lysine residues
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jackson Luu ◽  
Connor M. Mott ◽  
Olivia R. Schreiber ◽  
Holly M. Giovinco ◽  
Melanie Betchen ◽  
...  

Bacillus subtilis produces dormant, highly resistant endospores in response to extreme environmental stresses or starvation. These spores are capable of persisting in harsh environments for many years, even decades, without essential nutrients. Part of the reason that these spores can survive such extreme conditions is because their chromosomal DNA is well protected from environmental insults. The α/β-type small acid-soluble proteins (SASPs) coat the spore chromosome, which leads to condensation and protection from such insults. The histone-like protein HBsu has been implicated in the packaging of the spore chromosome and is believed to be important in modulating SASP-mediated alterations to the DNA, including supercoiling and stiffness. Previously, we demonstrated that HBsu is acetylated at seven lysine residues, and one physiological function of acetylation is to regulate chromosomal compaction. Here, we investigate if the process of sporulation or the resistance properties of mature spores are influenced by the acetylation state of HBsu. Using our collection of point mutations that mimic the acetylated and unacetylated forms of HBsu, we first determined if acetylation affects the process of sporulation, by determining the overall sporulation frequencies. We found that specific mutations led to decreases in sporulation frequency, suggesting that acetylation of HBsu at some sites, but not all, is required to regulate the process of sporulation. Next, we determined if the spores produced from the mutant strains were more susceptible to heat, ultraviolet (UV) radiation and formaldehyde exposure. We again found that altering acetylation at specific sites led to less resistance to these stresses, suggesting that proper HBsu acetylation is important for chromosomal packaging and protection in the mature spore. Interestingly, the specific acetylation patterns were different for the sporulation process and resistance properties of spores, which is consistent with the notion that a histone-like code exists in bacteria. We propose that specific acetylation patterns of HBsu are required to ensure proper chromosomal arrangement, packaging, and protection during the process of sporulation.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 84
Author(s):  
Marilia M. Knychala ◽  
Angela A. dos Santos ◽  
Leonardo G. Kretzer ◽  
Fernanda Gelsleichter ◽  
Maria José Leandro ◽  
...  

In previous work, we developed a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (DLG-K1) lacking the main monosaccharide transporters (hxt-null) and displaying high xylose reductase, xylitol dehydrogenase and xylulokinase activities. This strain proved to be a useful chassis strain to study new glucose/xylose transporters, as SsXUT1 from Scheffersomyces stipitis. Proteins with high amino acid sequence similarity (78–80%) to SsXUT1 were identified from Spathaspora passalidarum and Spathaspora arborariae genomes. The characterization of these putative transporter genes (SpXUT1 and SaXUT1, respectively) was performed in the same chassis strain. Surprisingly, the cloned genes could not restore the ability to grow in several monosaccharides tested (including glucose and xylose), but after being grown in maltose, the uptake of 14C-glucose and 14C-xylose was detected. While SsXUT1 lacks lysine residues with high ubiquitinylation potential in its N-terminal domain and displays only one in its C-terminal domain, both SpXUT1 and SaXUT1 transporters have several such residues in their C-terminal domains. A truncated version of SpXUT1 gene, deprived of the respective 3′-end, was cloned in DLG-K1 and allowed growth and fermentation in glucose or xylose. In another approach, two arrestins known to be involved in the ubiquitinylation and endocytosis of sugar transporters (ROD1 and ROG3) were knocked out, but only the rog3 mutant allowed a significant improvement of growth and fermentation in glucose when either of the XUT permeases were expressed. Therefore, for the efficient heterologous expression of monosaccharide (e.g., glucose/xylose) transporters in S. cerevisiae, we propose either the removal of lysines involved in ubiquitinylation and endocytosis or the use of chassis strains hampered in the specific mechanism of membrane protein turnover.


Author(s):  
Yanzhao Zhang ◽  
Seiya Ozono ◽  
Takuya Tada ◽  
Minoru Tobiume ◽  
Masanori Kameoka ◽  
...  

A member of the MARCH E3 ubiquitin ligase family, MARCH8, downregulates many different kinds of host transmembrane proteins, resulting in the regulation of cellular homeostasis. On the other hands, MARCH8 acts as an antiviral factor when it binds to and downregulates HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein and vesicular stomatitis virus G-glycoprotein that are viral transmembrane proteins.


