airway pressure
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 641-646
Minna Wu ◽  
Bo Xu

We aimed to explore the efficacy of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation combined with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) for treating severe acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). SD rat AECOPD model was established by injecting endotoxin and Staphylococcus aureus and then treated with nCPAP, BMSCs, or nCPAP combined with BMSCs (n = 20) and their conditions were evaluated with BBB score at 1 d, 3 d, 7 d, 14 d, 28 d after treatment along with analysis of apoptosis and BrdU-positive cells as well as NF200 expression by TUNEL kit staining and levels of Th1, Th7 and Th12 before and after treatment. As revealed by BBB score and HE staining, all treatments significantly alleviated the symptom of severe APEOPD (p < 0.05), while compared with nCPAP, the combined treatment exhibited higher efficacy. Besides, upon treatment, apoptosis and level of Th1, Th7 and Th12 was reduced but N200 absorbance value was elevated, with significant difference in combination group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, BMSC transplantation in combination with nCPAP alleviates severe AECOPD by reducing cell apoptosis, repairing cell damage, and regulating T-cell subsets.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 307
Tzu-Pei Wang ◽  
Hsin-Hsien Li ◽  
Hui-Ling Lin

Accumulated secretion above the endotracheal tube cuff can be aspirated during extubation after deflation. The possible techniques for minimizing pulmonary aspiration from subglottic secretion during extubation have not been well explored. This study aimed to determine the effect of different extubation techniques on secretion leakage. An endotracheal tube was placed in a tube mimicking an airway. We measured the leak volume of water or artificial sputum of different viscosities with three extubation techniques—negative pressure with suctioning; positive pressure with a resuscitator; and continuous positive airway pressure set at 5, 10, and 20 cm H2O. Extubation with continuous positive airway pressure resulted in lower secretion leakage than that with negative pressure with suctioning and positive pressure with a resuscitator. Increasing the continuous positive airway pressure level decreased secretion leakage volume during extubation. We further determined a correlation of leak volume with sputum viscosity. Continuous positive airway pressure at 5 cm H2O produced lower volume secretion leakage than the other two techniques, even with higher secretion viscosity. Based on these results, using continuous positive airway pressure with a previous ventilator continuous positive airway pressure/positive end-expiratory pressure setting for extubation is recommended.

2022 ◽  
Laura Sanapo ◽  
Margaret H Bublitz ◽  
Alice Bai ◽  
Niharika Mehta ◽  
Geralyn M Messerlian ◽  

Abstract Study Objectives To examine the association between maternal sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and glucose metabolism in early gestation. Methods Women with body mass index (BMI) ≥27 kg/m2 and singleton pregnancies underwent in-home sleep study (HSAT) and homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) in early pregnancy. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and β-cell function (HOMA %B) were derived. Exclusion criteria included pregestational diabetes, use of continuous positive airway pressure and chronic steroid therapy. We performed linear regression analyses to evaluate the association between continuous measures of SDB (respiratory event index (REI), and oxygen desaturation index (ODI)) and glucose metabolism parameters (HOMA-IR and HOMA %B). Analyses were adjusted for a set of a priori selected variables which included gestational age, maternal age, BMI, ethnicity, race, and parity. Results One hundred and ninety-two pregnant women with median (interquartile range) BMI of 35.14 (8.30) kg/m2 underwent HSAT and HOMA assessment at 11.14 (3) and 15.35 (4.14) gestational weeks, respectively. REI and ODI, as continuous values, were associated with HOMA-IR after adjusting for covariates. OSA (obstructive sleep apnea) diagnosis (REI &gt; 5 events per hour) was not associated with HOMA-IR after adjusting for BMI (p ≥ 0.05). None of the parameters were associated with HOMA %B (p &gt; 0.07). Conclusions SDB and insulin resistance are associated in early pregnancy, with a dose response association between respiratory event index severity and insulin resistance. Further studies are needed to establish if pregnant women with overweight and obesity may benefit from early SDB screening to improve glucose metabolic outcome. Clinical trials: NCT02412696, Positive Airway Pressure, Sleep Apnea, and the Placenta (PAP-SAP) and NCT02917876, Predictors of De-novo Development of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Pregnancy (Predictors)

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Basma Fathi Elsewadi ◽  
Nathalie Samson ◽  
Charlène Nadeau ◽  
Kristien Vanhaverbeke ◽  
Nam Nguyen ◽  

Aim: Convalescing preterm infants often require non-invasive respiratory support, such as nasal continuous positive airway pressure or high-flow nasal cannulas. One challenging milestone for preterm infants is achieving full oral feeding. Some teams fear nasal respiratory support might disrupt sucking–swallowing–breathing coordination and induce severe cardiorespiratory events. The main objective of this study was to assess the safety of oral feeding of preterm lambs on nasal respiratory support, with or without tachypnoea.Methods: Sucking, swallowing and breathing functions, as well as electrocardiogram, oxygen haemoglobin saturation, arterial blood gases and videofluoroscopic swallowing study were recorded in 15 preterm lambs during bottle-feeding. Four randomly ordered conditions were studied: control, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (6 cmH2O), high-flow nasal cannulas (7 L•min–1), and high-flow nasal cannulas at 7 L•min–1 at a tracheal pressure of 6 cmH2O. The recordings were repeated on days 7–8 and 13–14 to assess the effect of maturation.Results: None of the respiratory support impaired the safety or efficiency of oral feeding, even with tachypnoea. No respiratory support systematically impacted sucking–swallowing–breathing coordination, with or without tachypnoea. No effect of maturation was found.Conclusion: This translational physiology study, uniquely conducted in a relevant animal model of preterm infant with respiratory impairment, shows that nasal respiratory support does not impact the safety or efficiency of bottle-feeding or sucking–swallowing–breathing coordination. These results suggest that clinical studies on bottle-feeding in preterm infants under nasal continuous positive airway pressure and/or high-flow nasal cannulas can be safely undertaken.

Hayley Hutton ◽  
Ahmed Sherif ◽  
Abhijit Ari ◽  
Padmanabhan Ramnarayan ◽  
Andrew Jones

AbstractNon-invasive respiratory support (NRS) including high flow nasal cannula (HFNC), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) is increasingly used for children with respiratory failure requiring interhospital transport by pediatric critical care transport (PCCT) teams. In this retrospective observational study of children receiving NRS on transport between January 1st, 2017 and December 31st, 2019 by a single PCCT service in England, we describe a cohort of children, looking at patient characteristics, journey logistics, adverse events, and failure of NRS (as defined by emergency intubation on transport or within 24 hours of arriving on the pediatric intensive care unit), and to attempt to identify risk factors that were associated with NRS failure. A total of 3,504 patients were transported during the study period. Three hundred and seventeen (9%) received NRS. Median age was 4.9 months (IQR 1.0–18.2); median weight was 5.1 kg (IQR 3.1–13). The primary diagnostic category was cardiorespiratory in 244/317 (77%) patients. Comorbidities were recorded in 189/317 (59.6%) patients. Median Pediatric Index of Mortality-3 (PIM3) score was 0.024 (IQR 0.012–0.045). Median stabilization time was 80 minutes while median patient journey time was 40 minutes. Nineteen adverse events were described (clinical deterioration, equipment failure/interface issues) affecting 6% of transports. The incidence of NRS failure was 6.6%. No risk factors associated with NRS failure were identified. We concluded that NRS can be considered safe during pediatric transport for children with a wide range of diagnoses and varying clinical severity, with a low rate of adverse events and need for intubation on transport or on the PICU.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document