporation during kharif, rabi and summer seasons also showed decreasing trends in Northwest, North, Central and Peninsular regions of the country while few locations in Northeast India, viz., Guwahati, Dibrugarh and Tocklai showed significant increasing trend in evaporation during kharif and rabi seasons. No significant trend in annual and seasonal rainfall was observed in Indian region except a few stations in peninsular India where increasing trend was observed. Normalized anomalies of maximum temperature, relative humidity and vapour pressure showed increasing trend in Northwest and Northern regions during all the three crop growing seasons while decreasing trend or no trend in wind velocity was observed in all the regions except in central region where increasing trend was observed during summer season. As evaporation relates to the meteorological elements, viz., temperature, sunshine duration, wind velocity and relative humidity, the likely causative meteorological factors for such changes are studied. Increasing trends in maximum temperature was observed in central and peninsular inland regions of the country during rabi and summer seasons while slight decreasing trends were observed in the Northeast region during kharif season. High positive correlation found between maximum temperature and wind velocity indicates that the trend in evaporation is mostly influenced by these two factors. Increase in humidity and decrease in bright sunshine hours were both important and found correlated with the decrease in evaporation.

Subhash Bijarania ◽  
Anil Pandey ◽  
Ashutosh Kumar ◽  
Monika Shahani ◽  
Digvijay Singh ◽  

A study was conducted with an aim to understand character association and cause-effect relationship in Randomized Complete Block Design accommodating 30 genotypes randomly in three replicates. These genotypes evaluated for twenty-seven traits: five phenological, nine agro-morphological, eight physiological traits (from field trial) and five physiological traits (from laboratory experiment) recorded and subjected to statistical and biometrical analyses. Positive association of flowering traits (days to tubercles formation→ days to flower budding→ days to first flowering→ days to cessation) and uncorrelated with days to physiological maturity can be precisely utilized in selection. Late physiological maturity increases seedling dry weight, plant height, clusters and seeds per pod while reduces leaf area index, seed weight and dry matter efficiency. With an increase in primary branches corresponding more secondary branches, cluster/plant, seed weight and effective rainfall use efficiency noticed. Effective rainfall use efficiency positively correlated with primary branches, secondary branches, clusters/plant, germination relative index, seedling length, harvest index. Towards polygenic complex trait seed yield per plant had high positive correlation and highest positive direct effect of effective rainfall use efficiency and vigor index I considered as selection criteria.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (23) ◽  
pp. 13468
Sunil Tiwari ◽  
Natalia Tomczewska-Popowycz ◽  
Shiv Kumar Gupta ◽  
Magdalena Petronella Swart

Satisfaction of local residents is one of the key factors in responsible and sustainable tourism development. It helps tourism planners and policymakers in effective and strategic utilization of tourism resources. The present study investigates local residents’ satisfaction level toward sustainable tourism development through economic, socio-cultural, and environmental development. In order to achieve the goal of the study, one-sample t-test, regression analysis, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) were performed. The findings of the study have suggested that local residents have a different level of satisfaction towards overall sustainable development and economic, socio-cultural, and environmental development in the study area. It was also observed that there is a high positive correlation among economic, socio-cultural, and environmental developments, and these developments significantly impact sustainable tourism development.

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