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Author(s):  
A. Antonio Paoli ◽  
Laura Mancin ◽  
Massimiliano Caprio ◽  
Elena Monti ◽  
Marco V. Narici ◽  
...  

Abstract Background A ketogenic diet (KD) is a nutritional approach, usually adopted for weight loss, that restricts daily carbohydrates under 30 g/day. KD showed contradictory results on sport performance, whilst no data are available on team sports. We sought to investigate the influence of a KD on different parameters in semi-professional soccer players. Methods Subjects were randomly assigned to a iso-protein (1.8 g/Kg body weight/day) ketogenic diet (KD) or western diet (WD) for 30 days. Body weight and body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), cross sectional area (CSA) and isometric muscle strength of quadriceps, counter movement jump (CMJ) and yoyo intermittent recovery test time were measured. Results There was a significantly higher decrease of body fat (p = 0.0359), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) (p = 0.0018), waist circumference (p = 0.0185) and extra-cellular water (p = 0.0060) in KD compared to WD group. Lean soft tissue, quadriceps muscle area, maximal strength and REE showed no changes in both groups. RER decreased significantly in KD (p = 0.0008). Yo-yo intermittent test improved significantly (p < 0.0001) in both groups without significant differences between groups. CMJ significantly improved (p = 0.0021) only in KD. Conclusions This is the first study investigating the effects of a KD on semi-professional soccer players. In our study KD athletes lost fat mass without any detrimental effects on strength, power and muscle mass. When the goal is a rapid weight reduction in such athletes, the use of a KD should be taken into account. Trial registration registered retrospectively on Clinical Trial registration number NCT04078971.


Author(s):  
Basanta Saikia ◽  
Kalyan Sarma ◽  
Hemen Das ◽  
M.C. Lallianchhunga ◽  
Debajyoti Pal ◽  
...  

Background: Endotracheal intubation for inhalation anaesthesia in pigs is not considered a good anaesthetic method as it is technically difficult because of oral anatomy and the presence of excess tissues in the oropharyngeal region. Moreover, the major limitation of inhalation anaesthesia is that it requires the use of a cumbersome and costly anaesthetic machine, including a suitable breathing system and vaporizer and is the exposure of operating-room personnel to the pollution in the ambient air. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of propofol, ketamine and their combination ‘Ketofol’ as a TIVA in pigs. Methods: The study was conducted in eighteen piglets of either sex. The piglets were randomly divided into three groups with six animals in each group. All the three groups were premedicated with Atropine sulphate @ 0.04mg/kg body weight and Xylazine Hydrochloride @ 1mg/kg body weight I.M. and Medazolam @ 0.5mg/kg body weight I.M. with minimum forcible restraint as pre-anaesthetic. In group-I, propofol @ 5mg/kg body weight, in group-II, ketamine @ 5mg/kg body weight and in group-III, ketofol @ 4mg/kg body weight was administered intravenously for induction after 15 minutes of pre-anaesthetic administration. Surgical anaesthesia was maintained for 90 minutes in all three groups viz. group-I, group-II and group-III with propofol @ 2.5mg/kg, ketamine @ 2.5mg/kg and ketofol @ 2mg/kg body weight respectively by intermittent bolus injection (IBI) technique. Clinical and cardiopulmonary profiles were evaluated before administration of the anaesthetic agent (0 minutes) then at 15, 30, 60 and 90 minutes during and after administration of anaesthetic agents to evaluate their anaesthetic effect. Result: The study revealed that induction time (IT), duration of analgesia (DOA), duration of recumbency (DOR) and recovery time (RT) interval showed better result in the combination of ketamine and propofol group as compared to propofol and ketamine-induced individual group. The temperature and respiration rate was significantly decreased in all the groups at 30 minutes during TIVA whereas heart rate was significantly increased in all the groups at 15 minutes. The combination of ketamine and propofol group showed a consistent diastolic pressure and systolic pressure during the entire period of anaesthesia. The SPO2 in the ketamine-induced group showed a significant decrease (P less than 0.01) as compared to the propofol and ketofol group. It was concluded that the anaesthetic drug combinations resulted in smooth and uneventful induction with mild cardiopulmonary depressions and rapid recovery.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Anri Hirai ◽  
Ryo Yamazaki ◽  
Atsushi Kobayashi ◽  
Takashi Kimura ◽  
Kei Nomiyama ◽  
...  

Abstract Monoamine neurotransmitters (MAs), including dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT), regulate brain functions such as behavior, memory, and learning. Neonicotinoids are pesticides that are being used more frequently. Neonicotinoid exposure has been observed to produce neurological symptoms, such as altered spontaneous movements and anxiety-like behaviors, which are suspected to be caused by altered MA levels. However, current neurotoxicity tests are not sufficiently sensitive to make these determinations. In this study, we performed some behavior tests and developed a sensitive and accurate analytical method using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to clarify the effects of neonicotinoid administration on MAs in the brain.We orally administered the neonicotinoid imidacloprid (0, 10, and 50 mg/kg body weight) to C57BL/6NCrSlc mice. In behavior tests, the decrease of activity was observed. The LC-MS/MS quantification of MAs in various brain regions by tetrafluoroborate salt of 2,4-diphenyl-pyranylium (DPP) derivatization, which was newly developed in this study, showed a decrease in some MA levels in the olfactory bulb and the striatum.Thus, in this study, we developed a new method for the sensitive detection of MAs by LC/MS using DPP derivatization. In addition, we showed that this sensitive MA quantification is effective in clarifying the neurotoxicity caused by chemical substances.


