Abstract Coronary heart disease (CHD) has been associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although remain controversial, several studies have demonstrated the association of M. pneumoniae infections with atherosclerosis. We evaluated the possible association of mycoplasma infections in patients diagnosed with atherosclerosis by ELISA and PCR methods. Atherosclerotic tissue samples and blood samples were collected for the detection of mycoplasma antibodies (IgA) by ELISA from the 97 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). M. pneumoniae specific IgA, IgG and IgM were measured by using the Anti-M. pneumoniae IgA/IgG/IgM ELISA. Detection of M. pneumoniae targeting the P1 adhesion gene was performed by PCR Acute infection of M. pneumoniae was diagnosed in 43.3% (42) of patients by PCR. The M. pneumoniae specific antibodies were detected in 36.1% (35) of patients. Twenty-five (25.8%) cases had IgG antibodies, 15 (15.5%) cases had IgM antibodies, 3 (3.1%) cases had IgA antibodies, 10 (10.3%) cases had both IgM + IgG antibodies and 1 (1%) case of each had IgM + IgA and IgG + IgA antibodies. None of the cases was positive for all three antibodies. A Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed an excellent correlation between the PCR and the serological results (r=0.921, p<0.001). A majority (17, 40.5%) of the M. pneumoniae positive patients are within the 41-50 years of age group, followed by 10 (23.8%) patients in the age group of 61-70 years and 2 (4.8%) patients were >70 years of age. Our study reported an unusually higher prevalence of M. pneumoniae by serological tests (36.1%) and PCR (43.3%). Although the hypothesis of the association of M. pneumoniae and CAD is yet to be proven, the unusually high prevalence of M. pneumoniae in CAD patients indicates an association, if not, in the development of atherosclerosis.
Abstract The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Gundelia tournefortii L. plant extract on different tissues in terms of DNA damage, biochemical and antioxidant parameter values in rats with high-calorie diets. With this aim, Wistar albino male rats were divided into 4 groups containing 6 rats each and the study was completed over 12 weeks duration. At the end of the implementation process over the 12 weeks, rats were sacrificed and blood and tissue samples were obtained. Analyses were performed on blood and tissue samples. According to results for DNA damage (8-OHdG), in brain tissue the OG2 group was significantly reduced compared to the NC group. For MDA results in liver tissue, OG1 and OG2 groups were determined to increase by a significant degree compared to the control group, while the OG2 group was also increased significantly compared to the obese group. In terms of the other parameters, comparison between the groups linked to consumption of a high calorie diet (HCD) and administration of Gundelia tournefortii L. in terms of antioxidant activities and serum samples obtained statistically significant results. Gundelia tournefortii L. plant extracts had effects that may be counted as positive on antioxidant parameter activity and were especially identified to improve DNA damage and MDA levels in brain tissues. Additionally, consumption of Gundelia tournefortii L. plant extract in the diet may have antiobesity effects; thus, it should be evaluated for use as an effective weight-loss method and as a new therapeutic agent targeting obesity.
Abstract Endophytic bacteria serve key roles in the maintenance of plant health and growth. Few studies to date, however, have explored the antagonistic and plant growth-promoting (PGP) properties of Prunus cerasifera endophytes. To that end, we isolated endophytic bacteria from P. cerasifera tissue samples and used a dual culture plate assay to screen these microbes for antagonistic activity against Verticillium dahliae, Botryosphaeria dothidea, Fusarium oxysporum, F. graminearum, and F. moniliforme. Of the 36 strains of isolated bacteria, four (strains P1, P10, P16, and P20) exhibited antagonistic effects against all five model pathogens, and the P10 strain exhibited the strongest antagonistic to five pathogens. This P10 strain was then characterized in-depth via phenotypic assessments, physiological analyses, and 16s rDNA sequencing, revealing it to be a strain of Bacillus subtilis. Application of a P10 cell suspension (1×108 CFU/mL) significantly enhanced the seed germination and seedling growth of tomato in a greenhouse setting. This P10 strain further significantly suppressed tomato Verticillium wilt with much lower disease incidence and disease index scores being observed following P10 treatment relative to untreated plants in pot-based experiments. Tomato plants that had been treated with strain P10 also enhanced defense-related enzymes, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activity upon V. dahliae challenge relative to plants that had not been treated with this endophytic bacterium. The results revealed that the P10 bacterial strain has potential value as a biocontrol agent for use in the prevention of tomato Verticillium wilt.
