extremely preterm
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2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Samantha Griffin ◽  
Jo Watt ◽  
Sophie Wedekind ◽  
Solange Bramer ◽  
Yasmin Hazemi-Jebelli ◽  

Abstract Background Although breastfeeding is widely acknowledged as protecting both infant and maternal health postnatally, a partial or complete shortfall of maternal milk can occur for a range of reasons. In this eventuality, the currently available options for feeding infants are screened donor human milk (DHM), infant formula or unscreened shared human milk. In the UK, DHM has only been widely available in specific clinical contexts for the last 40 years, mainly to reduce the risk of necrotising enterocolitis in extremely preterm infants alongside optimal support for maternal lactation and breastfeeding. The Hearts Milk Bank (HMB) was established in 2017 as an independent, non-profit human milk bank that aimed to ensure equitable, assured access to screened DHM for neonatal units. As a result of the generosity of mothers, a surplus of DHM rapidly became available and together with lactation support, has since been provided to families with a healthcare referral. This programme has now been formalised for families facing lactational challenges, and DHM stocks are permanently maintained to meet their needs. Case series This case series describes the clinical paths of four families who accessed lactation support and DHM from the HMB, along with a description of the process for community provision. To date, the HMB has supported over 300 families. Working collaboratively with key stakeholders, the HMB team has developed a prioritisation strategy based on utilitarian ethical models, protocols that ensure safe handling and appropriateness of use, broader donor recruitment parameters that maintain safety with a pragmatic approach for full term healthy infants, and a process to ensure parents or carers have access to the knowledge needed to give informed consent and use DHM appropriately. Conclusions Stakeholders, including parents, healthcare professionals, and milk banks, will need to discuss priorities for both DHM use and research gaps that can underpin the equitable expansion of services, in partnership with National Health Service (NHS) teams and third-sector organisations that support breastfeeding and maternal mental health.

Asma Al-Turkait ◽  
Lisa Szatkowski ◽  
Imti Choonara ◽  
Shalini Ojha

Abstract Purpose To describe drug utilisation patterns in neonatal units. Methods Retrospective observational cohort study using data held in the National Neonatal Research Database (NNRD) for neonatal units in England and Wales including infants born at 23 to 44 weeks’ gestational age (GA) from 01 January 2010 to 31 December 2017. Results The cohort included 17,501 (3%) extremely preterm infants; 40,607 (7%) very preterm infants; 193,536 (31%) moderate-to-late preterm infants; and 371,606 (59%) term infants. The number of unique drugs received by an infant (median (IQR)) increased with decreasing GA: 17 (11–24) in extremely preterm, 7 (5–11) in very preterm, 3 (0–4) in moderate-to-late preterm, and 3 (0–3) in term infants. The two most frequently prescribed drugs were benzylpenicillin and gentamicin in all GA groups, and caffeine in extremely preterm. Other frequently used drugs among preterm infants were electrolytes, diuretics and anti-reflux medications. Among infants <32 weeks’ GA, the largest increase in use was for surfactant (given on the neonatal unit), caffeine and probiotics, while domperidone and ranitidine had the largest decline. Conclusion Antibiotics, for all GAs and caffeine, among preterm infants, are the most frequently used drugs in neonatal medicine. Preterm infants are exposed to a high burden of drugs, particularly antibiotics. Changing patterns in use reflect the emergence of evidence in some areas but several non-evidence-based drugs continue to be used widely. Improvements are needed to ensure rational drug use on neonatal units. Registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03773289). Date of registration 21 Dec 2018.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-22
Jayne Trickett ◽  
Marialivia Bernardi ◽  
Amanda Fahy ◽  
Rebecca Lancaster ◽  
Jennifer Larsen ◽  

2022 ◽  
Thomas Edwards ◽  
Christopher T Williams ◽  
Macrine Olwala ◽  
Pauline Andang'o ◽  
Walter Otenio ◽  

