ductus arteriosus
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Children ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 89
Carlo Dani ◽  
Martina Ciarcià ◽  
Francesca Miselli ◽  
Michele Luzzati ◽  
Caterina Coviello ◽  

Background: Low platelet count might promote resistance to pharmacological closure with indomethacin and ibuprofen of a hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA). However, no studies have investigated if this occurs with paracetamol. Methods: We retrospectively assessed the correlation between platelet count, mean platelet volume (MPV), and plateletcrit (PCT), as well as the effectiveness of paracetamol in closing hsPDA in infants born at 23+0–31+6 weeks of gestation who were treated with 15 mg/kg/6 h of i.v. paracetamol for 3 days. Results: We studied 79 infants: 37 (47%) Had closure after a course of paracetamol and 42 (53%) did not. Platelet count and PCT did not correlate with paracetamol success or failure in closing hsPDA, while MPV was lower at birth (10.7 ± 1.4 vs. 9.5 ± 1.1; p < 0.001) and prior to starting therapy (11.7 ± 1.9 vs. 11.0 ± 1.6; p = 0.079) in refractory infants. Regression analysis confirmed that the low MVP measured prior to starting the treatment increased the risk of hsPDA paracetamol closure failure (OR 1.664, 95% CI 1.153–2.401). Conclusions: The greater MPV correlated positively with the effectiveness of paracetamol in closing hsPDA, while platelet count and PCT did not influence closure rates. Additional studies are needed to confirm our results.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Zeming Zhou ◽  
Yuanrui Gu ◽  
Hong Zheng ◽  
Shiguo Li ◽  
Liang Xu ◽  

Background: There have been marked advances in devices such as Amplatzer Duct Occluder II (ADO-II) or vascular plug through 5Fr delivery sheath for closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in the past five decades, making it possible for cardiologists to deliver occluders via different approaches. However, comparisons of these different approaches have not been reported. Therefore, the aim of this study was to summarize and compare the advantages of different approaches for PDA closure, and to guide clinical strategies.Methods: This retrospective study included all patients undergoing transcatheter closure of PDA from 2019 to 2020. Patients were matched by 1:1 propensity score matching (PSM). The retrograde femoral artery approach (FAA) and simple vein approach (SVA) groups were compared with the conventional arteriovenous approach (CAA).Results: The average age of the 476 patients was 21.05 ± 21.15 years. Their average weight was 38.23 ± 24.1 kg and average height was 130.14 ± 34.45 cm. The mean diameter of the PDA was 4.29 ± 2.25 mm. There were 127 men and 349 women, comprising 205 adults and 271 children. Among them, 197 patients underwent CAA, 223 underwent SVA, and 56 underwent retrograde FAA. The diameter in the FAA group was smaller than that in the other two groups, but was similar in adults and children. In the PSM comparison of CAA and SVA, 136 patients with CAA and 136 patients with SVA were recruited. Simple vein approach was associated with markedly reduced length of hospital stay, length of operation, and contrast medium usage as compared with CAA (all P &lt; 0.05). In the PSM comparison of FAA and CAA, 30 patients with CAA and 30 patients with FAA were recruited. The operation duration was longer in the CAA than in the FAA group. There were no significant differences in postoperative complications among groups.Conclusion: Patent ductus arteriosus closure by using the SVA and FAA is safe and effective, and has certain advantages in some respects as compared with CAA.

Polly Kellner ◽  
Jenny Kwon ◽  
Joan Smith ◽  
Roberta G Pineda

Objective: To 1) define the prevalence of motor, cognitive, and language delays in preterm infants born < 32 weeks estimated gestational age (EGA) and 2) identify the relationship between the timing of discharge from the NICU and neurodevelopmental outcome in early childhood. Study Design: This retrospective study of 176 preterm infants born < 32 weeks EGA and hospitalized in a level IV NICU captured medical factors, including timing of discharge, from the NICU stay. Standardized developmental testing at 1-2 years corrected age was conducted in the newborn follow-up clinic. Results: At 1-2 years corrected age, the sample had an average cognitive composite score of 91.5 ± 17.4, language composite score of 84.5 ± 17.3, and motor composite score of 88.9 ± 18.4. Lower EGA at birth, necrotizing enterocolitis, patent ductus arteriosus, and oxygen requirement for > 28 days were independently associated with higher postmenstrual age (PMA) at NICU discharge. After controlling for known risk factors, higher PMA at discharge was associated with poorer cognitive outcome [p < 0.001, (-0.16, -0.07), β = -0.35], poorer language outcome [p = 0.049 (-0.10, 0.00), β = -0.15] and poorer motor outcome [p < 0.001, (-0.14, -0.05), β = -0.30]. Conclusion: Poorer cognitive, language, and motor outcomes were associated with longer hospitalization, even after controlling for medical risk factors known to be associated with poorer outcome. This provides further evidence for the potential role of the environment that may be impacting the developmental outcomes of infants hospitalized in the NICU.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Sonja Diez ◽  
Manuel Besendörfer ◽  
Veronika Weyerer ◽  
Arndt Hartmann ◽  
Julia Moosmann ◽  