AbstractThe rapid and label-free diagnosis of malignancies in ex vivo breast biopsy tissues has significant utility in pathology laboratories and operating rooms. We report a MEMS-based platform integrated with microchips that performs phenotyping of breast biopsy tissues using electrothermal sensing. The microchip, fabricated on a silicon substrate, incorporates a platinum microheater, interdigitated electrodes (IDEs), and resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) as on-chip sensing elements. The microchips are integrated onto the platform using a slide-fit contact enabling quick replacement for biological measurements. The bulk resistivity (ρB), surface resistivity (ρS), and thermal conductivity (k) of deparaffinized and formalin-fixed paired tumor and adjacent normal breast biopsy samples from N = 8 patients were measured. For formalin-fixed samples, the mean ρB for tumors showed a statistically significant fold change of 4.42 (P = 0.014) when the tissue was heated from 25 °C to 37 °C compared to the adjacent normal tissue, which showed a fold change of 3.47. The mean ρS measurements also showed a similar trend. The mean k of the formalin-fixed tumor tissues was 0.309 ± 0.02 W m−1 K−1 compared to a significantly higher k of 0.563 ± 0.028 W m−1 K−1 for the adjacent normal tissues. A similar trend was observed in ρB,ρS, and k for the deparaffinized tissue samples. An analysis of a combination of ρB, ρS, and k using Fisher’s combined probability test and linear regression suggests the advantage of using all three parameters simultaneously for distinguishing tumors from adjacent normal tissues with higher statistical significance.
Transcripts with alternative 5′-untranslated regions (UTRs) result from the activity of alternative promoters and they can determine gene expression by influencing its stability and translational efficiency, thus executing complex regulation of developmental, physiological and pathological processes. Transcriptional regulation of human SMAD4, a key tumor suppressor deregulated in most gastrointestinal cancers, entails four alternative promoters. These promoters and alternative transcripts they generate remain unexplored as contributors to the SMAD4 deregulation in cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the relative abundance of the transcript SMAD4–201 in colorectal cell lines and tissues in order to establish if its fluctuations may be associated with colorectal cancer (CRC).
Relative abundance of SMAD4–201 in total SMAD4 mRNA was analyzed using quantitative PCR in a set of permanent human colon cell lines and tumor and corresponding healthy tissue samples from patients with CRC.
The relative abundance of SMAD4–201 in analyzed cell lines varied between 16 and 47%. A similar relative abundance of SMAD4–201 transcript was found in the majority of analyzed human tumor tissue samples, and it was averagely 20% lower in non-malignant in comparison to malignant tissue samples (p = 0.001). Transcript SMAD4–202 was not detectable in any of the analyzed samples, so the observed fluctuations in the composition of SMAD4 transcripts can be attributed to transcripts other than SMAD4–201 and SMAD4–202.
The expression profile of SMAD4–201 in human tumor and non-tumor tissue samples may indicate the translational potential of this molecule in CRC, but further research is needed to clarify its usability as a potential biomarker for early diagnosis.
Objective. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a kind of solid and highly aggressive malignant tumor with poor prognosis. MicroRNA (miRNA/miR) has been confirmed to be involved in HCC development. The current study focused on the functions and mechanisms of miR-517c in HCC. Methods. Expressions of miR-517c and Karyopherin α2 (KPNA2) mRNA in HCC cell lines and tissue samples were examined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Western blot was conducted for detections of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and PI3K/AKT markers. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Transwell assays were utilized to investigate the influence of miR-517c on HCC cell proliferation, invasion, and migration. TargetScan and luciferase reporter assay were performed to search for the potential target gene of miR-517c. Results. We demonstrated that miR-517c expressions were decreased in HCC tissues and cells. Moreover, the clinical analysis showed that decreased miR-517c expressions in HCC tissues correlated with shorter overall survival and malignant clinicopathologic features of HCC patients. MTT assay showed that miR-517c upregulation prominently repressed HCC cell proliferation. In addition, miR-517c restoration could significantly suppress HCC cell invasion and migration as demonstrated by Transwell assays. We also found that miR-517c directly targeted KPNA2 and regulated the PI3K/AKT pathway and EMT, exerting prohibitory functions in HCC. Conclusion. Taken together, this study stated that miR-517c inhibited HCC progression via regulating the PI3K/AKT pathway and EMT and targeting KPNA2 in HCC, providing a novel insight into HCC treatment.
Yellow fever (YF) is a pansystemic disease caused by the yellow fever virus (YFV), the prototype species of the family Flaviviridae and genus Flavivirus, and has a highly complex host-pathogen relationship, in which endothelial dysfunction reflects viral disease tropism. In this study, the in situ endothelial response was evaluated. Liver tissue samples were collected from 21 YFV-positive patients who died due to the disease and five flavivirus-negative controls who died of other causes and whose hepatic parenchyma architecture was preserved. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissues in the hepatic parenchyma of YF cases showed significantly higher expression of E-selectin, P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and very late antigen-4 in YFV-positive cases than in flavivirus-negative controls. These results indicate that endothelium activation aggravates the inflammatory response by inducing the expression of adhesion molecules that contribute to the rolling, recruitment, migration, and construction of the inflammatory process in the hepatic parenchyma in fatal YF cases.
Molecular markers play an important role in predicting clinical outcomes in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAAD) patients. Analysis of the ferroptosis-related genes may provide novel potential targets for the prognosis and treatment of PAAD.
