climate change effects
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2022 ◽  
Vol 5 ◽  
Ingrid Fromm

Coffee is an important agricultural sector in Central American, directly employing over 1.2 million people in Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. Although export revenues from coffee trade have an overall positive effect on the gross domestic product (GDP) of these countries, poverty still prevails. The COVID-19 pandemic has placed additional pressure on the sector which is vulnerable to fluctuations in the international coffee prices, low productivity levels, and climate change effects and damages caused by pest and diseases. This paper examines the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and analyzes if the sector is resilient to withstand unexpected external shocks such as the pandemic and the hurricanes which impacted the region in the last months of 2020. The capacity to absorb, adapt, and/or transform to these shocks was assessed from the perspective of small-scale coffee farmers, traders, exporters and the entire sector in two time periods—immediately after the start of the pandemic and after the coffee harvest. Although the actors in the coffee value chain absorbed these shocks and could withstand them, adaptation to the disruptions has been challenging for small-scale farmers. Despite the vulnerability to unexpected external shocks, results indicate that a long-term transformation of the sector to build resilience is likely to be slow.

F. Liu ◽  
A. Schellart ◽  
J. Boxall ◽  
M. Mayfield ◽  
S. Tait

A study was undertaken to explore opportunities for achieving reducing greenhouse gas emissions from UK domestic heating by using existing drinking water and wastewater assets as energy storage and recovery mechanisms, coupled with modest local renewable energy generation. The sensitivity of the solutions to future projections for domestic heating demands and climate change effects was explored. Simulations optimised the available energy supply, potential for storage, heat recovery and heat demand to minimise emissions at a scale that could be adopted in most UK towns. The approach may be able to deliver significant emissions reductions with more limited capital investment than more centralised renewable energy approaches. Results from two UK locations showed that integrated water–energy systems could theoretically reduce emissions by about 50%. Furthermore, the system could satisfy demand for about 70% of the time periods each year. Future scenarios were tested and it was found that the projected annual emissions reduction was similar across all scenarios, suggesting this would be a robust approach.

Climate ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 7
Leonel J. R. Nunes ◽  
Marta Ferreira Dias

Climate change is a current subject that is attracting more and more attention, whether from academics or the public. This public attention is mainly due to the frequently published news in the media, reporting consequences caused by extreme weather events. On the other hand, scientists are looking into the origins of the phenomenon, seeking answers that will somehow help to mitigate the effects of climate change. This article presents a review of some of the different possible approaches taken on climate change, to demonstrate the need to build a multidisciplinary perspective of the problem. It is understood that only the integration of different perspectives, presented by different areas of knowledge, such as natural sciences, social and economic sciences and human sciences, will make it possible to build modeling and predictive scenarios, which realistically may represent the development of the earth system under the influence of climate change. In this way, with the support of all areas of knowledge, the creation of forecast models where all possible changes to the different variables of the earth system may be simulated will allow for the mitigation measures presented to be analyzed in advance and, thus, prioritized. This review shows that a multi and interdisciplinary approach, based on the knowledge acquired from different knowledge and science fields, presents itself as the way to solve this global and complex problem caused by climate change.

Land ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 100
Michael Kempf

Fighting land degradation of semi-arid and climate-sensitive grasslands are among the most urgent tasks of current eco-political agenda. Particularly, northern China and Mongolia are prone to climate-induced surface transformations, which were reinforced by the heavily increased numbers of livestock during the 20th century. Extensive overgrazing and resource exploitation amplified regional climate change effects and triggered intensified land degradation that forced policy-driven interventions to prevent desertification. In the past, however, the regions have been subject to continuous shifts in environmental and socio-cultural and political conditions, which makes it particularly difficult to distinguish into regional anthropogenic impact and global climate change effects. This article presents analyses of historical written sources, palaeoenvironmental data, and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) temporal series from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to compare landcover change during the Little Ice Age (LIA) and current spectral greening trends over the period 2001–2020. Results show that decreasing precipitation and temperature records triggered increased land degradation during the late 17th century in the transition zone from northern China and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region to Mongolia. From current climate change perspectives, modern vegetation shows enhanced physical vegetation response related to an increase in precipitation (Ptotal) and temperature (T). Vegetation response is strongly related to Ptotal and T and an increase in physical plant condition indicates local to regional grassland recovery compared to the past 20-year average.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 435
Nebiyu Girgibo ◽  
Anne Mäkiranta ◽  
Xiaoshu Lü ◽  
Erkki Hiltunen

