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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 765
Zongcheng Ma ◽  
Danqiang Chen ◽  
Guoshuai Li ◽  
Xianyong Jing ◽  
Shuchen Xiao

Hybrid aerial underwater vehicles (HAUV) are newly borne vehicle concepts, which could fly in the air, navigate underwater, and cross the air-water surface repeatedly. Although there are many problems to be solved, the advanced concept, which combines the integrated multidomain locomotion of both water and air mediums is worth exploring. This paper presents the water–air trans-media status of the HAUV from the perspective of the configuration and trans-media control. It shows that the multi-rotor HAUV is relatively mature and has achieved a stable water–air trans-media process repeatedly. The morphing HAUV is still in its exploration stage, and has achieved partial success.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 340
Ibrahim Fayad ◽  
Nicolas Baghdadi ◽  
Frédéric Frappart

Spaceborne LiDAR altimetry has been demonstrated to be an essential source of data for the estimation and monitoring of inland water level variations. In this study, water level estimates from the Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) were validated against in situ gauge station records over Lake Geneva for the period between April 2019 and September 2020. The performances of the first and second releases (V1 and V2, respectively) of the GEDI data products were compared, and the effects on the accuracy of the instrumental and environmental factors were analyzed in order to discern the most accurate GEDI acquisitions. The respective influences of five parameters were analyzed in this study: (1) the signal-over-noise ratio (SNR); (2) the width of the water surface peak within the waveform (gwidth); (3) the amplitude of the water surface peak within the waveform (A); (4) the viewing angle of GEDI (VA); and (5) the acquiring beam. Results indicated that all these factors, except the acquiring beam, had an effect on the accuracy of GEDI elevations. Nonetheless, using VA as a filtering criterion was demonstrated to be the best compromise between retained shot count and water level estimation accuracy. Indeed, by choosing the shots with a VA ≤ 3.5°, 74.6% of the shots (after an initial filter) were retained with accuracies similar to choosing A > 400 (46.2% retained shots), SNR > 15 dB (63.3% retained shots), or gwidth < 10 bins (46.5% of retained shots). Finally, the comparison between V1 and V2 elevations showed that V2, overall, provided elevations with a more constant, but higher, bias and fewer deviations to the in situ data than V1. Indeed, by choosing GEDI shots with VA ≤ 3.5°, the unbiased RMSE (ubRMSE) of GEDI elevations was 27.1 cm with V2 (r = 0.66) and 42.8 cm with V1 (r = 0.34). Results also show that the accuracy of GEDI (ubRMSE) does not seem to depend on the beam number and GEDI acquisition dates for the most accurate GEDI acquisitions (VA ≤ 3.5°). Regarding the bias, a higher value was observed with V2, but with lower variability (54 cm) in comparison to V1 (35 cm). Finally, the bias showed a slight dependence on beam GEDI number and strong dependence on GEDI dates.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 46
Adalet Dervisoglu

Deltas and lagoons, which contain many flora and fauna, have rich coastal ecological and biological environments, and are wetlands of vital importance for humans. In this study, the current problems in all coastal Ramsar sites in Turkey are summarized, and changes in water surface areas are investigated using Landsat and Sentinel 1/2 satellite images on the Google Earth Engine (GEE) cloud computing platform. Landsat TM and OLI images were used in the long-term analysis, and time series were created by taking annual and July to September averages between 1985 and 2020. In the short-term analysis, monthly averages were determined using Sentinel 2 images between 2016 and 2020. Sentinel-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images were used in the months when optical data were not suitable for use in monthly analysis. The Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) was used to extract water surface areas from the optical images. Afterwards, a thresholding process was used for both optical and radar images to determine the changes. The changes were analyzed together with the meteorological data and the information obtained from the management plans and related studies in the literature. Changes in the water surface areas of all coastal Ramsar sites in Turkey were determined from 1985 to 2020 at different rates. There was a decreasing trend in the Goksu and Kızılırmak Deltas, which also have inland wetlands. The decreasing rates from 1985 to 2020 were −24.52% and −2.86%, for annual average water surfaces for the Goksu and Kızılırmak Deltas, respectively, and −21.64% and −6.34% for the dry season averages, respectively. However, Akyatan Lagoon, which also has inland wetlands, showed an increasing trend. Observing the annual average surface area from 1985 to 2020, an increase of 438 ha was seen, corresponding to 7.65%. Every year, there was an increasing trend in the Gediz Delta and Yumurtalık Lagoons, that do not have inland wetlands. The increasing rates from 1985 to 2020 were 46.01% and 17.31% for the annual average surface area, for the Gediz Delta and Yumurtalık Lagoons, respectively, and 38.34% and 21.04% for the dry season average, respectively. The obtained results reveal the importance of using remote sensing methods in formulating strategies for the sustainable management of wetlands.

