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Author(s):  
Aérica C. Nazareno ◽  
Iran J. O. da Silva ◽  
Eduardo F. Delgado ◽  
Miguel Machado ◽  
Luiz O. Pradella

ABSTRACT The inclusion of environmental enrichment in conventional broiler rearing can increase mobility, bone mass and muscle. This research aimed to evaluate the use of environmental enrichment in the rearing of broilers at different ages and its influence on performance, morphometry, yield and weight of the parts. It was used the completely randomized design in split-plot scheme, being the plots the treatments presence (T1) and absence (T2) of environmental enrichment and the subplots the broiler ages (1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days), with 56 chicks in each treatment (T1 and T2). Data obtained were analyzed by the linear effect model of fixed effects and compared by Tukey’s test of means. The animals were raised in a controlled environment, divided into four boxes with dimensions: 1.5 × 1.0 × 0.7 m, containing rice straw bed. In T1 a ladder with a perch on top was used, distributed every 1.5 m2. Environmental enrichment used did not influence broiler’s zootechnical performance. Broilers’ morphometric properties, parts weight and body weight increased due to environmental enrichment and, improvement was observed in chicks rearing’s final phase. The environmental enrichment was beneficial for muscle and bone mass gain in the main commercial parts of the chicken carcass, in addition to reducing the allometric coefficient of the breasts in chickens.


2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. 046-050
Author(s):  
Chima Daniel ◽  
Onwugbuta Godpower Chukwuemeka ◽  
John Godson Nnamdi

Caffeine is an active ingredient of coffee (Nescafe) as one of the major sources of dietary antioxidant compounds which counteract the action of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are the main contributors to oxidative stress. This research is carried out to investigate the role of caffeine in modulating superoxide dismutase and caffeine’s contribution to aging. Forty five sexually matured albino rats with weights ranging from 120-200g were purchased from the animal house of the Department of Anatomy, University of Port Harcourt. These animals were divided into five groups according to their weights and were housed in fifteen well ventilated cages containing sawdust which serves as beddings for the comfort of the animals and for easy removal of their feaces. They were fed daily with animal feed, water ad libitum and allowed to acclimatize for a period of one week, after which their weights were taken and caffeine administration commenced.The results obtained showed a significant (p<0.05) increase in the body weight of the animals on days 14 and 21 following the administration of 20mg/kg of the extract when compared with day 0 and a significant (p<0.05) increase in serum superoxide dismutase activity for 100mg/kg on day 14 when compared to the control. The findings of this study suggests that caffeine (NESCAFE) may have little or no significant effect on the activity of superoxide dismutase.


2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (4) ◽  
pp. 10-15
Author(s):  
Ira Febriyanti ◽  
Saifuddin Sirajuddi ◽  
Hasnawati Amqam

Background: Nutrition of pregnant women is very influential on fetal growth, one of which is iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency increases in pregnant women with increasing age in pregnancy. Significantly low intake of nutrients will make pregnant women experience Chronic Energy Deficiency. The nutritional content of tempeh can be used to meet the nutritional needs of pregnant women. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of giving steamed tempeh to the increase in hemoglobin and Body Weight levels in pregnant women at the Kalar-kalar Health Center, Aru Islands Regency. Method: This type of research is a quasi-experimental with a pre-posttest control group design. The intervention was given to the respondents as many as 24 people with 12 people in the control group and 12 people in the treatment group. Sampling purposive sampling. Subjects were taken from two villages in the working area of ​​the Kalar-Kalar Public Health Center which have relatively the same geography and socioeconomic status and only pregnant women with Hb <11 G/dL were selected. The form of treatment was giving 100 G of steamed tempeh 2 times a week for 30 days while the control group was given biscuits for pregnant women 2 times per week 100 G. Data analysis used univariate and bivariate analysis with paired T test and Mann Whitney. Results: Mann Whitney test results of the effect of steamed tempeh on weight gain in the treatment group obtained a p-value of 0.050 (p=0.05). Differences in hemoglobin levels in anemic pregnant women with a p-value of 0.018 (<0.05) with a mean difference of 0.42 G/dL in the pre-posttest treatment group and the control group with a p-value of 0.217 (<0.05) with a mean difference of 0.21 G/d dL. Conclusion: There is an effect of giving steamed tempeh to increase hemoglobin and body weight in pregnant women. Keywords: Anemia, Pregnant women, Hemoglobin, Body Weight, Tempeh.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 263-266
Author(s):  
Raja Chakraverty ◽  
Debalina Sardar ◽  
Pranabesh Chakraborty