Suvilahti, a suburb of the city of Vaasa in western Finland, was the first area to use seabed sediment heat as the main source of heating for a high number of houses. Moreover, in the same area, a unique land uplift effect is ongoing. The aim of this paper is to solve the challenges and find opportunities caused by global warming by utilizing seabed sediment energy as a renewable heat source. Measurement data of water and air temperature were analyzed, and correlations were established for the sediment temperature data using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) Enterprise Guide 7.1. software. The analysis and provisional forecast based on the autoregression integrated moving average (ARIMA) model revealed that air and water temperatures show incremental increases through time, and that sediment temperature has positive correlations with water temperature with a 2-month lag. Therefore, sediment heat energy is also expected to increase in the future. Factor analysis validations show that the data have a normal cluster and no particular outliers. This study concludes that sediment heat energy can be considered in prominent renewable production, transforming climate change into a useful solution, at least in summertime.

2022 ◽  
pp. 309-331
G. N. Tanjina Hasnat

Tropical dry forests is one of the most unique forest types. It differs from other tropical forests with its climatic behavior like a prominent dry period, little annual rainfall, and high evapotranspiration. Out of six global bioclimatic zones, the forests are distributed in four. Climate change is now the most challenging issue regarding the fate of tropical dry forests. A severe climatic change is estimated to occur between 2040 and 2069 that could drastically change the precipitation pattern, temperature, aridity, and distribution of biodiversity. It could alter the forest type permanently. With a large number of heat-tolerant species, tropical dry forests have a great potentiality to conservationists with the prediction of a large area that could attain the climatic condition favorable for extension of tropical dry forests. But many of the species of tropical dry forests could be extinct due to changing climate at the same time. Proper adaptation and mitigation techniques could minimize the severity of climate change effects.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-26
Kiakisiki Quaresma Nascimento ◽  
Maria Raquel Raquel Lucas ◽  
Pedro Damião Henriques

Since 2016, STP has been funding the implementation of greenhouses, viewed as a viable way to guarantee, increase, and diversify production; supply the market; improve farmers' incomes; and mitigate climate change impacts. The greenhouses in selected districts were based on farmers' experiences in horticultural production, available agricultural area, and capacity of rural communities to organize themselves into small farmers' cooperatives. There are also private greenhouse initiatives. This chapter analyzed the current situation of the STP greenhouse project and its socioeconomic contribution to rural communities, proposing actions for its improvement, addressing climate changes and poverty reduction. Despite several weaknesses, mainly linked to lack of knowledge and mastery of technology, greenhouse production represents a viable alternative for horticulture development. Greenhouses, properly exploited, are a mechanism to mitigate climate change effects and ensure an increase in income and consequently reduce poverty and improve individual and collective living conditions.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1220-1228
Wilson Okaka

This chapter examines climate change and variability emergency disaster risks on agricultural food security of the local communities in Africa with a focus on gender equality lens in Uganda. Ugandan women contribute up to 75% of domestic food production and yet they are often overburdened with reproduction, household management, gender-specific discrimination, and adverse climate change effects like agricultural droughts, flash flooding, violent windstorms, or water stress. To ensure sustainable food security in the face of climate change vulnerability risks, the role of women is vital. Communication strategy to promote local climate information service (CIS) delivery system has been developed by the local government district planners in the park areas, but there is a lack of capacity to raise public awareness of the gender equality for the empowerment of women and girls for sustainable food security through agriculture production in Uganda for enhanced livelihood assets.

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