Panicum Miliaceum
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2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (15) ◽  
pp. 8318
Sebastião Ferreira de Lima ◽  
Vinicius Andrade Secco ◽  
Cátia Aparecida Simon ◽  
Antônio Marcos Miranda Silva ◽  
Eduardo Pradi Vendruscolo ◽  

Soil microbiological indicators are essential tools to understand how the management with cover crops interferes in the activity and the soil microbial community. Thus, the objective of the study was to evaluate microbiological attributes and performance of the bacterial community in the soil of the Brazilian Cerrado with different cover crops. The experiment was performed in a randomized block design, evaluating seven cover crops, Sorghum bicolor, Crotalaria ochroleuca, Pennisetum americanum, Panicum miliaceum, Raphanus sativus, Urochloa brizantha, Urochloa ruziziensis, and a fallow area. Cover aerial biomass dry weight (CB), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), basal soil respiration (BR), metabolic quotient (qCO2), and abundance and structure of bacterial community based on the rrs 16S rRNA gene were evaluated. In the soil cultivated with S. bicolor there was the highest CB and MBC at the same time as there was less microbial activity (lower BR and qCO2). The structure of the bacterial community was more differentiated in soils cultivated with S. bicolor, P. americanum, and C. ochroleuca. The MBC was more associated with cover crops of the Urochloa genus, while BR was positively correlated with S. bicolor. Bacterial abundance was positively correlated with P. miliaceum.

2021 ◽  
Vol 117 (2) ◽  
pp. 1
Seyed Yahya SALEHI-LISAR ◽  

<p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a group of organic pollutants influencing different aspects of plants physiology. Physiological responses associated with the impact of phenanthrene (500, 1000, 1500, 2000 ppm) were analysed on Panicum miliaceum L. Seed germination was delayed in all treatments and 2000 ppm of phenanthrene (PHE) significantly retarded the germination rate (28 %) compared to control. The results revealed after 30 day of cultivation, only 1500 and 2000 ppm of PHE had negative impacts on growth parameters as well as photosynthetic pigment contents. Plants exposed to 500 and 1000 ppm of PHE showed an increase in the growth parameters without any symptoms of toxicity, indicating the high tolerance of seedlings to PHE. The activities of antioxidant enzymes were elevated in treated plants. In higher concentrations, H2O2 content also increased despite a reduction in malondialdehyde content. Furthermore, PHE had no effect on root phenol and shoot flavonoid contents and on shoot and root protein contents. Taken together, only higher concentrations of PHE triggered oxidative stress. It can be concluded PHE was not very toxic to P. miliaceum probably because of higher activity of antioxidant system involving in elimination of produced ROS even in plants treated by PHE higher concentrations.</p>

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (2) ◽  
pp. 146-154
L. M. Prysiazhniuk ◽  
O. V. Nochvina ◽  
Yu. V. Shytikova ◽  
N. A. Mizerna ◽  
S. M. Hryniv

Purpose. To estimate the ecological plasticity of common millet yield under conditions of Steppe, Forest-Steppe and Forest of Ukraine. Methods. Mathematical and statistical: determination of stability and plasticity by Eberhart & Russell method, correlation analysis. Results. As a result of correlation analysis of millet cultivated areas during the period of 2011–2020, it was revealed that cultivated areas in Ukraine depend on the world ones (r = 0.34). It was determined that a high level of common millet yield was obtained in the forest-steppe zone, namely in Poltava, Khmelnytskyi, Cherkasy, Sumy and Kharkiv regions (2.20–2.51 t/ha). Quite high rates of yield were obtained in Vinnytsia, Kyiv (Forest-Steppe zone) and Kirovohrad (Steppe zone) regions (1.86–2.02 t/ha). Low yield over 10 years was noted in Rivne, Zhytomyr and Volyn regions, which belong to the Forrest zone (1.09–1.34 t/ha). It is shown that during 2011–2015 high variability of millet yield was observed in Khmelnytskyi, Vinnytsia and Volyn regions. The coefficient of variation was 42.0–71.3%. During 2016–2020 significant variation was noted in Donetsk, Volyn and Odesa regions. The coefficient of variation was 31.8–43.9%. In the period from 2016 to 2020, high plasticity of the yield trait was noted in Vinnitsa, Kyiv, Kharkiv, Poltava, Cherkasy, Sumy and Khmelnitsky regions. During 2016–2020 high plasticity trait of millet yield was in Vinnytsia, Kyiv, Sumy, Kharkiv, Khmelnytskyi, Cherkasy and Poltava regions. Conclusions. According to the results of the studies, it was found that with a reduction in the area under millet in the world, the volume of its production in Ukraine increases. It was determined that the hig­hest yield of millet was obtained in the Forest-Steppe zone during the years of observation. According to the plasticity of millet yield, it was found that favorable conditions for realization of its biological potential were in Donetsk and Kirovohrad regions of Steppe zone, in Forest-Steppe zone of Vinnytsia, Poltava, Kyiv, Kharkiv, Khmelnytskyi, Cherkasy and Sumy regions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 296 ◽  
pp. 113216
Yuhao Yuan ◽  
Chunjuan Liu ◽  
Yongbin Gao ◽  
Qian Ma ◽  
Qinghua Yang ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
Massimo Vischi ◽  
Nicola Zorzin ◽  
Maria Bernhart ◽  
Johanna Winkler ◽  
Dipak Santra ◽  