Objectives Neonatal sepsis, a major cause of death amongst infants in sub-Saharan Africa, is often gut derived. Impairments in immunity and the gut barrier in sick neonates allow colonisation by opportunistic pathogens such as Enterobacteriaceae to progress to blood stream infection. Colonisation by Enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) or carbapenemase enzymes is particularly problematic and can lead to antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) or untreatable infections. We sought to explore the rates of colonisation by ESBL or carbapenemase producers and their genotypes in two neonatal units (NNUs) in West and East Africa. Methods Stool and rectal swab samples were taken at multiple timepoints from newborns admitted to the NNUs at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria and the Jaramogi Oginga Odinga Teaching and Referral Hospital, Kisumu, western Kenya. Samples were tested for ESBL and carbapenemase genes using a previously validated qPCR assay with high resolution melt analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to examine colonisation rates at both sites. Results A total of 119 stool and rectal swab samples were taken from 42 infants admitted to the two NNUs. Six (14.3%) infants were extremely preterm (gestation <28 weeks), 19 (45.2%) were born by Caesarean section and 3 (8.6%) mothers were HIV positive. Median (IQR) duration of admission was 12.5 (5-26) days and 12 (28.6%) infants died. Overall, colonisation with ESBL (37 infants, 89%) was more common than with carbapenemase producers (26, 62.4%; P = 0.093). Median survival time before colonisation with ESBL organisms was 7 days and with carbapenemase producers 16 days (P=0.035). The majority of ESBL genes detected belonged to the CTX-M-1 (36/38; 95%), and CTX-M-9 (2/36; 5%) groups. The most prevalent carbapenemase was blaNDM (27/29, 93%). Single blaVIM (1/32, 3%) and blaOXA-48 genes (1/32, 3%) were also detected. Conclusions Gut colonisation of neonates by AMR organisms was common and occurred rapidly in NNUs in Kenya and Nigeria. Active surveillance of colonisation will improve the understanding of AMR in these settings and guide infection control and antibiotic prescribing practice to improve clinical outcomes.

Tone Nordvik ◽  
Eva M. Schumacher ◽  
Pål G. Larsson ◽  
Are H. Pripp ◽  
Gro C. Løhaugen ◽  

Abstract Background Evidence regarding the predictive value of early amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG)/EEG on neurodevelopmental outcomes at school age and beyond is lacking. We  aimed to investigate whether there is an association between early postnatal EEG and neurocognitive outcomes in late childhood. Methods This study is an observational prospective cohort study of premature infants with a gestational age <28 weeks. The total absolute band powers (tABP) of the delta, theta, alpha, and beta bands were analyzed from EEG recordings during the first three days of life. At 10–12 years of age, neurocognitive outcomes were assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children 4th edition (WISC-IV), Vineland adaptive behavior scales 2nd edition, and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The mean differences in tABP were assessed for individuals with normal versus unfavorable neurocognitive scores. Results Twenty-two infants were included. tABP values in all four frequency bands were significantly lower in infants with unfavorable results in the main composite scores (full intelligence quotient, adaptive behavior composite score, and global executive composite score) on all three tests (p < 0.05). Conclusions Early postnatal EEG has the potential to assist in predicting cognitive outcomes at 10–12 years of age in extremely premature infants <28 weeks’ gestation. Impact Evidence regarding the value of early postnatal EEG in long-term prognostication in preterm infants is limited. Our study suggests that early EEG spectral analysis correlates with neurocognitive outcomes in late childhood in extremely preterm infants. Early identification of infants at-risk of later impairment is important to initiate early and targeted follow-up and intervention.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Tricia J. Johnson ◽  
Paula P. Meier ◽  
Michael E. Schoeny ◽  
Amelia Bucek ◽  
Judy E. Janes ◽  