Processes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 131
Wei Luo ◽  
Wenlong Han ◽  
Ping Fu ◽  
Huijuan Wang ◽  
Yunfeng Zhao ◽  

Water surface plastic pollution turns out to be a global issue, having aroused rising attention worldwide. How to monitor water surface plastic waste in real time and accurately collect and analyze the relevant numerical data has become a hotspot in water environment research. (1) Background: Over the past few years, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been progressively adopted to conduct studies on the monitoring of water surface plastic waste. On the whole, the monitored data are stored in the UAVS to be subsequently retrieved and analyzed, thereby probably causing the loss of real-time information and hindering the whole monitoring process from being fully automated. (2) Methods: An investigation was conducted on the relationship, function and relevant mechanism between various types of plastic waste in the water surface system. On that basis, this study built a deep learning-based lightweight water surface plastic waste detection model, which was capable of automatically detecting and locating different water surface plastic waste. Moreover, a UAV platform-based edge computing architecture was built. (3) Results: The delay of return task data and UAV energy consumption were effectively reduced, and computing and network resources were optimally allocated. (4) Conclusions: The UAV platform based on airborne depth reasoning is expected to be the mainstream means of water environment monitoring in the future.

2022 ◽  
David Armisén ◽  
Séverine Viala ◽  
Isabelle da Rocha Silva Cordeiro ◽  
Antonin Jean Johan Crumèire ◽  
Elisa Hendaoui ◽  

Key innovations enable access to new adaptive zones and are often linked to increased species diversification. As such, they have attracted much attention, yet their concrete consequences on the subsequent evolutionary trajectory and diversification of the bearing lineages remain unclear. The monophyletic group of water striders and relatives (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerromorpha) represent a group of insects that transited to live on the water-air interface and diversified to occupy ponds, puddles, streams, mangroves and even oceans. This lineage offers an excellent model to study the patterns and processes underlying species diversification following the conquest of new adaptive zones. However, such studies require a reliable and comprehensive phylogeny of the infraorder. Based on whole transcriptomic datasets of 97 species and fossil records, we reconstructed a new phylogeny of the Gerromorpha that resolved inconsistencies and uncovered strong support for previously unknown relationships between some important taxa. We then used this phylogeny to reconstruct the ancestral state of a set of adaptations associated with water surface invasion (fluid locomotion, dispersal and transition to saline waters) and sexual dimorphism. Our results uncovered important patterns and dynamics of phenotypic evolution revealing how the initial event of water surface invasion enabled multiple subsequent transitions to new adaptive zones, representing distinct niches of water surfaces, and further diversification of the group. This phylogeny and the associated transcriptomic datasets constitute highly valuable resources, making Gerromorpha an attractive model lineage to study phenotypic evolution.

Naoki Shirai ◽  
Takuma Kaneko ◽  
Yuto Takamura ◽  
Koichi Sasaki

Abstract We have shown that measuring the surface tension is a useful scheme to examine the plasma-liquid interface in real-time. The surface tension was measured using a method based on the dispersion relation of an acoustic capillary wave excited on the water surface. The surface tension gradually increased with time, when the water surface was irradiated with the outside region of the spatial afterglow of an atmospheric-pressure plasma. The Marangoni effect associated with the localized increase in the surface tension was observed during the plasma irradiation. The surface tension decreased after the termination of the discharge. A correlation was found between the transient decrease in the surface tension and the variation of the OH radical density in the gas phase. No increase in the surface tension was observed in the solution containing a trapping agent for liquid-phase OH radicals. These experimental results suggest that OH radicals act to increase the surface tension. However, the behavior of the surface tension cannot be explained perfectly by considering only the action of OH radicals.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Na Zhang ◽  
Xiaorou Zheng ◽  
Xin Wang

To improve human well-being, there is increasing awareness of elevating aesthetic benefits by landscape design, planning, and management. However, which landscape features and attributes may be associated with aesthetic value of an urban landscape, human aesthetic preference, and landscape practices is still not clear yet. We proposed a comprehensive aesthetic assessment approach to realise the determination of landscape aesthetic indicators, integration of objective indicators and subjective preferences, and validation of estimations. The approach was based on a four-level landscape aesthetic indicator system from the bottom features up to attributes (landscape naturalness, landscape complexity, plant species diversity, water surface, water clarity, and bank naturalness), component qualities, and finally overall quality. Fourteen metrics that could provide objective visual and spatial characters and ecological implications were identified and quantified to indicate landscape aesthetic features. Landscape aesthetic attributes, vegetation and waterbody component qualities, and overall quality were estimated by integrating objective indicators and human subjective preferences. The approach was applied to a case study of four subareas along an artificially restored riparian buffer in Beijing, China. The results showed that the modelled overall aesthetic quality was determined by both vegetation (accounting for 53%) and waterbody. The higher vegetation quality depended on the higher plant abundance, more vegetation patches, and more vegetation patch types; the higher waterbody quality depended on the clearer water and larger water surface. Compared with other features, vertical vegetation configuration, diversity of patch type and patch shape, and shrub species diversity had greater contribution to the attributes of naturalness, complexity, and plant species diversity, respectively. The modelled vegetation aesthetic attributes were directly validated using the surveyed perceptions, and the modelled vegetation and waterbody aesthetic qualities were indirectly validated by correlating with the main recreational activities. The approach is confirmed to be able to address the questions on determination, integration, and validation of landscape aesthetic indicators in some way. Thus, the approach is expected to be used for other landscapes to offer a framework for landscape practices to improve aesthetic value and cultural service.

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