Biomeditsina ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (3) ◽  
pp. 84-89
Author(s):  
V. A. Pugach ◽  
M. A. Tyunin ◽  
N. S. Ilinskiy ◽  
E. V. Levchuk ◽  
E. I. Strokina ◽  
...  

An experimental model of direct acute lung injury was developed by intratracheal administration of lipopolysaccharide from Salmonella enterica (LD50 = 20 mg/kg). The dynamics of animal lethality, body weight, temperature and the severity of pathomorphological changes in the lung tissue were analyzed. It was found that the developed model is accompanied by a progressive decrease in body weight by 15%, persistent hypothermic reaction, pronounced edema and inflammatory reaction in the lung tissue within 4 days following lipopolysaccharide administration. The simplicity and reproducibility of the developed experimental model make it useful for preclinical research aimed at selection of candidate drugs for the prevention and treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome.


Biomeditsina ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (3) ◽  
pp. 90-94
Author(s):  
S. V. Chepur ◽  
V. A. Myasnikov ◽  
M. A. Tyunin ◽  
N. S. Ilinskiy ◽  
A. S. Nikishin ◽  
...  

The paper presents data on the dynamics of body weight and mass coeffi cient of lungs in golden Syrian hamsters after infection with the SARS CoV-2 virus. It was found that the most pronounced deviations of the studied parameters develop on the 7th day of the disease. The study also demonstrates the main histopathological changes in the lungs during this period of the disease.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Johanny Pérez-Báez ◽  
Carlos A. Risco ◽  
Ricardo C. Chebel ◽  
Gabriel C. Gomes ◽  
Leandro F. Greco ◽  
...  

One objective was to evaluate the association of dry matter intake as a percentage of body weight (DMI%BW) and energy balance (EB) prepartum and postpartum, and energy-corrected milk (ECM) postpatum with digestive disorders postpartum. For this, ANOVA was used, and DMI%BW, EB, and ECM were the outcome variables, and left displaced abomasum (LDA), indigestion, and other digestive disorders (ODDZ) were the explanatory variables. The main objective was to evaluate prepartum DMI%BW and EB as predictors of digestive disorders. For this, logistic regression was used, and LDA, indigestion, and ODDZ were the outcome variables and DMI%BW and EB were the explanatory variables. Data from 689 cows from 11 experiments were compiled. Left displaced abomasum was not associated with prepartum DMI%BW or EB. Postpartum data were normalized to the day of the event (day 0). Cows that developed LDA had lesser postpartum DMI%BW on days −24, −23, −12, −7 to 0 and from days 1 to 8, 10 to 12, and 14 and 16, lesser postpartum EB from days −7 to −5, −3 to 0, and 12, and lesser postpartum energy-corrected milk on days −19, −2, −1, 0, 7, 9, 10, 15, and 17 relative to diagnosis than cows without LDA. Cows that developed indigestion had lesser prepartum DMI%BW and EB than cows without indigestion, and lesser postpartum DMI%BW on days −24, −1, 0, 1, and 2, and greater DMI%BW on day 26, lesser ECM on days −24, −2, −1, 0, 1, and 2 relative to diagnosis. Postpartum EB was not associated with indigestion postpartum. Cows that developed ODDZ had lesser prepartum DMI%BW on day −8 and from days −5 to −2, lesser prepartum EB on day −8 and from days −5 to −2, and lesser postpartum DMI%BW than cows without ODDZ. Each 0.1 percentage point decrease in the average DMI%BW and each Mcal decrease in the average EB in the last 3 days prepartum increased the odds of having indigestion by 9% each. Cutoffs for DMI%BW and EB during the last 3 days prepartum to predict indigestion were established and were ≤1.3%/day and ≤0.68 Mcal/day, respectively. In summary, measures of prepartum DMI%BW and EB were associated with indigestion and ODDZ postpartum and were predictors of indigestion postpartum, although the effect sizes were small.


Author(s):  
Andrew Walayat ◽  
Yong Li ◽  
Yanyan Zhang ◽  
Yingjie Fu ◽  
Bailin Liu ◽  
...  

