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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
M. W. Aslam ◽  
M. Wajid ◽  
A. Waheed ◽  
S. Ahmad ◽  
K. Jafar ◽  
...  

Abstract The present study describes the haematological profile, feeding preference, and comparison of morphometric characters of blue rock pigeon (Columba livia) breeding pairs. For this purpose, 25 pairs (25 samples per sex) were sampled through Mist nets from district Okara and Bahawalnagar, Punjab, Pakistan. Birds were then anaesthetized with a combination of ketamine HCL (10 mg/kg) and diazepam (0.2 mg/kg) and subjected to morphometric measurements. 5µL blood also was taken from the jugular vein of each anaesthetized bird for haematological analysis. Few pairs were also dissected to remove gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) for food preferences. Results revealed that there are no significant differences in the haematological parameters and feeding preference of breeding pairs of Columba livia. The gut analysis further revealed, the major portion of gut contents consisted of pea and corn in most of the pairs. Regarding the mensural measurements, significant differences were recorded in the body weight, length of the longest primary feather, and chest circumference, whereas the rest of the studied parameters remain nonsignificant between sexes. So, it is concluded that apart from 3 morphometric parameters (body weight, length of longest primary feather and chest circumference), both sexes are alike in term of morphometry, haematology and food preference.


2028 ◽  
Vol 7 (3) ◽  
pp. 253-256
Author(s):  
Atanu FO ◽  
◽  
Momoh S ◽  
Ugwu CE ◽  
Ameh O ◽  
...  

This work investigates the ability of Morinda lucida and co-administration of Morinda lucida/metformin in the control of biochemical and histological changes in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Alloxan diabetic rats were treated with 200 mg/Kg body weight of Morinda lucida leaves extract, 1 mg/Kg BW of metformin or a combination of the two treatments for 28 days. Results of the studies revealed that Morinda lucida leaves extract significantly improved lipid profile and kidney function in diabetic rats. These positive outcomes were enhanced by combined treated with Morinda lucida leaves extract and metformin. Furthermore, the calculated atherogenic index of treated animals were close to those of normal rats as opposed to diabetic rats. Similarly, histological studies showed that Morinda lucida leaves extract and metformin administered together or singly, ameliorated damages in pancreas and kidneys from alloxan diabetic rats. It can therefore be inferred that combined treatment with Morinda lucida leaves extract and merformin could improve the potency of Morinda lucida leaves used in the management of diabetic complications


2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (4) ◽  
pp. 10-15
Author(s):  
Ira Febriyanti ◽  
Saifuddin Sirajuddi ◽  
Hasnawati Amqam

Background: Nutrition of pregnant women is very influential on fetal growth, one of which is iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency increases in pregnant women with increasing age in pregnancy. Significantly low intake of nutrients will make pregnant women experience Chronic Energy Deficiency. The nutritional content of tempeh can be used to meet the nutritional needs of pregnant women. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of giving steamed tempeh to the increase in hemoglobin and Body Weight levels in pregnant women at the Kalar-kalar Health Center, Aru Islands Regency. Method: This type of research is a quasi-experimental with a pre-posttest control group design. The intervention was given to the respondents as many as 24 people with 12 people in the control group and 12 people in the treatment group. Sampling purposive sampling. Subjects were taken from two villages in the working area of ​​the Kalar-Kalar Public Health Center which have relatively the same geography and socioeconomic status and only pregnant women with Hb <11 G/dL were selected. The form of treatment was giving 100 G of steamed tempeh 2 times a week for 30 days while the control group was given biscuits for pregnant women 2 times per week 100 G. Data analysis used univariate and bivariate analysis with paired T test and Mann Whitney. Results: Mann Whitney test results of the effect of steamed tempeh on weight gain in the treatment group obtained a p-value of 0.050 (p=0.05). Differences in hemoglobin levels in anemic pregnant women with a p-value of 0.018 (<0.05) with a mean difference of 0.42 G/dL in the pre-posttest treatment group and the control group with a p-value of 0.217 (<0.05) with a mean difference of 0.21 G/d dL. Conclusion: There is an effect of giving steamed tempeh to increase hemoglobin and body weight in pregnant women. Keywords: Anemia, Pregnant women, Hemoglobin, Body Weight, Tempeh.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jiacheng He

