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2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-33
Zahra Ebrahimi ◽  
Dennis Klar ◽  
Mohammad Aasim Ekhtiyar ◽  
Akash Kumar

The rapid evolution of error-resilient programs intertwined with their quest for high throughput has motivated the use of Single Instruction, Multiple Data (SIMD) components in Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). Particularly, to exploit the error-resiliency of such applications, Cross-layer approximation paradigm has recently gained traction, the ultimate goal of which is to efficiently exploit approximation potentials across layers of abstraction. From circuit- to application-level, valuable studies have proposed various approximation techniques, albeit linked to four drawbacks: First, most of approximate multipliers and dividers operate only in SISD mode. Second, imprecise units are often substituted, merely in a single kernel of a multi-kernel application, with an end-to-end analysis in Quality of Results (QoR) and not in the gained performance. Third, state-of-the-art (SoA) strategies neglect the fact that each kernel contributes differently to the end-to-end QoR and performance metrics. Therefore, they lack in adopting a generic methodology for adjusting the approximation knobs to maximize performance gains for a user-defined quality constraint. Finally, multi-level techniques lack in being efficiently supported, from application-, to architecture-, to circuit-level, in a cohesive cross-layer hierarchy. In this article, we propose Plasticine , a cross-layer methodology for multi-kernel applications, which addresses the aforementioned challenges by efficiently utilizing the synergistic effects of a chain of techniques across layers of abstraction. To this end, we propose an application sensitivity analysis and a heuristic that tailor the precision at constituent kernels of the application by finding the most tolerable degree of approximations for each of consecutive kernels, while also satisfying the ultimate user-defined QoR. The chain of approximations is also effectively enabled in a cross-layer hierarchy, from application- to architecture- to circuit-level, through the plasticity of SIMD multiplier-dividers, each supporting dynamic precision variability along with hybrid functionality. The end-to-end evaluations of Plasticine  on three multi-kernel applications employed in bio-signal processing, image processing, and moving object tracking for Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV) demonstrate 41%–64%, 39%–62%, and 70%–86% improvements in area, latency, and Area-Delay-Product (ADP), respectively, over 32-bit fixed precision, with negligible loss in QoR. To springboard future research in reconfigurable and approximate computing communities, our implementations will be available and open-sourced at https://cfaed.tu-dresden.de/pd-downloads.

Dr. S. K. Saravanan

Abstract: A chain of blocks that contains information is the definition of Blockchain. The technique is intended to timestamp digital documents so that it is not possible to temper them. The purpose of blockchain is to solve the double records problem without the need of a central server. Blockchain provides a creative approach to storing information, executing transactions, conducting tasks and trust building. Blockchain is an emerging technology for the applications Smart Cities, Smart Grids, Healthcare, Education, Crypto-currency and Supply chain. This research work would offer a detailed analysis of Blockchain in the Educational domain. It also studies the various applications of Blockchain technology. Keywords: Blockchain, Smart Cities, Healthcare, Education, Supply Chain, Privacy, Security.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Ana Maria Nogales Vasconcelos ◽  
Lenice Ishitani ◽  
Daisy Maria Xavier Abreu ◽  
Elisabeth França

