Ad Hoc Networks
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Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 571
Eric Chiejina ◽  
Hannan Xiao ◽  
Bruce Christianson ◽  
Alexios Mylonas ◽  
Chidinma Chiejina

The distributed nature of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) presents security challenges and vulnerabilities which sometimes lead to several forms of attacks. To improve the security in MANETs, reputation and trust management systems (RTMS) have been developed to mitigate some attacks and threats arising from abnormal behaviours of nodes in networks. Generally, most reputation and trust systems in MANETs focus mainly on penalising uncooperative network nodes. It is a known fact that nodes in MANETs have limited energy resources and as such, the continuous collaboration of cooperative nodes will lead to energy exhaustion. This paper develops and evaluates a robust Dirichlet reputation and trust management system which measures and models the reputation and trust of nodes in the network, and it incorporates candour into the mode of operations of the RTMS without undermining network security. The proposed RTMS employs Dirichlet probability distribution in modelling the individual reputation of nodes and the trust of each node is computed based on the node’s actual network performance and the accuracy of the second-hand reputations it gives about other nodes. The paper also presents a novel candour two-dimensional trustworthiness evaluation technique that categorises the behaviours of nodes based on their evaluated total reputation and trust values. The evaluation and analyses of some of the simulated behaviours of nodes in the deployed MANETs show that the candour two-dimensional trustworthiness evaluation technique is an effective technique that encourages and caters to nodes that continuously contribute to the network despite the reduction in their energy levels.

2022 ◽  
Doğanalp Ergenç ◽  
Ertan Onur

AbstractControl and user (data) plane separation (CUPS) is a concept applied in various networking areas to scale network resources independently, increase the quality of service, and facilitate the autonomy of networks. In this study, we leverage this concept to design a plane-separated routing algorithm, CUPS-based hierarchical routing algorithm (CHRA), as an energy-efficient and low-latency end-to-end communication scheme for clustered ad-hoc networks. In CHRA, while cluster heads constitute the control plane to conduct network discovery and routing, ordinary nodes residing in the user plane forward packets according to the routing decisions taken by the control plane. Exploiting the CUPS, we avoid exhausting cluster heads by offloading packet-forwarding to ordinary nodes and improve the quality of service by utilizing alternative paths other than the backbone of cluster heads. Our simulation results show that CHRA offers a better quality of service in terms of end-to-end latency and data-to-all ratio, and promotes fairness in energy-consumption in both stationary and mobile scenarios.

Haitao Zhao ◽  
Jiawen Tang ◽  
Bamidele Adebisi ◽  
Tomoaki Ohtsuki ◽  
Guan Gui ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 2161 (1) ◽  
pp. 012018
M Deeksha ◽  
Ashish Patil ◽  
Muralidhar Kulkarni ◽  
N. Shekar V. Shet ◽  
P. Muthuchidambaranathan

Abstract Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have emerged in time to reduce on-road fatalities and provide efficient information exchange for entertainment-related applications to users in a well-organized manner. VANETs are the most instrumental elements in the Internet of Things (IoT). The objective lies in connecting every vehicle to every other vehicle to improve the user’s quality of life. This aim of continuous connectivity and information exchange leads to the generation of more information in the medium, which could congest the medium to a larger extent. Decentralized congestion control (DCC) techniques are specified to reduce medium congestion and provide various safety applications. This article presents two DCC mechanisms that adapt message rate and data rate combined with transmit power control mechanism. These mechanisms are developed under multi-state active design proposed by the standard. The proposed methods deliver better performance over other mechanisms in terms of power, channel load, and channel utilization using real-time-based scenarios by simulation in SUMO.

IEEE Access ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 1-1
Junjing He ◽  
Yujie Wang ◽  
Xin Du ◽  
Zhihui Lu ◽  
Qiang Duan ◽  

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