Abstract Purpose Creatinine to body weight (Cre/BW) ratio is considered the independent risk factor for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but research on this relationship is limited. The relationship between the Cre/BW ratio and T2DM among Chinse individuals is still ambiguous. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between the Cre/BW ratio and the risk of T2DM in the Chinese population. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study from a prospectively collected database. We included a total of 200,658 adults free of T2DM at baseline. The risk of incident T2DM according to Cre/BW ratio was estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, and a two-piece wise linear regression model was developed to find out the threshold effect. Results With a median follow-up of 3.13 ± 0.94 years, a total of 4001 (1.99%) participants developed T2DM. Overall, there was an L-shaped relation of Cre/BW ratio with the risk of incident T2DM (P for non-linearity < 0.001). When the Cre/BW ratio (× 100) was less than 0.86, the risk of T2DM decreased significantly as the Cre/BW ratio increased [0.01 (0.00, 0.10), P < 0.001]. When the Cre/BW ratio (× 100) was between 0.86 and 1.36, the reduction in the risk of developing T2DM was not as significant as before [0.22 (0.12, 0.38), P < 0.001]. In contrast, when the Cre/BW ratio (× 100) was greater than 1.36, the reduction in T2DM incidence became significantly flatter than before [0.73 (0.29,1.8), P = 0.49]. Conclusion There was an L-shaped relation of Cre/BW ratio with incidence of T2DM in general Chinese adults. A negative curvilinear association between Cre/BW ratio and incident T2DM was present, with a saturation effect predicted at 0.86 and 1.36 of Cre/BW ratio (× 100).


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 263-266
Author(s):  
Raja Chakraverty ◽  
Debalina Sardar ◽  
Pranabesh Chakraborty

The study is aimed at the evaluation of potential activity of and possible interaction with metformin in animal Models of Diabetes Mellitus. Study objectives include study the anti-diabetic effect of for Diabetes Mellitus in animal models and also to study the effect of Abelmoschus esculentus with metformin and explore any interaction. Plant material was collected () followed by extraction of plant materials () Exudate collection of and activity test study was done (acute toxicity study, according to standard OECD guidelines) Experimental animals were divided into groups. Dosing was done for 28 days. Biochemical parameters were studied. Histopathology studies are done. Results showed that in this study administrations of Abelmoschus esculentus extract (2000mg/kg body weight) Metformin with extract (5mg/kg b.w. and 2000mg/kg body weight and Metformin 5mg/kg body weight decreased elevated blood glucose levels significantly from first to fourth week compared to diabetic control rats and showed minimal safety concerns.


Metabolites ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 81
Author(s):  
Bryant H. Keirns ◽  
Christina M. Sciarrillo ◽  
Samantha M. Hart ◽  
Sam R. Emerson

Post-meal triglycerides are an independent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor, but the ideal high-fat meal formulation has yet to be standardized and is one challenge prohibiting widespread clinical adoption of postprandial triglyceride assessment. Two general approaches often used are giving individuals a high-fat meal scaled to body weight or a standardized high-fat meal containing a set fat bolus. A recent expert panel statement has endorsed the latter, specifying 75 g of fat as an appropriate fat dosage. Despite this recommendation, no study to date has tested whether there is a difference in postprandial triglycerides or if risk classification is affected based on these different approaches. We recruited 16 generally healthy individuals with roughly equal distribution among body mass index (BMI)class (n = 5–6/per BMI category) and sex (n = 2–3 M/F) within each BMI class. Each participant underwent two abbreviated fat tolerance tests separated by ~1 week: one with a scaled to body weight high-fat meal (9 kcal/kg; 70% fat) and a standardized meal containing 75 g of fat (70% fat). Fasting, 4 h, and absolute change in triglycerides across the entire sample and within each BMI category were similar regardless of high-fat meal. Only one participant with obesity had discordant postprandial responses between the fat tolerance tests (i.e., different CVD risk classification). These findings suggest that, within a certain range of fat intake, generally healthy individuals will have a similar postprandial triglyceride response. Considering the greater convenience of utilizing standardized high-fat meals, our data suggest that a standardized high-fat meal may be acceptable for large-scale studies and clinical implementation.


Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 201
Author(s):  
Maoxuan Miao ◽  
Jinran Wu ◽  
Fengjing Cai ◽  
You-Gan Wang

Selecting the minimal best subset out of a huge number of factors for influencing the response is a fundamental and very challenging NP-hard problem because the presence of many redundant genes results in over-fitting easily while missing an important gene can more detrimental impact on predictions, and computation is prohibitive for exhaust search. We propose a modified memetic algorithm (MA) based on an improved splicing method to overcome the problems in the traditional genetic algorithm exploitation capability and dimension reduction in the predictor variables. The new algorithm accelerates the search in identifying the minimal best subset of genes by incorporating it into the new local search operator and hence improving the splicing method. The improvement is also due to another two novel aspects: (a) updating subsets of genes iteratively until the no more reduction in the loss function by splicing and increasing the probability of selecting the true subsets of genes; and (b) introducing add and del operators based on backward sacrifice into the splicing method to limit the size of gene subsets. Additionally, according to the experimental results, our proposed optimizer can obtain a better minimal subset of genes with a few iterations, compared with all considered algorithms. Moreover, the mutation operator is replaced by it to enhance exploitation capability and initial individuals are improved by it to enhance efficiency of search. A dataset of the body weight of Hu sheep was used to evaluate the superiority of the modified MA against the genetic algorithm. According to our experimental results, our proposed optimizer can obtain a better minimal subset of genes with a few iterations, compared with all considered algorithms including the most advanced adaptive best-subset selection algorithm.