Abstract Background Global warming and issues in favour of a more sustainable agriculture suggest a reconsideration of minor cereals in European agrosystems. Compared to other summer crops, proso millet has a remarkable drought resistance and could be used to improve crop rotation and biodiversity. Proso millet is also increasingly sought by industry to produce novel foods such as those designed for coeliac patients. In this study, a thorough characterization of 11, commercially available, proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) varieties was carried out as a preliminary step for crop reintroduction and breeding in Western Europe. Methods The cultivars under evaluation were introduced from Austria, Poland, Russia, and the USA (University of Nebraska–Lincoln). Plants were grown at Udine (NE Italy) and Gleisdorf (Styria, Austria), under greenhouse and field conditions, respectively. Yield components and a range of morphophysiological characters were recorded in both locations. In parallel, 85 SSR markers were tested on DNA samples extracted from randomly chosen plants of each variety and the 12 responsive markers used to genotype the whole variety set. Results Morphometric analyses showed that varieties have several diverging phenotypic traits and architectures. In all instances, yields recorded at field level were much lower than potential yields. In this respect, US selections were comparable to earlier developed European varieties, suggesting that breeding for an increased adaptation is the keystone for a stable reintroduction of millet in Western Europe. Molecular analyses uncovered remarkably low genetic differences and heterozygosity levels within cultivars, confirming millet as an essentially autogamous species; in contrast, large genetic distances were noted among cultivars selected in different environments. Results of SSR genotyping combined with those originating from phenotypic analyses indicated possible crosses to source the genetic variability necessary for selection. Conclusions This study enabled the identification of cultivars that could be used to revitalize the crop in Western Europe and to produce genetically variable hybrid progenies exploitable by breeding.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Chunxiang Li ◽  
Minxuan Liu ◽  
Fengjie Sun ◽  
Xinyu Zhao ◽  
Mingyue He ◽  

Broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) is one of the earliest domesticated crops in the world. Weedy broomcorn millet [Panicum ruderale (Kitag.) Chang or Panicum miliaceum subsp. ruderale (Kitag.) Tzvel] is thought to be the descendant of the wild ancestor or the feral type of this cereal. The genealogical relationships and genetic divergence among these taxa have not been clarified. In this study, the genetic diversity and population structure of weedy and cultivated broomcorn millets were investigated by using the high-throughput sequencing technology, i.e., the specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq). Our analyses consistently revealed both the wild and the feral genotypes in the weedy broomcorn millets. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the genomic level provided useful evidence to distinguish the wild and the endoferal/exoferal types of weedy broomcorn millets. The genetic divergence revealed between the cultivated broomcorn millet from eastern Eurasia and those from central-western Eurasia was probably derived from either the genetic introgression from weedy broomcorn millets along the spread routes or the founder effect, while the limited gene flow of broomcorn millets from eastern and central-western Eurasia was probably due to the different uses of broomcorn millets and eating habits of the local people.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Lucie Martin ◽  
Erwan Messager ◽  
Giorgi Bedianashvili ◽  
Nana Rusishvili ◽  
Elena Lebedeva ◽  