Abstract Background Black very low birth weight (VLBW; < 1500 g birth weight) and very preterm (VP, < 32 weeks gestational age, inclusive of extremely preterm, < 28 weeks gestational age) infants are significantly less likely than other VLBW and VP infants to receive mother’s own milk (MOM) through to discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The costs associated with adhering to pumping maternal breast milk are borne by mothers and contribute to this disparity. This randomized controlled trial tests the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an intervention to offset maternal costs associated with pumping. Methods This randomized control trial will enroll 284 mothers and their VP infants to test an intervention (NICU acquires MOM) developed to facilitate maternal adherence to breast pump use by offsetting maternal costs that serve as barriers to sustaining MOM feedings and the receipt of MOM at NICU discharge. Compared to current standard of care (mother provides MOM), the intervention bundle includes three components: a) free hospital-grade electric breast pump, b) pickup of MOM, and c) payment for opportunity costs. The primary outcome is infant receipt of MOM at the time of NICU discharge, and secondary outcomes include infant receipt of any MOM during the NICU hospitalization, duration of MOM feedings (days), and cumulative dose of MOM feedings (total mL/kg of MOM) received by the infant during the NICU hospitalization; maternal duration of MOM pumping (days) and volume of MOM pumped (mLs); and total cost of NICU care. Additionally, we will compare the cost of the NICU acquiring MOM versus NICU acquiring donor human milk if MOM is not available and the cost-effectiveness of the intervention (NICU acquires MOM) versus standard of care (mother provides MOM). Discussion This trial will determine the effectiveness of an economic intervention that transfers the costs of feeding VLBWand VP infants from mothers to the NICU to address the disparity in the receipt of MOM feedings at NICU discharge by Black infants. The cost-effectiveness analysis will provide data that inform the adoption and scalability of this intervention. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04540575, registered September 7, 2020.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Mette Engan ◽  
Merete S. Engeset ◽  
Lorentz Sandvik ◽  
Ole C. O. Gamlemshaug ◽  
Ingvild Ø. Engesæter ◽  

Background: Left vocal cord paralysis (LVCP) is a known complication of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) surgery in extremely preterm (EP) born neonates; however, consequences of LVCP beyond the first year of life are insufficiently described. Both voice problems and breathing difficulties during physical activity could be expected with an impaired laryngeal inlet. More knowledge may improve the follow-up of EP-born subjects who underwent PDA surgery and prevent confusion between LVCP and other diagnoses.Objectives: Examine the prevalence of LVCP in a nationwide cohort of adults born EP with a history of PDA surgery, and compare symptoms, lung function, and exercise capacity between groups with and without LVCP, and vs. controls born EP and at term.Methods: Adults born EP (&lt;28 weeks' gestation or birth weight &lt;1,000 g) in Norway during 1999–2000 who underwent neonatal PDA surgery and controls born EP and at term were invited to complete questionnaires mapping voice-and respiratory symptoms, and to perform spirometry and maximal treadmill exercise testing. In the PDA-surgery group, exercise tests were performed with a laryngoscope positioned to evaluate laryngeal function.Results: Thirty out of 48 (63%) eligible PDA-surgery subjects were examined at mean (standard deviation) age 19.4 (0.8) years, sixteen (53%) had LVCP. LVCP was associated with self-reported voice symptoms and laryngeal obstruction during exercise, not with lung function or peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak). In the PDA-surgery group, forced expiratory volume in 1 second z-score (z-FEV1) was reduced compared to EP-born controls (n = 30) and term-born controls (n = 36); mean (95% confidence interval) z-FEV1 was −1.8 (−2.3, −1.2), −0.7 (−1.1, −0.3) and −0.3 (−0.5, −0.0), respectively. For VO2peak, corresponding figures were 37.5 (34.9, 40.2), 38.1 (35.1, 41.1), and 43.6 (41.0, 46.5) ml/kg/min, respectively.Conclusions: LVCP was common in EP-born young adults who had undergone neonatal PDA surgery. Within the PDA-surgery group, LVCP was associated with self-reported voice symptoms and laryngeal obstruction during exercise, however we did not find an association with lung function or exercise capacity. Overall, the PDA-surgery group had reduced lung function compared to EP-born and term-born controls, whereas exercise capacity was similarly reduced for both the PDA-surgery and EP-born control groups when compared to term-born controls.

2021 ◽  
Parisut Kimkool ◽  
Shirley Huang ◽  
Deanna Gibbs ◽  
Jayanta Banerjee ◽  
Aniko Deierl

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