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2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-33
Zahra Ebrahimi ◽  
Dennis Klar ◽  
Mohammad Aasim Ekhtiyar ◽  
Akash Kumar

The rapid evolution of error-resilient programs intertwined with their quest for high throughput has motivated the use of Single Instruction, Multiple Data (SIMD) components in Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). Particularly, to exploit the error-resiliency of such applications, Cross-layer approximation paradigm has recently gained traction, the ultimate goal of which is to efficiently exploit approximation potentials across layers of abstraction. From circuit- to application-level, valuable studies have proposed various approximation techniques, albeit linked to four drawbacks: First, most of approximate multipliers and dividers operate only in SISD mode. Second, imprecise units are often substituted, merely in a single kernel of a multi-kernel application, with an end-to-end analysis in Quality of Results (QoR) and not in the gained performance. Third, state-of-the-art (SoA) strategies neglect the fact that each kernel contributes differently to the end-to-end QoR and performance metrics. Therefore, they lack in adopting a generic methodology for adjusting the approximation knobs to maximize performance gains for a user-defined quality constraint. Finally, multi-level techniques lack in being efficiently supported, from application-, to architecture-, to circuit-level, in a cohesive cross-layer hierarchy. In this article, we propose Plasticine , a cross-layer methodology for multi-kernel applications, which addresses the aforementioned challenges by efficiently utilizing the synergistic effects of a chain of techniques across layers of abstraction. To this end, we propose an application sensitivity analysis and a heuristic that tailor the precision at constituent kernels of the application by finding the most tolerable degree of approximations for each of consecutive kernels, while also satisfying the ultimate user-defined QoR. The chain of approximations is also effectively enabled in a cross-layer hierarchy, from application- to architecture- to circuit-level, through the plasticity of SIMD multiplier-dividers, each supporting dynamic precision variability along with hybrid functionality. The end-to-end evaluations of Plasticine  on three multi-kernel applications employed in bio-signal processing, image processing, and moving object tracking for Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV) demonstrate 41%–64%, 39%–62%, and 70%–86% improvements in area, latency, and Area-Delay-Product (ADP), respectively, over 32-bit fixed precision, with negligible loss in QoR. To springboard future research in reconfigurable and approximate computing communities, our implementations will be available and open-sourced at

2022 ◽  
Behzad Koosha ◽  
Omid Manoochehri ◽  
Hermann J. Helgert
V Band ◽  

Mathematics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 139
Zhifeng Ding ◽  
Zichen Gu ◽  
Yanpeng Sun ◽  
Xinguang Xiang

The detection method based on anchor-free not only reduces the training cost of object detection, but also avoids the imbalance problem caused by an excessive number of anchors. However, these methods only pay attention to the impact of the detection head on the detection performance, thus ignoring the impact of feature fusion on the detection performance. In this article, we take pedestrian detection as an example and propose a one-stage network Cascaded Cross-layer Fusion Network (CCFNet) based on anchor-free. It consists of Cascaded Cross-layer Fusion module (CCF) and novel detection head. Among them, CCF fully considers the distribution of high-level information and low-level information of feature maps under different stages in the network. First, the deep network is used to remove a large amount of noise in the shallow features, and finally, the high-level features are reused to obtain a more complete feature representation. Secondly, for the pedestrian detection task, a novel detection head is designed, which uses the global smooth map (GSMap) to provide global information for the center map to obtain a more accurate center map. Finally, we verified the feasibility of CCFNet on the Caltech and CityPersons datasets.

2022 ◽  
Vol 70 (2) ◽  
pp. 3685-3700
K. Venkatachalam ◽  
P. Prabu ◽  
B. Saravana Balaji ◽  
Byeong-Gwon Kang ◽  
Yunyoung Nam ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 181 ◽  
pp. 472-473
Shaohua Wan ◽  
Remigiusz Wiśniewski ◽  
George Alexandropoulos ◽  
Zonghua Gu ◽  
Pierluigi Siano

2022 ◽  
pp. 62-90
Tushar Mane ◽  
Ambika Pawar

Deep learning-based investigation mechanisms are available for conventional forensics, but not for IoT forensics. Dividing the system into different layers according to their functionalities, collecting data from each layer, finding the correlating factor, and using it for pattern detection is the fundamental concept behind the proposed intelligent system. The authors utilize this notion for embedding intelligence in forensics and speed up the investigation process by providing hints to the examiner. They propose a novel cross-layer learning architecture (CCLA) for IoT forensics. To the best of their knowledge, this is the first attempt to incorporate deep learning into the forensics of the IoT ecosystem.

2022 ◽  
Vol 31 (1) ◽  
pp. 43-59
Sameer Alsharif ◽  
Rashid A. Saeed ◽  
Yasser Albagory

2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (6) ◽  
pp. 559-567
Battula Phijik ◽  
Chakunta Venkata Guru Rao

Wireless networks rely on ad hoc communication in an emergency, such as a search and rescue or military missions. WLAN, WiMAX, and Bluetooth are often used in Ad Hoc networks. Using a TCP/IP wireless network poses several challenges. Packet loss in 802.11 may be caused by noise or the network. TCP/IP connects non-adjacent layers of the network, resolving cross-layer communication technology for cross-layer communication. It regulates data transmission energy. This structure solves an issue in various ways. It is often used to improve data transfer. Currently, the OSI reference model's layers and functions are not explicitly connected. Only DCL can send multimedia data via wireless networks. The research employs CLD to improve wireless security—invasions of ad hoc networks (MANETs). The research helps secure wireless MANs (MANETs), Vampire Attack Defense (VAP) algorithms. A Secure Cross-Layer Design SCLD-AHN protocol is included. The paper contributes to controlling security attacks in wireless Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET's). In MANETs effectiveness of Vampire Attack Defense (VAP) algorithms is evaluated and analyzed. It also proposes a Secure Cross-Layer Design for the ad hoc networks (SCLD-AHN) protocol.

Information ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 524
Yuan Li ◽  
Mayire Ibrayim ◽  
Askar Hamdulla

In the last years, methods for detecting text in real scenes have made significant progress with an increase in neural networks. However, due to the limitation of the receptive field of the central nervous system and the simple representation of text by using rectangular bounding boxes, the previous methods may be insufficient for working with more challenging instances of text. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a scene text detection network based on cross-scale feature fusion (CSFF-Net). The framework is based on the lightweight backbone network Resnet, and the feature learning is enhanced by embedding the depth weighted convolution module (DWCM) while retaining the original feature information extracted by CNN. At the same time, the 3D-Attention module is also introduced to merge the context information of adjacent areas, so as to refine the features in each spatial size. In addition, because the Feature Pyramid Network (FPN) cannot completely solve the interdependence problem by simple element-wise addition to process cross-layer information flow, this paper introduces a Cross-Level Feature Fusion Module (CLFFM) based on FPN, which is called Cross-Level Feature Pyramid Network (Cross-Level FPN). The proposed CLFFM can better handle cross-layer information flow and output detailed feature information, thus improving the accuracy of text region detection. Compared to the original network framework, the framework provides a more advanced performance in detecting text images of complex scenes, and extensive experiments on three challenging datasets validate the realizability of our approach.

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