ObjectiveThis study aimed to analyze the chain of events and contributing causes associated with COVID-19 adult mortality (30–69 years old), based on qualified data on CoD from three Brazilian capitals cities, Belo Horizonte, Salvador, and Natal, in 2020.MethodsData of all deaths among residents in the three capitals in 2020 were provided by these municipalities' routine Mortality Information System (SIM). Mentions B34.2 with the markers U07.1 and U07.2 in the death certificate identified COVID-19 deaths. We used a multiple-cause-of-death approach better to understand the complexity of the morbid process of COVID-19. Conditions that appeared more frequently in the same line or above the COVID-19 mentions in the death certificate were considered a chain-of-event. Conditions that occurred more often after the codes for COVID-19 were considered as contributing.ResultsIn 2020, 7,029 records from COVID-19 as the underlying cause of death were registered in SIM in the three capitals. Among these, 2,921 (41.6%) were deceased between 30 and 69 years old, representing 17.0% of deaths in this age group. As chain-of-events, the most frequent conditions mentioned were sepsis (33.4%), SARS (32.0%), acute respiratory failure (31.9%), unspecified lower respiratory infections (unspecified pneumonia) (20.1%), and other specified respiratory disorders (14.1%). Hypertension (33.3%), diabetes unspecified type (21.7%), renal failure (12.7%), obesity (9.8%), other chronic kidney diseases (4.9%), and diabetes mellitus type 2 (4.7%) were the most frequent contributing conditions. On average, 3.04 conditions were mentioned in the death certificate besides COVID-19. This average varied according to age, place of death, and capital.ConclusionThe multiple-cause analysis is a powerful tool to better understand the morbid process due to COVID-19 and highlight the importance of chronic non-communicable diseases as contributing conditions.

Г.В. Петрухнова ◽  
И.Р. Болдырев

Представлен комплекс технических средств создания для системы сбора данных. Проведена формализация процессов реализации функций контроля технического объекта. Рассматриваемая система сбора данных состоит из функционально законченных устройств, выполняющих определенные функции в контексте работы системы. Данная система, с одной стороны, может быть одним из узлов распределенной системы сбора данных, с другой стороны, может использоваться автономно. Показана актуальность создания системы. В основе разработки использован RISC микроконтроллер STM32H743VIT6, семейства ARM Cortex-M7, работающий на частоте до 400 МГц. К основным модулям системы относятся 20-входовый распределитель напряжения; модуль питания и настройки; модуль цифрового управления; модуль анализа, хранения и передачи данных в управляющий компьютер. Рассмотрен состав и назначение этих модулей. За сбор данных в рассматриваемой системе отвечает цепочка устройств: датчик - схема согласования - АЦП - микроконтроллер. Поскольку в составе системы имеются не только АЦП, но и ЦАП, то на ее базе может быть реализована система управления объектом. Выбор датчиков для снятия информации обусловлен особенностями объекта контроля. Имеется возможность в ручном режиме измерять электрические параметры контуров связи, в том числе обеспечивать проверку питания IDE и SATA-устройств. Представленная система сбора данных является средством, которое может быть использовано для автоматизации процессов контроля состояния технических объектов We present a set of technical means for creating a data collection system. We carried out the formalization of the processes of implementing the control functions of a technical object. The multifunctional data collection system consists of functionally complete devices that perform certain functions in the context of the system operation. This system, on the one hand, can be one of the nodes of a distributed data collection system, on the other hand, it can be used autonomously. We show the relevance of the system creation. The development is based on the RISC microcontroller STM32H743VIT6, ARM Cortex-M7 family, operating at a frequency of up to 400 MHz. The main modules of the system include: a 20-input voltage distributor; a power supply and settings module; a digital control module; a module for analyzing, storing and transmitting data to a control computer. We considered the composition and purpose of these modules. A chain of devices is responsible for data collection in the system under consideration: sensor - matching circuit - ADC - microcontroller. Since the system includes not only an ADC but also a DAC, an object management system can be implemented on its basis. The choice of sensors for taking information is due to the characteristics of the object of control. It is possible to manually measure the electrical parameters of the communication circuits, including checking the power supply of IDE and SATA devices. The presented data collection system is a tool that can be used to automate the processes of monitoring the condition of technical facilities