The study is aimed at the evaluation of potential activity of and possible interaction with metformin in animal Models of Diabetes Mellitus. Study objectives include study the anti-diabetic effect of for Diabetes Mellitus in animal models and also to study the effect of Abelmoschus esculentus with metformin and explore any interaction. Plant material was collected () followed by extraction of plant materials () Exudate collection of and activity test study was done (acute toxicity study, according to standard OECD guidelines) Experimental animals were divided into groups. Dosing was done for 28 days. Biochemical parameters were studied. Histopathology studies are done. Results showed that in this study administrations of Abelmoschus esculentus extract (2000mg/kg body weight) Metformin with extract (5mg/kg b.w. and 2000mg/kg body weight and Metformin 5mg/kg body weight decreased elevated blood glucose levels significantly from first to fourth week compared to diabetic control rats and showed minimal safety concerns.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jiacheng He

Abstract Purpose Creatinine to body weight (Cre/BW) ratio is considered the independent risk factor for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but research on this relationship is limited. The relationship between the Cre/BW ratio and T2DM among Chinse individuals is still ambiguous. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between the Cre/BW ratio and the risk of T2DM in the Chinese population. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study from a prospectively collected database. We included a total of 200,658 adults free of T2DM at baseline. The risk of incident T2DM according to Cre/BW ratio was estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, and a two-piece wise linear regression model was developed to find out the threshold effect. Results With a median follow-up of 3.13 ± 0.94 years, a total of 4001 (1.99%) participants developed T2DM. Overall, there was an L-shaped relation of Cre/BW ratio with the risk of incident T2DM (P for non-linearity < 0.001). When the Cre/BW ratio (× 100) was less than 0.86, the risk of T2DM decreased significantly as the Cre/BW ratio increased [0.01 (0.00, 0.10), P < 0.001]. When the Cre/BW ratio (× 100) was between 0.86 and 1.36, the reduction in the risk of developing T2DM was not as significant as before [0.22 (0.12, 0.38), P < 0.001]. In contrast, when the Cre/BW ratio (× 100) was greater than 1.36, the reduction in T2DM incidence became significantly flatter than before [0.73 (0.29,1.8), P = 0.49]. Conclusion There was an L-shaped relation of Cre/BW ratio with incidence of T2DM in general Chinese adults. A negative curvilinear association between Cre/BW ratio and incident T2DM was present, with a saturation effect predicted at 0.86 and 1.36 of Cre/BW ratio (× 100).


Author(s):  
Rien Hoge ◽  
Suzan Detert Oude Weme ◽  
Walter Vervenne ◽  
Inge van Berlo - van de Laar ◽  
Carla van Herpen ◽  
...  

Aim: In our study we examined whether anthropometric and body composition parameters, i.e. body surface area (BSA), lean body mass (LBM) and total body weight (TBW), are correlated with docetaxel clearance and exposure. In addition, LBM, TBW and a fixed dose were compared to BSA as dosing parameters for dose individualisation of docetaxel. Methods: Thirty-six patients affected by breast or castration-resistant prostate carcinoma receiving docetaxel chemotherapy entered the study. LBM was measured by a Dual Energy Xray Absorptiometry (DEXA) scanner before treatment. Blood samples were collected up to 180 minutes after dosing to analyse docetaxel concentrations and to determine individual pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters. Results: No significant correlations were found between the docetaxel pharmacokinetic parameters clearance and volume of distribution and the anthropometric and body composition variables BSA, LBM and TBW. AUC was significantly but poorly correlated with BSA (r=0.452 [p=0.016]) and with TBW (r=0.476 (p=0.011]). The Mean Absolute Percentage Error and Mean Error of simulated dosing based on LBM and fixed dosing ME were not significant different compared to BSA. For TBW, only the MAPE of dosing was significant higher compared to BSA (24.1 vs. 17.1, P=0.001). Conclusion: There is no correlations between docetaxel pharmacokinetics and the anthropometric and body composition variables BSA, LBM and TBW. Dose individualisation of docetaxel based on LBM or TBW or fixed dosing cannot be recommended over BSA based dosing.


