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2022 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Lorenzo Domaneschi ◽  
Oscar Ricci

This paper draws on conceptual and analytical tools from cultural sociology to analyze media representations of the MMA right after the murder of a twenty-year-old boy, that took place in a small village in central Italy by a gang of young men, two of whom frequented a MMA gym. While often characterized as violent and uncivilized, MMA has a core following of fans who watch and practice MMA out of an interest in the effects of the sport in terms of health and well-being. Through in depth qualitative analysis of  MMA media discourse offered by traditional and new media, this paper explores the way the MMA media constructs symbolic boundaries around different kinds of fights inside and outside the gym, through aesthetic and moral evaluations based on the hierarchical ‘distinctions’ between “violence” and “health” as possible outcomes of the MMA training process. Particularly, we carry out a discourse analysis based on Italian Newspapers, Magazines and Facebook groups dedicated to MMA, through which we frame the multiple representations of the discursive production built around the MMA in Italy. Our aim is to identify the different ways in which the discussion about this event provided narrative paths and points of view about the meaning of MMA, focusing on the reputational consequences concerning health, especially in its physical and mental expressions. This research may prove useful for scholars interested in MMA, culture, and sports media studies.

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 210
Gilbert Koskey ◽  
Federico Leoni ◽  
Stefano Carlesi ◽  
Luciano Avio ◽  
Paolo Bàrberi

Relay intercropping is considered a valuable agroecological practice to increase and stabilize crop yields while ensuring the provision of several ecosystem services as well as sustainability and resilience to changing climatic conditions. However, farmers are still reluctant in the use of intercropping practices since there is a huge knowledge gap regarding the time of sowing, sowing ratio, crop stand density, and cultivar choice. In this study, we carried out a 3-year field experiment in Central Italy to assess the effect of relay intercropping on the agronomic performance and competitiveness of winter durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. cv. Minosse) and spring lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. cv. Elsa) under a low-input management system, comparing different crop stand types (monocrop vs. intercrop) and target plant densities (350 plants m2—full dose vs. 116 plants m2—1/3 dose). The results revealed that intercropping increased grain yield compared to monocropping: significantly (p < 0.0001) against both monocrops in 2021 and non-significantly against durum wheat in 2019 and 2020. Yield advantage in both intercropping systems ranged between 164 and 648%. Durum wheat competitiveness was stronger in 2019 and 2021, while lentil was the most competitive component in 2020. Intercropping favored P accumulation in durum wheat shoots. There was no difference in grain yield of both crops between the highly- and lowly-dense system in 2020 and 2021. Both intercropping strategies were as effective as mechanical hoeing in controlling weeds and proved beneficial in stabilizing lentil productivity. Further economic analysis capturing the additional costs incurred in intercropping and mechanical weeding would highlight the magnitude of profitability of these systems.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 10
Matteo Riccò ◽  
Simona Peruzzi ◽  
Federica Balzarini ◽  
Alessandro Zaniboni ◽  
Silvia Ranzieri

Enhanced surveillance for dengue virus (DENV) infections in Italy has been implemented since 2012, with annual reports from the National Health Institute. In this study, we summarize available evidence on the epidemiology of officially notified DENV infections from 2010–2021. In total, 1043 DENV infection cases were diagnosed, and most of them occurred in travelers, with only 11 autochthonous cases. The annual incidence rates of DENV infections peaked during 2019 with 0.277 cases per 100,000 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.187–0.267), (age-adjusted incidence rate: 0.328, 95% CI 0.314–0.314). Cases of DENV were clustered during the summer months of July (11.4%), August (19.3%), and September (12.7%). The areas characterized by higher notification rates were north-western (29.0%), and mostly north-eastern Italy (41.3%). The risk for DENV infection in travelers increased in the time period 2015–2019 (risk ratio [RR] 1.808, 95% CI 1.594–2.051) and even during 2020–2021 (RR 1.771, 95% CI 1.238–2.543). Higher risk for DENV was additionally reported in male subjects compared with females subjects, and aged 25 to 44 years, and in individuals from northern and central Italy compared to southern regions and islands. In a multivariable Poisson regression model, the increased number of travelers per 100 inhabitants (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.065, 95% CI 1.036–1.096), the incidence in other countries (IRR 1.323, 95% CI 1.165–1.481), the share of individuals aged 25 to 44 years (IRR 1.622, 95% CI 1.338–1.968), and foreign-born residents (IRR 2.717, 95% CI 1.555–3.881), were identified as effectors of annual incidence. In summary, although the circulation of DENV remains clustered among travelers, enhanced surveillance is vital for the early detection of human cases and the prompt implementation of response measures.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Andrea Lombardo ◽  
Giuseppina Brocherel ◽  
Carla Donnini ◽  
Gianluca Fichi ◽  
Alessia Mariacher ◽  