2022 ◽  
Fangfang Wen ◽  
Chu Chen ◽  
Ke Yang ◽  
Zengqi Luo ◽  
Huiyi Xie ◽  

Abstract Background: Nowadays, as more and more Chinese farmers in rural area went to city for work, they left their kids at home. These kids were left-behind adolescents and they developed without their parental accompany. The family function of left-behind adolescents was deficient, which may result in their social withdrawal in social situations. Therefore, in this study, in order to improve left-behind adolescents’ psychological and behavior problems, we aimed to investigate their level of social withdrawal and its impact factors. Method: There were 339 left-behind adolescents and 289 non-left-behind adolescents recruited from a Chinese junior high school. Their social withdrawal, social support, relative deprivation, and resilience were measured through questionnaires. Results: The results showed that compared with non-left-behind adolescents, left-behind adolescents had lower social support and resilience, but their social withdrawal and relative deprivation were higher; besides, left-behind adolescents’ social support negatively predicted social withdrawal, while relative deprivation and resilience played a chain mediating role between them. Conclusion: This study found that compared with none-left-behind adolescents, left-behind adolescents had difficulty in social adaptation. However, there was a “context-process-outcome” model in which social support negatively predicted social withdrawal, while relative deprivation and resilience played a chain mediating role between them. In sum, this study provided suggestions to promote the mental health and social behavioral development of left-behind adolescents.

2022 ◽  
Attila Zsolnai ◽  
Adrienn Csókás ◽  
László Szabó ◽  
László Patkó ◽  
Sándor Csányi ◽  

AbstractStudies of wild boar, Sus scrofa Linnaeus 1758, in urban and suburban areas of Budapest, Hungary, have indicated that these populations do not have continuous contact. Based on the assumption that the city has a discrete population, we hypothesized that the urban wild boar would differ genetically from those in suburban areas. Analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data using the GeneSeek Genomic Profiler (GGP) Porcine 50 K system (Neogen, Scotland, UK) differentiated three populations: Buda (B) from the Western bank of the Danube; Buda Surrounding (BS); and Valkó (V) from the Eastern bank of the Danube. The coefficient of genetic differentiation (FST) for the B and BS populations was low. The inbreeding coefficients of the populations BS and V were close to zero, while population B had a high positive value reflecting the influence of founders and the inbreeding of the continuous urban population. The genome regions that were most differentiated between the B and BS populations were analyzed based on the FST values of the SNP markers using a mixed linear multi-locus model and BayeScan software. The most differentiated marker, WU_10.2_18_56278226, was found on chromosome 18. The surrounding region contained several candidate genes that could play important roles in adaptations related to human-induced stress. Two of these, encoding the adenylate cyclase 1 (ADCY1) and inhibin beta A chain precursor (INHBA) genes, were sequenced. While IHBA gene did not display variation, the allele distribution of the ADCY1 gene in the B population was significantly different from that of the BS population supporting the parapatric differentiation of wild boar.

Insects ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 83
Marek Golian ◽  
Tanja Bien ◽  
Sebastian Schmelzle ◽  
Margy Alejandra Esparza-Mora ◽  
Dino Peter McMahon ◽  

Most of our knowledge on insect cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) stems from analytical techniques based on gas-chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). However, this method has its limits under standard conditions, particularly in detecting compounds beyond a chain length of around C40. Here, we compare the CHC chain length range detectable by GC-MS with the range assessed by silver-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (Ag-LDI-MS), a novel and rarely applied technique on insect CHCs, in seven species of the order Blattodea. For all tested species, we unveiled a considerable range of very long-chain CHCs up to C58, which are not detectable by standard GC-MS technology. This indicates that general studies on insect CHCs may frequently miss compounds in this range, and we encourage future studies to implement analytical techniques extending the conventionally accessed chain length range. Furthermore, we incorporate 3D scanned insect body surface areas as an additional factor for the comparative quantification of extracted CHC amounts between our study species. CHC quantity distributions differed considerably when adjusted for body surface areas as opposed to directly assessing extracted CHC amounts, suggesting that a more accurate evaluation of relative CHC quantities can be achieved by taking body surface areas into account.