Abstract Background Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1) is involved in innate immunity and epithelial differentiation. It has been proven to play a role in various states of inflammation or hypoxia of fetal gastrointestinal and pulmonary diseases. Discrimination of pathogenesis in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) based on cardiac status improves the understanding of NEC in different patient subgroups. We aimed at examining DMBT1 expressions regarding their association with cardiac status leading to impaired intestinal perfusion, intraoperative bacteria proof, and a fulminant course of NEC. Methods Twenty-eight patients with NEC were treated surgically between 2010 and 2019 at our institution. DMBT1 expression was examined in intestinal sections using immunohistochemistry to detect DMBT1 protein. Associations of clinical parameters and DMBT1 expression were analyzed. Results We examined DMBT1 levels in 10 patients without cardiac defects and 18 patients with persisting ductus arteriosus (PDA) and congenital heart defects (CHD). Compared to patients without cardiac malformations, DMBT1 levels tended to score higher in patients with PDA/CHD (p = 0.2113) and were negatively correlated with C-reactive protein in these infants (p = 0.0172; r = − 0.5533). The number of DMBT1-expressing macrophages was elevated in the PDA/CHD-subgroup (p = 0.0399). Ratios of neutrophils and monocytes to lymphocytes were significantly higher in infants with PDA/CHD (p = 0.0319 and 0.0493). DMBT1 expression was significantly associated with positive bacterial culture of intraoperative swabs (p = 0.0252) and DMBT1 expression of the serosa was associated with a fulminant course of NEC (p = 0.0239). Conclusions This study demonstrates that DMBT1 expression may be influenced by cardiac anomalies with an impaired intestinal perfusion in the neonatal intestine. NEC in PDA/CHD infants is associated with more DMBT1-positive macrophages and a significantly elevated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-3
Otohime Mori ◽  
Keiichi Fujiwara ◽  
Hisanori Sakazaki

Abstract A 4-day-old girl with Posterior fossa anomalies, Haemangiomas of the head and neck, Arterial, Cardiovascular, and Eye anomalies and ventral developmental defect syndrome comprising a facial haemangioma, aortic coarctation at the aortic arch, torturous aortic aneurysm distal to coarctation, and ductus arteriosus originating proximal to the coarctation is presented. The aortic arch was successfully reconstructed without cardiopulmonary bypass, and she is currently doing well after 4 years and 8 months.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Yusheng Liu ◽  
Lingyan Qiao ◽  
Xiongwei Wu ◽  
Zhong Jiang ◽  
Xiwei Hao

Abstract Background Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a gastrointestinal disease that tends to occur in premature infants. Some features may be associated with an increased probability that preterm infants with NEC will require surgical treatment. This study aimed to identify the factors that increased the probability of surgical treatment in infants with NEC. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the data of premature infants with NEC who were hospitalized at The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University from April 2011 to April 2021. According to the treatments received, these patients were divided into medical NEC group and surgical NEC group. The perinatal characteristics, clinical manifestations, and laboratory values before the onset of NEC were subjected to univariate and multivariate analyses. Results A total of 623 preterm infants with NEC (> Bell’s stage I) were included in this study, including 350 (56%) who received surgical treatment and 273 (44%) who received conservative medical treatment. Multivariate analysis showed that lower gestational age (P = 0.001, odds ratio (OR) (95% CI) = 0.91[0.86–0.96]), early occurrence of NEC (P = 0.003, OR (95% CI) = 0.86 [0.77–0.95]), hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (P = 0.003, OR (95% CI) = 7.50 [2.03–28.47]), and low serum bicarbonate (P = 0.043, OR (95% CI) = 0.863 [0.749–0.995]) were associated with an increased probability of surgical treatment in preterm infants with NEC. Conclusions Our findings were applied to identify potential predictors for surgical treatment in preterm infants with NEC, which may facilitate early decisive management.