Author(s):  
Seongmin Yoon ◽  
Konstantin Bogdanov ◽  
David Wallach

AbstractPhosphorylation of the pseudokinase mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) by the protein kinase RIPK3 targets MLKL to the cell membrane, where it triggers necroptotic cell death. We report that conjugation of K63-linked polyubiquitin chains to distinct lysine residues in the N-terminal HeLo domain of phosphorylated MLKL (facilitated by the ubiquitin ligase ITCH that binds MLKL via a WW domain) targets MLKL instead to endosomes. This results in the release of phosphorylated MLKL within extracellular vesicles. It also prompts enhanced endosomal trafficking of intracellular bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica to the lysosomes, resulting in decreased bacterial yield. Thus, MLKL can be directed by specific covalent modifications to differing subcellular sites, whence it signals either for cell death or for non-deadly defense mechanisms.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Marius Walter ◽  
Irene P Chen ◽  
Albert Vallejo-Gracia ◽  
Ik-Jung Kim ◽  
Olga Bielska ◽  
...  

SARS-CoV-2 non-structural protein Nsp14 is a highly conserved enzyme necessary for viral replication. Nsp14 forms a stable complex with non-structural protein Nsp10 and exhibits exoribonuclease and N7-methyltransferase activities. Protein-interactome studies identified human sirtuin 5 (SIRT5) as a putative binding partner of Nsp14. SIRT5 is an NAD-dependent protein deacylase critical for cellular metabolism that removes succinyl and malonyl groups from lysine residues. Here we investigated the nature of this interaction and the role of SIRT5 during SARS-CoV-2 infection. We showed that SIRT5 stably interacts with Nsp14, but not with Nsp10, suggesting that SIRT5 and Nsp10 are parts of separate complexes. We found that SIRT5 catalytic domain is necessary for the interaction with Nsp14, but that Nsp14 does not appear to be directly deacylated by SIRT5. Furthermore, knock-out of SIRT5 or treatment with specific SIRT5 inhibitors reduced SARS-CoV-2 viral levels in cell-culture experiments. SIRT5 knock-out cells expressed higher basal levels of innate immunity markers and mounted a stronger antiviral response. Our results indicate that SIRT5 is a proviral factor necessary for efficient viral replication, which opens novel avenues for therapeutic interventions.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jianfei Guo ◽  
Xiaoqiang Chai ◽  
Yuchao Mei ◽  
Jiamu Du ◽  
Haining Du ◽  
...  

AbstractLysine-ε-acetylation (Kac) is a post-translational modification (PTM) that is critical for metabolic regulation and cell signaling in mammals. However, its prevalence and importance in plants remain to be determined. Employing high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry, we analyzed protein lysine acetylation in five representative Arabidopsis organs with 2 ~ 3 biological replicates per organ. A total of 2887 Kac proteins and 5929 Kac sites were identified. This comprehensive catalog allows us to analyze proteome-wide features of lysine acetylation. We found that Kac proteins tend to be more uniformly expressed in different organs, and the acetylation status exhibits little correlation with the gene expression level, indicating that acetylation is unlikely caused by stochastic processes. Kac preferentially targets evolutionarily conserved proteins and lysine residues, but only a small percentage of Kac proteins are orthologous between rat and Arabidopsis. A large portion of Kac proteins overlap with proteins modified by other PTMs including ubiquitination, SUMOylation and phosphorylation. Although acetylation, ubiquitination and SUMOylation all modify lysine residues, our analyses show that they rarely target the same sites. In addition, we found that “reader” proteins for acetylation and phosphorylation, i.e., bromodomain-containing proteins and GRF (General Regulatory Factor)/14-3-3 proteins, are intensively modified by the two PTMs, suggesting that they are main crosstalk nodes between acetylation and phosphorylation signaling. Analyses of GRF6/14-3-3λ reveal that the Kac level of GRF6 is decreased under alkaline stress, suggesting that acetylation represses plant alkaline response. Indeed, K56ac of GRF6 inhibits its binding to and subsequent activation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase AHA2, leading to hypersensitivity to alkaline stress. These results provide valuable resources for protein acetylation studies in plants and reveal that protein acetylation suppresses phosphorylation output by acetylating GRF/14-3-3 proteins.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Rita K. Miller ◽  
Matt A. Greenlee ◽  
Braden Witt ◽  
Jeremy Sabo ◽  
Savannah C Morris