Bo Leberecht ◽  
Dmitry Kobylkov ◽  
Thiemo Karwinkel ◽  
Sara Döge ◽  
Lars Burnus ◽  

AbstractThe light-dependent magnetic compass sense of night-migratory songbirds can be disrupted by weak radiofrequency fields. This finding supports a quantum mechanical, radical-pair-based mechanism of magnetoreception as observed for isolated cryptochrome 4, a protein found in birds’ retinas. The exact identity of the magnetically sensitive radicals in cryptochrome is uncertain in vivo, but their formation seems to require a bound flavin adenine dinucleotide chromophore and a chain of four tryptophan residues within the protein. Resulting from the hyperfine interactions of nuclear spins with the unpaired electrons, the sensitivity of the radicals to radiofrequency magnetic fields depends strongly on the number of magnetic nuclei (hydrogen and nitrogen atoms) they contain. Quantum-chemical calculations suggested that electromagnetic noise in the frequency range 75–85 MHz could give information about the identity of the radicals involved. Here, we show that broadband 75–85 MHz radiofrequency fields prevent a night-migratory songbird from using its magnetic compass in behavioural experiments. These results indicate that at least one of the components of the radical pair involved in the sensory process of avian magnetoreception must contain a substantial number of strong hyperfine interactions as would be the case if a flavin–tryptophan radical pair were the magnetic sensor.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jessica S. Kleer ◽  
Pascal A. Rabatscher ◽  
Jessica Weiss ◽  
Joel Leonardi ◽  
Severin B. Vogt ◽  

ObjectiveIn patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) complement C1q is frequently targeted by autoantibodies (anti-C1q), that correlate best with active renal disease. Anti-C1q bind to largely unknown epitopes on the collagen-like region (CLR) of this highly functional molecule. Here we aimed at exploring the role of epitope-specific anti-C1q in SLE patients.MethodsFirst, 22 sera of SLE patients, healthy controls and anti-C1q positive patients without SLE were screened for anti-C1q epitopes by a PEPperMAP® microarray, expressing CLR of C1q derived peptides with one amino acid (AA) shift in different lengths and conformations. Afterwards, samples of 378 SLE patients and 100 healthy blood donors were analyzed for antibodies against the identified epitopes by peptide-based ELISA. Relationships between peptide-specific autoantibodies and SLE disease manifestations were explored by logistic regression models.ResultsThe epitope mapping showed increased IgG binding to three peptides of the C1q A- and three of the C1q B-chain. In subsequent peptide-based ELISAs, SLE sera showed significantly higher binding to two N-terminally located C1q A-chain peptides than controls (p < 0.0001), but not to the other peptides. While anti-C1q were associated with a broad spectrum of disease manifestations, some of the peptide-antibodies were associated with selected disease manifestations, and antibodies against the N-terminal C1q A-chain showed a stronger discrimination between SLE and controls than conventional anti-C1q.ConclusionIn this large explorative study anti-C1q correlate with SLE overall disease activity. In contrast, peptide-antibodies are associated with specific aspects of the disease suggesting epitope-specific effects of anti-C1q in patients with SLE.

Robotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 13
Neda Hassanzadeh ◽  
Alba Perez-Gracia

Mixed-position kinematic synthesis is used to not only reach a certain number of precision positions, but also impose certain instantaneous motion conditions at those positions. In the traditional approach, one end-effector twist is defined at each precision position in order to achieve better guidance of the end-effector along a desired trajectory. For one-degree-of-freedom linkages, that suffices to fully specify the trajectory locally. However, for systems with a higher number of degrees of freedom, such as robotic systems, it is possible to specify a complete higher-dimensional subspace of potential twists at particular positions. In this work, we focus on the 3R serial chain. We study the three-dimensional subspaces of twists that can be defined and set the mixed-position equations to synthesize the chain. The number and type of twist systems that a chain can generate depend on the topology of the chain; we find that the spatial 3R chain can generate seven different fully defined twist systems. Finally, examples of synthesis with several fully defined and partially defined twist spaces are presented. We show that it is possible to synthesize 3R chains for feasible subspaces of different types. This allows a complete definition of potential motions at particular positions, which could be used for the design of precise interaction with contact surfaces.

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