Maternal e-cigarette (e-cig) exposure is a pressing perinatal health concern. Emerging evidence reveals its potential adverse impacts on brain development in offspring, yet the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The present study tested the hypothesis that fetal e-cig exposure induces an aberrant DNA methylation profiles in the developing brain, leading to alteration of autophagic flux signaling and programming of a sensitive phenotype to neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Pregnant rats were exposed to chronic intermittent e-cig aerosol. Neonates were examined at the age of 9-days-old. Maternal e-cig exposure decreased the body weight and brain weight but enhanced the brain-to-body weight ratio in the neonates. E-cig exposure induced a gender-dependent increase in hypoxic-ischemia-induced brain injury in male neonates associated with enhanced ROS activity. It differentially altered DNA methyltransferase expression and enhanced both global DNA methylation levels and specific CpG methylation at the autophagy-related gene 5 (ATG5) promoter. In addition, maternal e-cig exposure caused down-regulations of ATG5, microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta and sirtuin 1 expression in neonatal brains. Of importance, knockdown of ATG5 in neonatal pups exaggerated neonatal HIE. In conclusion, the present study reveals that maternal e-cig exposure downregulates autophagy-related gene expression via DNA hypermethylation, leading to programming of a hypoxic-ischemic sensitive phenotype in the neonatal brain.


2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (3) ◽  
pp. 101-106
Author(s):  
R. K. Kurbanov ◽  
B. M. Bahamaev ◽  
E. V. Gorchakov ◽  
N. A. Gvozdetsky

The purpose of the research is study of the animal's body clinical status and changes in hematological parameters before and after treatment against sarcoptoidosis of cattle. Materials and methods. The experiment was performed on bull calves and heifers aged 6–10 months, medium finish, of 100–120 kg of body weight. The test animals were divided into three groups: two test groups and one control group of 15 animals each. Before the experiment and at 7, 14 and 21 days after treatment with acaricides, scrapings from the affected skin and blood were taken from animals of all groups for research. The first test group animals were treated with ivermectin subcutaneously at a dose of 5 ml per animal, and the second test group was treated with cydectin subcutaneously at a dose of 5 ml per animal. The control animals were not treated. Results and discussion. The conducted hematological studies found a decrease in erythrocytes and hemoglobin in sarcoptoidosis, which indicated a decrease in oxygen supply to the body, and, consequently, organs and tissues. The white blood cell differential was observed to have a noticeable decrease in monocytes and lymphocytes.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (18) ◽  
pp. 8577
Author(s):  
Hiba Murtadha Al-Saadi ◽  
Kok-Yong Chin ◽  
Fairus Ahmad ◽  
Elvy Suhana Mohd Ramli ◽  
Azlan Mohd Arlamsyah ◽  
...  

Background: Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease lacking disease-modifying therapeutic agents. This study aimed to compare the effects of palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF), glucosamine sulphate, and both agents combined in rats with osteoarthritis induced by monosodium iodoacetate (MIA). Methods: Thirty adult male rats were randomized into normal control, and osteoarthritis groups were treated orally daily with vehicle, palm TRF (100 mg/kg), glucosamine sulphate (250 mg/kg), and both agents combined for 4 weeks. Body weight and grip strength were measured weekly. After being sacrificed, the joints and blood were harvested for histology and serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) levels. Results: The body weight of the rats receiving treatment rebounded significantly after an initial reduction (vs osteoarthritic control, p < 0.05). The rats receiving combined treatments showed significantly better grip strength than the osteoarthritic control and individual treatment groups (p < 0.05). The serum COMP level was lower in all the treated groups (vs osteoarthritic control, p < 0.05). Cartilage histology of the treated rats was not significantly improved (vs osteoarthritic control, p > 0.05). Conclusion: The combination of palm TRF and glucosamine sulphate was more effective than individual agents in improving the grip strength of the rats, but the cartilage damage might need more time to heal.


Author(s):  
Rosemary Gallagher ◽  
Stephaine Perez ◽  
Derek DeLuca ◽  
Isaac L. Kurtzer

Reaching movements performed from a crouched body posture require a shift of body weight from both arms to one arm. This situation has remained unexamined despite the analogous load requirements during step initiation and the many studies of reaching from a seated or standing posture. To determine whether the body weight shift involves anticipatory or exclusively reactive control we obtained force plate records, hand kinematics, and arm muscle activity from 11 healthy right-handed participants. They performed reaching movements with their left and right arm in two speed contexts - 'comfortable' and 'as fast as possible' - and two postural contexts - a less stable knees-together posture and more stable knees-apart posture. Weight-shifts involved anticipatory postural actions (APA) by the reaching and stance arms that were opposing in the vertical axis and aligned in the side-to-side axis similar to APAs by the legs for step initiation. Weight-shift APAs were correlated in time and magnitude, present in both speed contexts, more vigorous with the knees placed together, and similar when reaching with the dominant or non-dominant arm. The initial weight-shift was preceded by bursts of muscle activity in the shoulder and elbow extensors (posterior deltoid and triceps lateral) of the reach arm and shoulder flexor (pectoralis major) of the stance arm which indicates their causal role; leg muscles may have indirectly contributed but were not recorded. The strong functional similarity of weight-shift APAs during crouched reaching to human stepping and cats reaching suggests that they are a core feature of posture-movement coordination.


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