Alona Bin-Nun ◽  
Irina Shchors ◽  
Rawan Abu-Omar ◽  
Yair Kasirer ◽  
Francis Mimouni ◽  

The SFR (Sp02/Fi02 ratio) offers a continuous, non-invasive reflection of pulmonary function regardless of whether the baby is ventilated or breathing spontaneously. We hypothesized that significant PDA shunting would impair pulmonary oxygen diffusion, in turn, reflected by decreased SFR; and that early PDA related decreases in SFR will predict subsequent chronic lung disease (CLD). Methods: We retrospectively examined records from preterm neonates <30 weeks gestational age. Ductal shunting was graded for severity by first week echocardiogram. SFR was calculated as SpO2/Fi02 and recorded on day 7 of life and at 36 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA). Results: We studied 104 infants: 65 with closed duct; 17 with hemodynamically insignificant PDA and 22 with hemodynamically significant (hsPDAs). CLD developed in 9 (14%) of those with closed ducts; 6 (35%) of those with hisPDA; and in 12 (55%) of those with hsPDA (p=0.005). Babies with hsPDA had significantly lower SFR values at both time points. SFRs in babies with hisPDA were decreased at 1 week postnatally, but were similar to those of babies with closed ducts at 36 weeks. SFR at 36 wks. was decreased only in infants with hsPDA [[467[461,467] vs. 467[413,471] vs. 369[262,436] respectively; p=0.000148]. Using ROC curve analysis, week 1 SFR was strongly associated with hsPDA (AUC=0.770; p<0.0001) and highly predictive (AUC=0.801; p<0.0001) of CLD at 36 weeks PMA. Conclusion: Early decreases in SFR reflect both the acute and chronic pulmonary impact of PDA shunting, possibly providing the missing link supporting an association between hemodynamically significant PDA and subsequent CLD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Mette Engan ◽  
Merete S. Engeset ◽  
Lorentz Sandvik ◽  
Ole C. O. Gamlemshaug ◽  
Ingvild Ø. Engesæter ◽  

Background: Left vocal cord paralysis (LVCP) is a known complication of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) surgery in extremely preterm (EP) born neonates; however, consequences of LVCP beyond the first year of life are insufficiently described. Both voice problems and breathing difficulties during physical activity could be expected with an impaired laryngeal inlet. More knowledge may improve the follow-up of EP-born subjects who underwent PDA surgery and prevent confusion between LVCP and other diagnoses.Objectives: Examine the prevalence of LVCP in a nationwide cohort of adults born EP with a history of PDA surgery, and compare symptoms, lung function, and exercise capacity between groups with and without LVCP, and vs. controls born EP and at term.Methods: Adults born EP (&lt;28 weeks' gestation or birth weight &lt;1,000 g) in Norway during 1999–2000 who underwent neonatal PDA surgery and controls born EP and at term were invited to complete questionnaires mapping voice-and respiratory symptoms, and to perform spirometry and maximal treadmill exercise testing. In the PDA-surgery group, exercise tests were performed with a laryngoscope positioned to evaluate laryngeal function.Results: Thirty out of 48 (63%) eligible PDA-surgery subjects were examined at mean (standard deviation) age 19.4 (0.8) years, sixteen (53%) had LVCP. LVCP was associated with self-reported voice symptoms and laryngeal obstruction during exercise, not with lung function or peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak). In the PDA-surgery group, forced expiratory volume in 1 second z-score (z-FEV1) was reduced compared to EP-born controls (n = 30) and term-born controls (n = 36); mean (95% confidence interval) z-FEV1 was −1.8 (−2.3, −1.2), −0.7 (−1.1, −0.3) and −0.3 (−0.5, −0.0), respectively. For VO2peak, corresponding figures were 37.5 (34.9, 40.2), 38.1 (35.1, 41.1), and 43.6 (41.0, 46.5) ml/kg/min, respectively.Conclusions: LVCP was common in EP-born young adults who had undergone neonatal PDA surgery. Within the PDA-surgery group, LVCP was associated with self-reported voice symptoms and laryngeal obstruction during exercise, however we did not find an association with lung function or exercise capacity. Overall, the PDA-surgery group had reduced lung function compared to EP-born and term-born controls, whereas exercise capacity was similarly reduced for both the PDA-surgery and EP-born control groups when compared to term-born controls.

Children ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 46
Srinivasan Mani ◽  
Praveen Chandrasekharan

Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a rare cause of late-onset sepsis in preterm infants. To our best knowledge, we report the fourth case of a male preterm infant who developed fulminant late-onset sepsis due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis with persistent bacteremia secondary to an infected aortic thrombus confirmed with two positive blood cultures. Our patient was an extremely low birth weight growth-restricted infant born at 27 weeks gestation and initially required an umbilical arterial catheter for blood pressure and blood gas monitoring. The course of this neonate was complicated by severe respiratory distress syndrome that evolved into chronic lung disease along with multiple episodes of tracheitis. Hemodynamically, the infant had a significant patent ductus arteriosus, and an episode of medical necrotizing enterocolitis followed by Staphylococcus lugdunensis septicemia. He was diagnosed with an infected aortic thrombus, probably the occult focus responsible for the persistent bacteremia. After a 6-week course of intravenous antibiotics and 4-week course of anticoagulant therapy, the infant responded and recovered without complications.

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