2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Debra C. Sellon ◽  
Denis J. Marcellin-Little

Abstract Background Cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR) is one of the most common causes of pelvic limb lameness in dogs. Risk factors for CCLR include breed (especially large and giant breeds), body weight, gender and spay/neuter status, and age. Few studies have evaluated physical activity and fitness indicators, however, as risk factors for disease. This study used an online questionnaire distributed primarily via social media to assess risk factors for CCLR in dogs actively engaged in agility training or competition to determine demographic and physical activity factors associated with rupture. Results Data from 260 dogs with CCLR were compared to similar data from 1006 dogs without CCLR. All dogs were actively training or competing in agility at the time of CCLR or the time of data submission, respectively. Physical characteristics associated with increased risk of CCLR included younger age, spayed female sex, greater body weight, and greater weight to height ratio. Agility activities associated with increased odds ratios included competition in events sponsored by the North American Dog Agility Council (NADAC), competing at novice and intermediate levels, and competing in fewer than 10 events/year. Odds ratios were lower in dogs that competed in events sponsored by United Kingdom Agility International (UKI). Other activities associated with increased odds ratio for CCLR included involvement in flyball activities and short walks or runs over hilly or flat terrain on a weekly basis. Activities associated with decreased odds ratio included involvement in dock diving, barn hunt, nosework, or lure coursing/racing activities and participation in core balance and strength exercises at least weekly. Conclusions These results are consistent with previous studies demonstrating that body weight and spay/neuter status are risk factors for CCLR in dogs. This is the first report to demonstrate that risk of CCLR in agility dogs is decreased in dogs that engage in regular core strengthening exercises, compete more frequently, compete at higher levels, and compete in more athletically challenging venues.


Author(s):  
Rien Hoge ◽  
Suzan Detert Oude Weme ◽  
Walter Vervenne ◽  
Inge van Berlo - van de Laar ◽  
Carla van Herpen ◽  
...  

Aim: In our study we examined whether anthropometric and body composition parameters, i.e. body surface area (BSA), lean body mass (LBM) and total body weight (TBW), are correlated with docetaxel clearance and exposure. In addition, LBM, TBW and a fixed dose were compared to BSA as dosing parameters for dose individualisation of docetaxel. Methods: Thirty-six patients affected by breast or castration-resistant prostate carcinoma receiving docetaxel chemotherapy entered the study. LBM was measured by a Dual Energy Xray Absorptiometry (DEXA) scanner before treatment. Blood samples were collected up to 180 minutes after dosing to analyse docetaxel concentrations and to determine individual pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters. Results: No significant correlations were found between the docetaxel pharmacokinetic parameters clearance and volume of distribution and the anthropometric and body composition variables BSA, LBM and TBW. AUC was significantly but poorly correlated with BSA (r=0.452 [p=0.016]) and with TBW (r=0.476 (p=0.011]). The Mean Absolute Percentage Error and Mean Error of simulated dosing based on LBM and fixed dosing ME were not significant different compared to BSA. For TBW, only the MAPE of dosing was significant higher compared to BSA (24.1 vs. 17.1, P=0.001). Conclusion: There is no correlations between docetaxel pharmacokinetics and the anthropometric and body composition variables BSA, LBM and TBW. Dose individualisation of docetaxel based on LBM or TBW or fixed dosing cannot be recommended over BSA based dosing.


Children ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 110
Author(s):  
Sun-Jin Lee ◽  
Sun-Young Kim ◽  
Minsun Kim

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) therapy is used to control puberty progression and it preserves height potential in patients with idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP). This study evaluated the correlation between weight and height gain at menarche following GnRHa treatment among girls with ICPP and relatively central early puberty (EP). We investigated height/weight trends and changes in height from diagnosis to menarche in girls with ICPP and EP treated with GnRHa. The mean difference in height (Δheight) from treatment cessation to menarche was 9.79 ± 3.53 cm. Girls were divided into girls with Δheight ≥ 9.79 cm (Group 1) and girls with Δheight < 9.79 cm (Group 2). Although near adult height was significantly higher in Group 1, the mean body mass index (BMI) and weight were significantly lower at diagnosis, treatment discontinuation, and menarche. The BMI and weight at the three time points were negatively correlated with height. Girls with higher BMI at all three time points had slower growth rates during the study period. Considering that BMI and body weight were closely related to Δheight, proper management of BMI and body weight of girls receiving early puberty treatment might contribute to growth during and after GnRHa treatment.


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