RNA-sequence and clinical data of PAAD was downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) public databases. The PAAD samples were clustered by a non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) algorithm. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between different subtypes were used by “limma_3.42.2” package. The R software package clusterProfiler was used for functional enrichment analysis. Then, a multivariate Cox proportional and LASSO regression were used to develop a ferroptosis-related gene signature for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. A nomogram and corrected curves were constructed. Finally, the expression and function of these signature genes were explored by qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and proliferation, migration and invasion assays.
The 173 samples were divided into 3 categories (C1, C2, and C3) and a 3-gene signature model (ALOX5, ALOX12, and CISD1) was constructed. The prognostic model showed good independent prognostic ability in PAAD. In the GSE62452 external validation set, the molecular model also showed good risk prediction. KM-curve analysis showed that there were significant differences between the high and low-risk groups, samples with a high-risk score had a worse prognosis. The predictive efficiency of the 3-gene signature-based nomogram was significantly better than that of traditional clinical features. For comparison with other models, that our model, with a reasonable number of genes, yields a more effective result. The results obtained with qPCR and IHC assays showed that ALOX5 was highly expressed, whether ALOX12 and CISD1 were expressed at low levels in tissue samples. Finally, function assays results suggested that ALOX5 may be an oncogene and ALOX12 and CISD1 may be tumor suppressor genes.
We present a novel prognostic molecular model for PAAD based on ferroptosis-related genes, which serves as a potentially effective tool for prognostic differentiation in pancreatic cancer patients.
Background: Thyroid benign nodules (TBNs) are the most common diseases of this endocrine gland and are common worldwide. Among TBNs the colloid goiter (CG) and thyroid adenoma (TA) are very frequentdiseases. Evaluation of variant of TBNs is clinically important for subsequent therapeutic interventions, as well as for a clearer understanding the etiology of these disorders. The aim of this exploratory study was to examine differences in the content offifty trace elements (TE) in CG and TA tissues.
Methods: Thyroid tissue levels of TE have prospectively evaluated in 46 patients with CG and 19 patients with TA. Measurements have performed using a combination of non-destructive and destructive methods: instrumental neutron activation analysis with high resolution spectrometry of long-lived radionuclides (INAA-LLR) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), respectively. Tissue samples were divided into two portions. One was used for morphological study while the other was intended for TE analysis.
Results: It was observed that in both CG and TA tissues the contents of Ag, Al, Cr, Hg, Mn, Th, and Zn increased, whereas the levels of Au, Be, Cs, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Th, Yb, and Zr were unchanged in comparison with normal thyroid tissue. No differences were found between the TE contents of CG and TA.
Conclusions: From results obtained, it was possible to conclude that the common characteristics of CG and TA tissue samples were of a high level of Ag, Al, Cr, Hg, Mn, Th, and Zn in comparison with normal thyroid and, therefore, these TE could be involved in etiology and pathogenesis of thyroid disorders such as CG and TA.
Peer Review History:
Received: 12 November 2021; Revised: 15 December; Accepted: 31 December, Available online: 15 January 2022
Academic Editor: Ahmad Najib, Universitas Muslim Indonesia, Indonesia, [email protected]
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Received file: Reviewer's Comments:
Average Peer review marks at initial stage: 6.5/10
Average Peer review marks at publication stage: 7.5/10
Prof. Dr. Hassan A.H. Al-Shamahy, Sana'a University, Yemen, [email protected]
Rima Benatoui, Laboratory of Applied Neuroendocrinology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Badji Mokhtar University Annaba, BP12 E L Hadjar–Algeria, [email protected]
COMPARISON OF LEVELS OF TWENTY CHEMICAL ELEMENTS IN NORMAL THYROID TISSUE AND HYPERTROPHIC THYROID TISSUE
Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are a significant cause of premature deaths worldwide. Since there is no specific treatment for reducing AAA progression, it is crucial to understand the pathogenesis leading to aneurysm wall weakening/remodeling and identify new proteins involved in this process which could subsequently serve as novel therapeutic targets. In this study, we analyzed the presence of the hypoxia-related proteins carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), and AKT as the key molecule in the phosphoinositide-3-kinase pathway in the AAA wall. Additionally, we used a blood-based assay to examine soluble CA IX (s-CA IX) levels in the plasma of AAA patients. Using western blotting, we detected CA IX protein in 12 out of 15 AAA tissue samples. Immunohistochemistry staining proved CA IX expression in the media of the aneurysmal wall. Evaluation of phosphorylated (p-AKT) and total AKT showed elevated levels of both forms in AAA compared to normal aorta. Using ELISA, we determined the concentration of s-CA IX >20 pg/mL in 13 out of 15 AAA patients. Results obtained from in silico analysis of CA9 and aneurysm-associated genes suggest a role for CA IX in aneurysmal wall remodeling. Our results prove the presence of hypoxia-related CA IX in AAA tissues and indicate a possible role of CA IX in hypoxia-associated cardiovascular diseases.