2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Debra C. Sellon ◽  
Denis J. Marcellin-Little

Abstract Background Cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR) is one of the most common causes of pelvic limb lameness in dogs. Risk factors for CCLR include breed (especially large and giant breeds), body weight, gender and spay/neuter status, and age. Few studies have evaluated physical activity and fitness indicators, however, as risk factors for disease. This study used an online questionnaire distributed primarily via social media to assess risk factors for CCLR in dogs actively engaged in agility training or competition to determine demographic and physical activity factors associated with rupture. Results Data from 260 dogs with CCLR were compared to similar data from 1006 dogs without CCLR. All dogs were actively training or competing in agility at the time of CCLR or the time of data submission, respectively. Physical characteristics associated with increased risk of CCLR included younger age, spayed female sex, greater body weight, and greater weight to height ratio. Agility activities associated with increased odds ratios included competition in events sponsored by the North American Dog Agility Council (NADAC), competing at novice and intermediate levels, and competing in fewer than 10 events/year. Odds ratios were lower in dogs that competed in events sponsored by United Kingdom Agility International (UKI). Other activities associated with increased odds ratio for CCLR included involvement in flyball activities and short walks or runs over hilly or flat terrain on a weekly basis. Activities associated with decreased odds ratio included involvement in dock diving, barn hunt, nosework, or lure coursing/racing activities and participation in core balance and strength exercises at least weekly. Conclusions These results are consistent with previous studies demonstrating that body weight and spay/neuter status are risk factors for CCLR in dogs. This is the first report to demonstrate that risk of CCLR in agility dogs is decreased in dogs that engage in regular core strengthening exercises, compete more frequently, compete at higher levels, and compete in more athletically challenging venues.


Author(s):  
M. H. Verwijs ◽  
O. van de Rest ◽  
G.-J. van der Putten ◽  
L. C. P. G. M. de Groot ◽  
Sanne Boesveldt

Abstract Objectives Dementia can lead to decreased appetite and nutritional intake. Food odor exposure has been shown to increase appetite and nutritional intake in young healthy adults. This study investigates the effect of food odor exposure on appetite, nutritional intake and body weight of Dutch nursing home residents with dementia. Design This was a one-armed, non-randomized, non-blinded intervention study consisting of a four-week control period followed by a twelve-week intervention period. Setting Four nursing homes in the Netherlands. Participants Forty-five nursing home residents with dementia. Intervention During the intervention period, odors were dispersed prior to the main meals. Measurements General and specific appetite for sweet and savory foods was measured weekly. Nutritional intake was measured once during the control period and three times during the intervention period through a 3-day food record. Body weight was assessed at the start and end of the control period and at the start, end and halfway the intervention period. Data were analyzed with linear mixed models. Results Small changes in general and specific appetite were observed after odor exposure. Overall energy intake did not change during the first four intervention weeks, but increased during the second and third (+118kcal/d, p=0.003 and +122kcal/d, p=0.004). Protein intake and body weight did not significantly change during the study. Conclusion In this study, no clinically relevant changes in appetite, nutritional intake and body weight were observed after food odor exposure. Future studies should assess the effect of natural food odors and/or meal-tailored odors on nutritional intake of older adults with dementia.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jiang Du ◽  
Xinlei Liu ◽  
Yan Zhang ◽  
Xiaojing Han ◽  
Chunya Ma ◽  
...  

Niemann–Pick disease type C1 (NPC1) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by lysosomal storage of free cholesterol. 2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) is a cyclic oligosaccharide derivative that is being developed to treat NPC1. Recently, metformin was reported to be beneficial in various neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and Huntington’s diseases. In this study, we examined the effects of combined treatment with HPβCD and metformin on Npc1−/− mice. Unfortunately, body weight and survival rates showed that cotreatment with metformin did not extend survival time and increase the body weight of HPβCD-treated Npc1−/− mice. However, cotreatment with metformin reduced inflammatory response and inhibited the proinflammatory cytokine release in the brain, liver and spleen of HPβCD-treated Npc1−/− mice. Furthermore, metformin did not reduce the free cholesterol levels in Npc1−/− brain tissue or fibroblasts. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that metformin does not show beneficial effects on body weight or survival time but reduced the inflammatory response in a mouse model of NPC1 when combined with HPβCD.


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