AbstractTwo millets, Panicum miliaceum and Setaria italica, were domesticated in northern China, around 6000 BC. Although its oldest evidence is in Asia, possible independent domestication of these species in the Caucasus has often been proposed. To verify this hypothesis, a multiproxy research program (Orimil) was designed to detect the first evidence of millet in this region. It included a critical review of the occurrence of archaeological millet in the Caucasus, up to Antiquity; isotopic analyses of human and animal bones and charred grains; and radiocarbon dating of millet grains from archaeological contexts dated from the Early Bronze Age (3500–2500 BC) to the 1st Century BC. The results show that these two cereals were cultivated during the Middle Bronze Age (MBA), around 2000–1800 BC, especially Setaria italica which is the most ancient millet found in Georgia. Isotopic analyses also show a significant enrichment in 13C in human and animal tissues, indicating an increasing C4 plants consumption at the same period. More broadly, our results assert that millet was not present in the Caucasus in the Neolithic period. Its arrival in the region, based on existing data in Eurasia, was from the south, without excluding a possible local domestication of Setaria italica.

Э.Н.Дүйсебаева,А.Б.Рысбекова А.Е.Жакенова ◽  
И.А.Жирнова Ху Ин-Ганг

В данной статье приведены данные по выявлению устойчивости к пыльной головне проса с целью дальнейшего создания резистентных сортов, а также проведен анализ по поражению фитопатогеном по различным годам исследования. Объектами исследований служили сорта и образцы проса мировой коллекции и отечественной коллекции, среди которых имеются ценные генотипы несущие гены устойчивости Sp. С целью создания инфекционного фона ежегодно репродуцировали изоляты вредоносного патогена-возбудителя пыльной головни проса Sphacelotheca panici-miliacei. Выявлена колебание восприимчивсоти коллекционных образцов в зависимости от климатических условий по годам исследования. С использованием искусственного фона местных рас головни отобраны ценные генотипы из зарубежной и отечественной коллекции для включения в селекционный процесс на иммуниет.

Agricultura ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (1-2) ◽  
pp. 9-17
Andrej Paušič ◽  
Andrej Šušek

The aim of this review study was to analyse large paleo-botanical datasets derived from investigations of 35 archaeological sites and published during a longer time period. The presence of 18 selected crop taxa has been monitored in the region of Styria. Our results indicate that in the Copper Age, the cultivation and usage of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum) and the einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum) was present. From the Bronze Age period, the most commonly grown taxa are barley (Hordeum vulgare), proso millet, emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum) and spelt wheat (Triticum spelta). In the Iron Age, some new crops emerged along with the already common foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and common flax (Linum usitatissimum), a species first found in Styria during this exact period. The importance of Roman period for Styria lies in the introduction of new taxa like the Persian walnut (Juglans regia), of which remnants were also found in the studied area. The late Antiquity and Middle Ages are a wide time frame where all important cereal taxa were already known from previous periods and were also grown in the studied area, with the exception of oat (Avena sativa) and durum wheat (Triticum durum), of which remnants were absent from this period.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 ◽  
pp. 93-102
Tatiana A. Terekhina ◽  
Alyona V. Nochevnaya ◽  
Natalia V. Ovcharova ◽  
Irina A. Lapshina

The article reviews the weed species composition of oat, sunflower, wheat, buckwheat, rapeseed and flax agrophytocenoses on 390 fields in 21 districts of Altai Krai: Aleyskiy, Bistroistokskiy, Baevskiy, Burlinskiy, Kamenskiy, Kosikhinskiy, Krutikhinskiy, Kytmanovskiy, Loktevskiy, Mamontovskiy, Novichikhinskiy, Pankrushikhinskiy, Rebrikhinskiy, Rubtsovskiy, Shipunovskiy, Sovetskiy, Tretyakovskiy, Troitskiy, Tyumentsevskiy, Zarinskiy, and Zonalniy. The studied fields were surveyed by the route method, which involved the study of the plot by examining it along two diagonals and four sides, when the area did not exceed 20.0 hectares. Larger fields were divided into plots of 20.0 hectares before the survey. The areas adjacent to roads were examined most carefully, since it is often from the road that the field becomes infested. We used the ArcGis program to compile original maps for the main weed plant species. It was found that out of 45 species encountered, only 10 play a significant role in weed infestation and have a high frequency rate: aboriginal Convolvulus arvensis, Amaranthus retroflexus, Euphorbia virgata, Lathyrus tuberosus, Chenopodium album, as well as such adventive species as Fallopia convolvulus, Setaria pumila, Panicum miliaceum subsp. ruderale, Avena fatua and Echinochloa crusgalli. The largest number of species accounts for the Poaceae family (33.3%). The Brassicaceae family is characterized by a slightly lower percentage of participation in the adventitious flora (27.7%). Other families are not so well represented (by 1-2 species each).

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