ad hoc networks
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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-27
Author(s):  
Gaurav Singal ◽  
Vijay Laxmi ◽  
Manoj Singh Gaur ◽  
D. Vijay Rao ◽  
Riti Kushwaha ◽  
...  

Multicast communication plays a pivotal role in Edge based Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs). MANETs can provide low-cost self-configuring devices for multimedia data communication that can be used in military battlefield, disaster management, connected living, and public safety networks. A Multicast communication should increase the network performance by decreasing the bandwidth consumption, battery power, and routing overhead. In recent years, a number of multicast routing protocols (MRPs) have been proposed to resolve above listed challenges. Some of them are used for dynamic establishment of reliable route for multimedia data communication. This article provides a detailed survey of the merits and demerits of the recently developed techniques. An ample study of various Quality of Service (QoS) techniques and enhancement is also presented. Later, mesh topology-based MRPs are classified according to enhancement in routing mechanism and QoS modification. This article covers the most recent, robust, and reliable QoS-aware mesh based MRPs, classified on the basis of their operational features, and pros and cons. Finally, a comparative study has been presented on the basis of their performance parameters on the proposed protocols.


Author(s):  
Hayder M. Amer ◽  
Ethar Abduljabbar Hadi ◽  
Lamyaa Ghaleb Shihab ◽  
Hawraa H. Al Mohammed ◽  
Mohammed J. Khami

Technology such as vehicular ad hoc networks can be used to enhance the convenience and safety of passenger and drivers. The vehicular ad hoc networks safety applications suffer from performance degradation due to channel congestion in high-density situations. In order to improve vehicular ad hoc networks reliability, performance, and safety, wireless channel congestion should be examined. Features of vehicular networks such as high transmission frequency, fast topology change, high mobility, high disconnection make the congestion control is a challenging task. In this paper, a new congestion control approach is proposed based on the concept of hybrid power control and contention window to ensure a reliable and safe communications architecture within the internet of vehicles network. The proposed approach performance is investigated using an urban scenario. Simulation results show that the network performance has been enhanced by using the hybrid developed strategy in terms of received messages, delay time, messages loss, data collision and congestion ratio.


Author(s):  
Dr. Sultanuddin SJ ◽  
◽  
Dr. Md. Ali Hussain ◽  

Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) have evolved into a leading multi-hop infrastructure less wireless communication technology where every node performs the function of a router. Ad- hoc networks have been spontaneously and specifically designed for the nodes to communicate with each other in locations where it is either complex or impractical to set up an infrastructure. The overwhelming truth is that with IoT emergence, the number of devices being connected every single second keeps increasing tremendously on account of factors like scalability, cost factor and scalability which are beneficial to several sectors like education, disaster management, healthcare, espionage etc., where the identification and allocation of resources as well as services is a major constraint. Nevertheless, this infrastructure with dynamic mobile nodes makes it more susceptible to diverse attack scenarios especially in critical circumstances like combat zone communications where security is inevitable and vulnerabilities in the MANET could be an ideal choice to breach the security. Therefore, it is crucial to select a robust and reliable system that could filter malicious activities and safeguard the network. Network topology and mobility constraints poses difficulty in identifying malicious nodes that can infuse false routes or packets could be lost due to certain attacks like black hole or worm hole. Hence our objective is to propose a security solution to above mentioned issue through ML based anomaly detection and which detects and isolates the attacks in MANETs. Most of the existing technologies detect the anomalies by utilizing static behavior; this may not prove effective as MANET portrays dynamic behavior. Machine learning in MANETs helps in constructing an analytical model for predicting security threats that could pose enormous challenges in future. Machine learning techniques through its statistical and logical methods offers MANETs the learning potential and encourages towards adaptation to different environments. The major objective of our study is to identify the intricate patterns and construct a secure mobile ad-hoc network by focusing on security aspects by identifying malicious nodes and mitigate attacks. Simulation-oriented results establish that the proposed technique has better PDR and EED in comparison to the other existing techniques.


Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 643
Author(s):  
Muhammad Bilal Latif ◽  
Feng Liu ◽  
Kai Liu

An autonomous driving environment poses a very stringent requirement for the timely delivery of safety messages in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). Time division multiple access (TDMA)-based medium access control (MAC) protocols are considered a promising solution because of their time-bound message delivery. However, in the event of mobility-caused packet collisions, they may experience an unpredicted and extended delay in delivering messages, which can cause catastrophic accidents. To solve this problem, a distributed TDMA-based MAC protocol with mobility-caused collision mitigation (MCCM-MAC) is presented in this paper. The protocol uses a novel mechanism to detect merging collisions and mitigates them by avoiding subsequent access collisions. One vehicle in the merging collisions retains the time slot, and the others release the slot. The common neighboring vehicles can timely suggest a suitable new time slot for the vacating vehicles, which can avoid access collisions between their packet transmissions. A tie-breakup mechanism is employed to avoid further access collisions. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol reduces packet loss more than the existing methods. Consequently, the average delay between the successfully delivered periodic messages is also reduced.


Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 571
Author(s):  
Eric Chiejina ◽  
Hannan Xiao ◽  
Bruce Christianson ◽  
Alexios Mylonas ◽  
Chidinma Chiejina

The distributed nature of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) presents security challenges and vulnerabilities which sometimes lead to several forms of attacks. To improve the security in MANETs, reputation and trust management systems (RTMS) have been developed to mitigate some attacks and threats arising from abnormal behaviours of nodes in networks. Generally, most reputation and trust systems in MANETs focus mainly on penalising uncooperative network nodes. It is a known fact that nodes in MANETs have limited energy resources and as such, the continuous collaboration of cooperative nodes will lead to energy exhaustion. This paper develops and evaluates a robust Dirichlet reputation and trust management system which measures and models the reputation and trust of nodes in the network, and it incorporates candour into the mode of operations of the RTMS without undermining network security. The proposed RTMS employs Dirichlet probability distribution in modelling the individual reputation of nodes and the trust of each node is computed based on the node’s actual network performance and the accuracy of the second-hand reputations it gives about other nodes. The paper also presents a novel candour two-dimensional trustworthiness evaluation technique that categorises the behaviours of nodes based on their evaluated total reputation and trust values. The evaluation and analyses of some of the simulated behaviours of nodes in the deployed MANETs show that the candour two-dimensional trustworthiness evaluation technique is an effective technique that encourages and caters to nodes that continuously contribute to the network despite the reduction in their energy levels.


2022 ◽  
pp. 121-134
Author(s):  
Manwinder Singh ◽  
Navdeep Kaur Jhajj ◽  
Anudeep Goraya

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