AbstractBaylisascaris procyonis is a nematode parasite of the raccoon (Procyon lotor), and it can be responsible for a severe form of larva migrans in humans. This parasite has been reported from many countries all over the world, after translocation of its natural host outside its native geographic range, North America. In the period between January and August 2021, 21 raccoons were cage-trapped and euthanized in Tuscany (Central Italy), in the context of a plan aimed at eradicating a reproductive population of this non-native species. All the animals were submitted for necroscopic examination. Adult ascariids were found in the small intestine of seven raccoons (prevalence 33.3%). Parasites have been identified as B. procyonis based on both morphometric and molecular approaches. The aim of the present article is to report the first finding of this zoonotic parasite from Italy, highlighting the sanitary risks linked to the introduction of alien vertebrate species in new areas. Graphical Abstract

2022 ◽  
pp. SP521-2021-149
Xiangdong Zhao ◽  
Daran Zheng ◽  
He Wang ◽  
Yanan Fang ◽  
Naihua Xue ◽  

AbstractThe Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE) 1b is well documented in western Tethys, however, records in Eurasia are still lacking. Here, we carried out high-resolution organic carbon isotope (δ13Corg), total organic carbon (TOC) contents and mercury (Hg) concentrations analysis of the lacustrine sediments from the Xiagou and Zhonggou formations in the Hanxiagou section, Jiuquan Basin, northwestern China. The lacustrine δ13Corg curve presents three stages of negative excursions above the basalt layer dated at 112.4 ± 0.3 Ma in the lowermost Zhonggou Formation. The three negative δ13Corg excursions, well corresponded with the three subevents (Kilian, Paquier, and Leenhardt) of the OAE1b in Poggio le Guaine (central Italy), Vocontian Basin (SE France) and St Rosa Canyon (NE Mexico) sections, supporting the record of the terrestrial OAE 1b in the Jiuquan Basin. Five mercury enrichment (ME) intervals in Hg/TOC ratios were recognized, indicating that the pulsed volcanism from the southern Kerguelen Plateau likely triggered the OAE 1b. However, the decoupling between NIE shifts and mercury enrichments signifying other carbon reservoir (with no link to mercury) probably contributed to the global carbon cycle perturbation during the OAE 1b period. Our results provide direct evidence to link the OAE 1b and terrestrial ecosystem in the Eurasia.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (4) ◽  
Roberto Barbani ◽  
Giulia Lalinga ◽  
Lia Bardasi ◽  
Raffaella Branciari ◽  
Dino Miraglia ◽  

The interest in certified game meat chains highlights the need for the evaluation and the management of factors affecting carcass hygiene along the peculiar steps of the production. The effects of time and temperature before chilling were specifically evaluated on aerobic colony count and Enterobacteriaceae count in hunted wild boar carcasses. Thirty wild boars were considered in two process steps where the hunted animal are still not chilled: after evisceration and just before chilling. Environmental temperature, carcass temperature and the elapse time between the two-step considered were registered. Furthermore, surface microbial loads were analyzed on the inner part of the carcasses. The mean time between the two sampling steps was 6 hours with an average environmental temperature of 20.49°C. A carcass temperature 9.6°C drop was observed during this period. In this lap of time aerobic colony count and Enterobacteriaceae count increased of 0.68 Log CFU/cm2 and 1.01 Log CFU/cm2 respectively, with a moderate correlation with the time but not with the temperature delta. The results reveal that the temperature conditions in central Italy hunting areas were not able to quickly reduce the carcass temperature and therefore the time between carcass evisceration and chilling should not exceed 6 hours.

2022 ◽  
Marcus Herrmann ◽  
Ester Piegari ◽  
Warner Marzocchi

Abstract The Magnitude–Frequency-Distribution (MFD) of earthquakes is typically modeled with the (tapered) Gutenberg–Richter relation. The main parameter of this relation, the b-value, controls the relative rate of small and large earthquakes. Resolving spatiotemporal variations of the b-value is critical to understanding the earthquake occurrence process and improving earthquake forecasting. However, this variation is not well understood. Here we present unexpected MFD variability using a high-resolution earthquake catalog of the 2016–2017 central Italy sequence. Isolation of seismicity clusters reveals that the MFD differs in nearby clusters, varies or remains constant in time depending on the cluster, and features an unexpected b-value increase in the cluster where the largest event will occur. These findings suggest a strong influence of the heterogeneity and complexity of tectonic structures on the MFD. Our findings raise the question of the appropriate spatiotemporal scale for resolving the b-value, which poses a serious obstacle to interpreting and using the MFD in earthquake forecasting.