Stu2 in S. cerevisiae is a member of the XMAP215/Dis1/Alp14/Msps/CKAP5/ch-TOG family of MAPs and has multiple functions in controlling microtubules, including microtubule polymerization, microtubule depolymerization, linking chromosomes to the kinetochore, and assembly of γ-TuSCs at the SPB. Whereas phosphorylation has been shown to be critical for Stu2 localization at the kinetochore, other regulatory mechanisms that control Stu2 function are still poorly understood. Here, we show that a novel form of Stu2 regulation occurs through the acetylation of three lysine residues at K252, K469, and K870, which are located in three distinct domains of Stu2. Alteration of acetylation through acetyl-mimetic and acetyl-blocking mutations did not impact the essential function of Stu2. Instead, these mutations lead to both positive and negative changes in chromosome stability, as well as changes in resistance to the microtubule depolymerization drug, benomyl. In agreement with our in silico modeling, several acetylation-mimetic mutants displayed increased interactions with γ-tubulin. Taken together, these data suggest that Stu2 acetylation can govern multiple Stu2 functions in both a positive and negative manner, including chromosome stability and interactions at the SPB.


Author(s):  
Michael Hellwig ◽  
Julia Nitschke ◽  
Thomas Henle

AbstractThe Maillard reaction is traditionally subdivided into three stages that start consecutively and run in parallel. Here, we show that N-ε-carboxymethyllysine (CML), a compound formed in the late stage of the reaction, can undergo a second glycation event at its secondary amino group leading to a new class of Amadori rearrangement products. When N-α-hippuryl-CML was incubated in the presence of reducing sugars such as glucose, galactose, ribose, xylose, maltose, or lactose in solution for 1 h at 75 °C, the compound was degraded by 6–21%, and N-ε-carboxymethyl-N-ε-deoxyketosyl lysine derivatives were formed. Under the same conditions, lysine was 5–10 times more reactive than CML. N-α-hippuryl-N-ε-carboxymethyl-N-ε-(1-deoxyfructosyl)-l-lysine (hippuryl-CMFL) and N-ε-carboxymethyl-N-ε-(1-deoxyfructosyl)-l-lysine (CMFL) were synthesized, isolated and characterized by MS/MS and NMR experiments. Depending on the reaction conditions, up to 21% of CMFL can be converted to the furosine analogue N-ε-carboxymethyl-N-ε-furoylmethyl-l-lysine (CM-Fur) during standard acid protein hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid. Incubation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) with glucose for up to 9 weeks at 37 °C revealed the formation of CMFL in the protein as assessed by HPLC–MS/MS in the MRM mode. Under these conditions, ca. 13% of lysine residues had been converted to fructosyllysine, and 0.03% had been converted to CMFL. The detection of glycation products of glycated amino acids (heterogeneous multiple glycation) reveals a novel pathway in the Maillard reaction.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jessica G. Perez ◽  
Erik D. Carlson ◽  
Oliver Weisser ◽  
Camila Kofman ◽  
Kosuke Seki ◽  
...  

AbstractA genomically recoded Escherichia coli strain that lacks all amber codons and release factor 1 (C321.ΔA) enables efficient genetic encoding of chemically diverse, non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) into proteins. While C321.ΔA has opened new opportunities in chemical and synthetic biology, this strain has not been optimized for protein production, limiting its utility in widespread industrial and academic applications. To address this limitation, we describe the construction of a series of genomically recoded organisms that are optimized for cellular protein production. We demonstrate that the functional deactivation of nucleases (e.g., rne, endA) and proteases (e.g., lon) increases production of wild-type superfolder green fluorescent protein (sfGFP) and sfGFP containing two ncAAs up to ∼5-fold. Additionally, we introduce a genomic IPTG-inducible T7 RNA polymerase (T7RNAP) cassette into these strains. Using an optimized platform, we demonstrated the ability to introduce 2 identical N6-(propargyloxycarbonyl)-L-Lysine residues site specifically into sfGFP with a 17-fold improvement in production relative to the parent. We envision that our library of organisms will provide the community with multiple options for increased expression of proteins with new and diverse chemistries.


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