wireless networks
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Zaid Hashim Jaber ◽  
Dheyaa Jasim Kadhim ◽  
Ahmed Sabah Al-Araji

<p><span>Medium access control (MAC) protocol design plays a crucial role to increase the performance of wireless communications and networks. The channel access mechanism is provided by MAC layer to share the medium by multiple stations. Different types of wireless networks have different design requirements such as throughput, delay, power consumption, fairness, reliability, and network density, therefore, MAC protocol for these networks must satisfy their requirements. In this work, we proposed two multiplexing methods for modern wireless networks: Massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) and power domain non-orthogonal multiple access (PD-NOMA). The first research method namely Massive MIMO uses a massive number of antenna elements to improve both spectral efficiency and energy efficiency. On the other hand, the second research method (PD-NOMA) allows multiple non-orthogonal signals to share the same orthogonal resources by allocating different power level for each station. PD-NOMA has a better spectral efficiency over the orthogonal multiple access methods. A review of previous works regarding the MAC design for different wireless networks is classified based on different categories. The main contribution of this research work is to show the importance of the MAC design with added optimal functionalities to improve the spectral and energy efficiencies of the wireless networks.</span></p>

Rana Jassim Mohammed ◽  
Enas Abbas Abed ◽  
Mostafa Mahmoud El-gayar

<p>Wireless networks are currently used in a wide range of healthcare, military, or environmental applications. Wireless networks contain many nodes and sensors that have many limitations, including limited power, limited processing, and narrow range. Therefore, determining the coordinates of the location of a node of the unknown location at a low cost and a limited treatment is one of the most important challenges facing this field. There are many meta-heuristic algorithms that help in identifying unknown nodes for some known nodes. In this manuscript, hybrid metaheuristic optimization algorithms such as grey wolf optimization and salp swarm algorithm are used to solve localization problem of internet of things (IoT) sensors. Several experiments are conducted on every meta-heuristic optimization algorithm to compare them with the proposed method. The proposed algorithm achieved high accuracy with low error rate (0.001) and low power <br />consumption.</p>

Yaesr Khamayseh ◽  
Rabiah Al-qudah

<p>Wireless networks are designed to provide the enabling infrastructure for emerging technological advancements. The main characteristics of wireless networks are: Mobility, power constraints, high packet loss, and lower bandwidth. Nodes’ mobility is a crucial consideration for wireless networks, as nodes are moving all the time, and this may result in loss of connectivity in the network. The goal of this work is to explore the effect of replacing the generally held assumption of symmetric radii for wireless networks with asymmetric radii. This replacement may have a direct impact on the connectivity, throughput, and collision avoidance mechanism of mobile networks. The proposed replacement may also impact other mobile protocol’s functionality. In this work, we are mainly concerned with building and maintaining fully connected wireless network with the asymmetric assumption. For this extent, we propose to study the effect of the asymmetric links assumption on the network performance using extensive simulation experiments. Extensive simulation experiments were performed to measure the impact of these parameters. Finally, a resource allocation scheme for wireless networks is proposed for the dual rate scenario. The performance of the proposed framework is evaluated using simulation.</p>

Sharra Mae B. Fernandez ◽  

This experimental research study determined and compared the webpage browsing performance of proprietary and open source operating systems on wireless networks. It was intended to reveal the significant differences in the webpage browsing performance between proprietary and open source operating systems on wireless networks when classified as to hardware specifications and type’s web content. The researchers used the JavaScript Console of the Google Chrome web browser application to determine the time of the webpage to fully load. Operating system was the independent variable. Hardware specifications which were classified as old system and new system and types of web content which was also classified as static and dynamic webpages were the intervening variables. Webpages browsing performance was the dependent variable. The statistical tools used were arithmetic mean, and t-test. It also revealed that there were significant differences in the webpage browsing performance between proprietary and open source operating system on wireless networks when classified as to hardware specification and web content. The proprietary and open source operating systems were statistically different when classified as to hardware specifications and type of web content.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-16
Nagaraj Varatharaj ◽  
Sumithira Thulasimani Ramalingam

Most revolutionary applications extending far beyond smartphones and high configured mobile device use to the future generation wireless networks’ are high potential capabilities in recent days. One of the advanced wireless networks and mobile technology is 5G, where it provides high speed, better reliability, and amended capacity. 5 G offers complete coverage, which is accommodates any IoT device, connectivity, and intelligent edge algorithms. So that 5 G has a high demand in a wide range of commercial applications. Ambrosus is a commercial company that integrates block-chain security, IoT network, and supply chain management for medical and food enterprises. This paper proposed a novel framework that integrates 5 G technology, Machine Learning (ML) algorithms, and block-chain security. The main idea of this work is to incorporate the 5 G technology into Machine learning architectures for the Ambrosus application. 5 G technology provides continuous connection among the network user/nodes, where choosing the right user, base station, and the controller is obtained by using for ML architecture. The proposed framework comprises 5 G technology incorporate, a novel network orchestration, Radio Access Network, and a centralized distributor, and a radio unit layer. The radio unit layer is used for integrating all the components of the framework. The ML algorithm is evaluated the dynamic condition of the base station, like as IoT nodes, Ambrosus users, channels, and the route to enhance the efficiency of the communication. The performance of the proposed framework is evaluated in terms of prediction by simulating the model in MATLAB software. From the performance comparison, it is noticed that the proposed unified architecture obtained 98.6% of accuracy which is higher than the accuracy of the existing decision tree algorithm 97.1% .

Complexity ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-24
Ling Yang ◽  
Weiwei Yang ◽  
Liang Tang ◽  
Liwei Tao ◽  
Xingbo Lu ◽  

In this work, we investigated a covert communication method in wireless networks, which is realized by multiantenna full-duplex single relay. In the first stage, the source node sends covert messages to the relay, and the relay uses a single antenna to send interference signals to the adversary node to protect the covert information being transmitted. In the second stage, the relay decodes and forwards the covert information received in the first stage; at the same time, the relay uses zero-forcing beamforming to send interference signals to the warden to ensure covert transmission. The detection error rate, transmission outage probability, maximum effective covert rate, and other performance indicators are derived in two stages, and the total performance of the system is derived and analyzed. Then, the performance indicators are verified and analyzed by simulation. Our analysis shows that the maximum effective covert rate of using the characteristics of multiantenna to interfere with Willie in the second stage is taken as the total covert performance of the system, and the transmission interruption probability is significantly less than that of the first stage, so the corresponding maximum effective concealment efficiency will be greater.

Poorva Sironja ◽  
Surender Redhu ◽  
Rajesh M Hegde ◽  
Baltasar Beferull-Lozano

Shah Zeb ◽  
Aamir Mahmood ◽  
Syed Ali Hassan ◽  
MD. Jalil Piran ◽  
Mikael Gidlund ◽  

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