Duccio Migliorini ◽  
Nicola Luchi ◽  
Emanuele Nigrone ◽  
Francesco Pecori ◽  
Alessia Lucia Pepori ◽  

AbstractHymenoscyphus fraxineus, causal agent of Ash Dieback, has posed a threat to Fraxinus excelsior (common ash) in Europe since the 1990s. In south-western Europe, optimal climatic conditions for H. fraxineus become scattered and host density decreases, reducing disease spread rates. To date, the Ash Dieback agent has not been reported from southern and most of central Italy, where native F. excelsior is present as small fragmented populations. This study examines the expansion of Ash Dieback into central Italy, and it considers the consequences of further local spread with regards to the loss of F. excelsior genetic resource. Symptomatic F. excelsior were sampled from sixteen sites in northern and central Italy during 2020. Specimens were analyzed with a culturomics and a quantitative PCR approach. A bibliographic search of F. excelsior floristic reports was conducted for the creation of a detailed range map. The combined use of both techniques confirmed the presence of H. fraxineus in all the sites of central Italy where host plants were symptomatic. These new records represent the southern limit of the current known distribution of this pathogen in Italy, and together with Montenegro, in Europe. The characterization of the F. excelsior scattered range suggests that further spread of Ash Dieback across southern Italy is a realistic scenario. This presents a threat not just to the southern European proveniences of F. excelsior, but to the species as a whole, should Ash Dieback lead to the loss of warm climate adapted genetic material, which may become increasingly valuable under climate change.

Francesca Giustini ◽  
Livio Ruggiero ◽  
Alessandra Sciarra ◽  
Stan Eugene Beaubien ◽  
Stefano Graziani ◽  

Radon (222Rn) is a natural radioactive gas formed in rocks and soil by the decay of its parent nuclide (238-Uranium). The rate at which radon migrates to the surface, be it along faults or directly emanated from shallow soil, represents the Geogenic Radon Potential (GRP) of an area. Considering that the GRP is often linked to indoor radon risk levels, we have conducted multi-disciplinary research to: (i) define local GRPs and investigate their relationship with associated indoor Rn levels; (ii) evaluate inhaled radiation dosages and the associated risk to the inhabitants; and (iii) define radon priority areas (RPAs) as required by the Directive 2013/59/Euratom. In the framework of the EU-funded LIFE-Respire project, a large amount of data (radionuclide content, soil gas samples, terrestrial gamma, indoor radon) was collected from three municipalities located in different volcanic districts of the Lazio region (central Italy) that are characterised by low to high GRP. Results highlight the positive correlation between the radionuclide content of the outcropping rocks, the soil Rn concentrations and the presence of high indoor Rn values in areas with medium to high GRP. Data confirm that the Cimini–Vicani area has inhalation dosages that are higher than the reference value of 10 mSv/y.

Maria Piane ◽  
Lavinia Bianco ◽  
Rita Mancini ◽  
Paolo Fornelli ◽  
Angela Gabriele ◽  

Clinical pathways (CPs) are multidisciplinary clinical governance tools necessary for the care management of the patients, whose aim is to outline the best practicable path within a health organization related to an illness or to a complex clinical situation. The COVID-19 pandemic emergency has created the need for an organizational renewal of care pathways based on the principles of “primary health care” recommended by the WHO. In Italy, the Hospitals and Local Health Authorities (ASL) have tried to guarantee the continuity of non-deferrable treatments and the maximum safety of both patients and health professionals. This study analyzes the organizational and managerial responses adopted in pathology-specific care pathways to assess how CPs as diagnostic tools responded to the COVID-19 pandemic in the first two waves. Twenty-four referents of Operational Units (UU OO) from Hospitals (AO) and Local Health Authorities (ASL) of the Lazio Region (Central Italy) that apply four different CPs responded to a survey, which analyzes the managerial and organizational responses of CPs in regard to different contexts. Results show that the structural and organizational adjustments of the CPs have made it possible to maintain an adequate level of care for specific treatment processes, with some common critical aspects that require improvement actions. The adjustments found could be useful for dealing with new outbreaks and/or new epidemics in order to try to mitigate the potential negative impact, especially on the most vulnerable patient categories.

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