dna binding protein
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2022 ◽  
Allyssa K. Miller ◽  
Jennifer K Herman

During sporulation, Bacillus subtilis undergoes an atypical cell division that requires overriding mechanisms which protect chromosomes from damage and ensure inheritance by daughter cells. Instead of assembling between segregated chromosomes at midcell, the FtsZ-ring (Z-ring) coalesces polarly, directing division over one chromosome. The DNA-binding protein RefZ facilitates the timely assembly of polar Z-rings and partially defines the region of chromosome initially captured in the forespore. RefZ binds to motifs (RBMs) located proximal to the origin of replication (oriC). Although refZ and the RBMs are conserved across the Bacillus genus, a refZ deletion mutant sporulates with wildtype efficiency, so the functional significance of RefZ during sporulation remains unclear. To further investigate RefZ function, we performed a candidate-based screen for synthetic sporulation defects by combining ∆refZ with deletions of genes previously implicated in FtsZ regulation and/or chromosome capture. Combining ∆refZ with deletions of ezrA, sepF, parA, or minD did not detectably affect sporulation. In contrast, a ∆refZ ∆noc mutant exhibited a sporulation defect, revealing a genetic interaction between RefZ and Noc. Using reporters of sporulation progression, we determined the ∆refZ ∆noc mutant exhibited sporulation delays after Spo0A activation but prior to late sporulation, with a subset of cells failing to divide polarly or activate the first forespore-specific sigma factor, SigF. The ∆refZ ∆noc mutant also exhibited extensive dysregulation of cell division, producing cells with extra, misplaced, or otherwise aberrant septa. Our results reveal a previously unknown epistatic relationship that suggests refZ and noc contribute synthetically to regulating cell division and supporting spore development.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Anastasiia L. Sivkina ◽  
Maria G. Karlova ◽  
Maria E. Valieva ◽  
Laura L. McCullough ◽  
Timothy Formosa ◽  

AbstractFACT is a histone chaperone that participates in nucleosome removal and reassembly during transcription and replication. We used electron microscopy to study FACT, FACT:Nhp6 and FACT:Nhp6:nucleosome complexes, and found that all complexes adopt broad ranges of configurations, indicating high flexibility. We found unexpectedly that the DNA binding protein Nhp6 also binds to the C-terminal tails of FACT subunits, inducing more open geometries of FACT even in the absence of nucleosomes. Nhp6 therefore supports nucleosome unfolding by altering both the structure of FACT and the properties of nucleosomes. Complexes formed with FACT, Nhp6, and nucleosomes also produced a broad range of structures, revealing a large number of potential intermediates along a proposed unfolding pathway. The data suggest that Nhp6 has multiple roles before and during nucleosome unfolding by FACT, and that the process proceeds through a series of energetically similar intermediate structures, ultimately leading to an extensively unfolded form.

Camila Nascimento ◽  
Paula V. Nunes ◽  
Helena K. Kim ◽  
Renata E. P. Leite ◽  
Roberta D. Rodriguez ◽  

2021 ◽  
Yao Chen ◽  
Zhihan Yang ◽  
Xue Zhou ◽  
Mengmeng Jin ◽  
Zijie Dai ◽  

Abstract Deinococcus wulumuqiensis R12, which was isolated from arid irradiated soil in Xinjiang province of China, belongs to a genus Deinococcus that is well-known for its extreme resistance to ionizing radiation and oxidative stress. The DNA-binding protein Dps has been studied for its great contribution to oxidative resistance. To explore the role of Dps in D. wulumuqiensis R12, the Dps sequence and homologous structure were analyzed. In addition, the dps gene was knocked out and proteomics was used to verify the functions of Dps in D. wulumuqiensis R12. Docking data and DNA binding experiments in vitro showed that the R12 Dps has a better DNA binding ability with the N-terminal than the R1 Dps1. When the dps gene was deleted in D. wulumuqiensis R12, its resistance to H2O2 and UV rays was greatly reduced, and the cell envelope was destroyed by H2O2 treatment. Additionally, the qRT-PCR and proteomics data suggested that when the dps gene was deleted, the catalase gene was significantly down-regulated in cells. And the proteomics data indicated the metabolism, transport and oxidation-reduction processes in D. wulumuqiensis R12 were down-regulated after the deletion of dps gene. Dps protein might play an important role in Deinococcus wulumuqiensis R12.

2021 ◽  
Mary K. Thompson ◽  
Isabel Nocedal ◽  
Peter H. Culviner ◽  
Tong Zhang ◽  
Kevin R. Gozzi ◽  

2021 ◽  
Romina Cabrera-Rodriguez ◽  
Silvia Perez-Yanes ◽  
Rafaela Gonzalez-Montelongo ◽  
Jose M Lorenzo-Salazar ◽  
Judith Estevez-Herrera ◽  

The transactive response DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) is an important regulator of mRNA, being reported to stabilize the anti-HIV factor, histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6). However, little is known about the role of TDP-43 in HIV infection. In this work, we seek for the TDP-43 function on regulating CD4+ T cell permissibility to HIV infection. We observed that over-expression of wt-TDP-43 in CD4+ T cells stabilized HDAC6, increasing mRNA and the protein levels of this antiviral enzyme. Under this experimental condition, HIV-1 infection was impaired, independently of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) complex tropism. The results obtained by using an HIV-1 Env-mediated cell-to-cell fusion model, under the same experimental conditions, suggest that the increase in TDP-43 levels negatively affects the viral Env fusion capacity. Moreover, the specific siRNA silencing of endogenous TDP-43 in target cells lead to a significant decrease in the levels of HDAC6 which consistently induces an increase in the fusogenic and infection activities of the HIV-1 Env. These observations were confirmed by using primary viral Envs from HIV+ individuals with different clinical phenotypes. An increase in the level of expression of wt-TDP-43 strongly reduced the Envs infection activity of viremic non-progressors (VNP) and rapid progressors (RP) HIV+ individuals down to the levels of the inefficient HIV-1 Envs from long-term non-progressor elite controllers (LTNP-EC) individuals. On the contrary, low levels of endogenous TDP-43, obtained after specific siRNA-TDP-43 knocking-down, significantly favors the infection activity of primary HIV-1 Envs of VNP and RP individuals, leading to an increase in the infection ability of the primary HIV-1/LTNP-EC Envs. Based on this evidence, we interpret that TDP-43 conditions cell permissibility to HIV infection by affecting viral Env fusion and infection capacities, at least by altering the cellular levels of the antiviral enzyme HDAC6.

2021 ◽  
Toshiya Sato ◽  
Kanako Oda ◽  
Seiko Sakai ◽  
Rika Kato ◽  
Saori Yamamori ◽  

Abstract TAR DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43), a nuclear protein, plays an important role in the molecular pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). TDP-43 aggregation and translocation out of the nucleus are crucial factors in ALS. TDP-43 aggregation results from its resistance to degradation, to which the long-disordered C-terminal region (CTR) is thought to contribute. The CTR has two Gly, aromatic, and Ser-rich (GaroS) segments and an amyloidogenic core divided into a hydrophobic patch and a Gln/Asn (Q/N)-rich segment. Although TDP-43 lacking the CTR is known to be unstable, as observed in knock-in mice, it is unclear which of these segments contributes to the stability of TDP-43. Here, we generated 12 mouse lines lacking the various sub-regions of CTR by genome editing and compared the protein stability, activity, and subcellular localization of TDP-43. We demonstrated the functional diversity of the four segments of CTR, finding that the presence of Q/N-rich segment greatly restored the protein stability and activity of TDP-43. In addition, we found that the second GaroS deletion did not affect protein stability and mouse development.

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