seed germination
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
P. S. Silva ◽  
V. A. Royo ◽  
H. M. Valerio ◽  
E. G. Fernandes ◽  
M. V. Queiroz ◽  

Abstract Interactions between endophytic fungi (EFs) and their host plants range from positive to neutral to negative. The results of such interactions can vary depending on the organ of the infected host plant. EFs isolated from the leaves of some species of plants have potential for use as agents to inhibit seed germination and control invasive plants. The objectives of this study were to identify EFs present in the leaves of Copaifera oblongifolia and to evaluate the role of these fungi in seed germination and seedling development. A total of 11 species of EFs were isolated, which were identified using the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) sequence of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. The isolated species of EFs are generalists and probably are transmitted horizontally. Laboratory tests revealed that filtrates of these fungal isolates differently affect seed germination and seedling development of C. oblongifolia. The species Curvularia intermedia, Neofusicoccum parvum, Pseudofusicoccum stromaticum and Phomopsis sp. negatively affected seed germination, with N. parvum standing out for its negative effects, inhibiting seedling germination and survival in 89 and 222%, respectively. In addition, Cochliobolus intermedius negatively affected seedling development. Thus, the combined use of N. parvum and C. intermedius, or products from the metabolism of these microorganisms, in the control of invasive plants deserves attention from future studies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 199 ◽  
pp. 104705
Antonio Cantu de Leija ◽  
Sammy L. King ◽  
Tracy S. Hawkins

2022 ◽  
Vol 198 ◽  
pp. 104689
Turki A. Al-Turki ◽  
Anthony J. Davy ◽  
B.S. Al-Ammari ◽  
Mohammed A. Basahi

2022 ◽  
Vol 1249 ◽  
pp. 131650
Chuan Wan ◽  
Dongyan Yang ◽  
Ruiyuan Liu ◽  
Huizhe Lu ◽  
Chuanliang Che ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Lu Zhao ◽  
Zhongbang Song ◽  
Bingwu Wang ◽  
Yulong Gao ◽  
Junli Shi ◽  

Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are important phenolic compounds and PA biosynthesis is regulated by a ternary MBW complex consisting of a R2R3-MYB regulator, a bHLH factor and a WDR protein. In this study, a tobacco R2R3-MYB factor NtMYB330 was characterized as the PA-specific regulator in which the PA biosynthesis was promoted in the flowers of NtMYB330-overexpressing lines while decreased in the flowers of ntmyb330 mutants. NtMYB330 can interact with flavonoid-related bHLH partner NtAn1b and WDR protein NtAn11-1, and the NtMYB330-NtAn1b complex is required to achieve strong transcriptional activation of the PA-related structural genes NtDFR1, NtANS1, NtLAR1 and NtANR1. Our data reveal that NtMYB330 regulates PA biosynthesis in seeds and affects seed germination, in which NtMYB330-overexpressing lines showed higher PA accumulations in seed coats and inhibited germination, while ntmyb330 mutants had reduced seed coat PAs and improved germination. NtMYB330 affects seed germination possibly through two mechanisms: modulating seed coat PAs to affect coat-imposed dormancy. In addition, NtMYB330 regulates the expressions of abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin acid (GA) signaling-related genes, affecting ABA-GA crosstalk and seed germination. This study reveals that NtMYB330 specifically regulates PA biosynthesis via formation of the MBW complex in tobacco flowers and affects germination through adjustment of PA concentrations and ABA/GA signaling in tobacco seeds.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yuan-Yuan Li ◽  
Margaux Boeraeve ◽  
Yu-Hsiu Cho ◽  
Hans Jacquemyn ◽  
Yung-I Lee

Mycorrhizal associations are essential for orchid germination and seedling establishment, and thus may constrain the distribution and abundance of orchids under natural conditions. Previous studies have shown that germination and seedling establishment in several orchids often decline with increasing distance from adult plants, resulting in non-random spatial patterns of seedling establishment. In contrast, individuals of the fully mycoheterotrophic orchid Gastrodia confusoides often tend to have random aboveground spatial patterns of distribution within bamboo forests. Since G. confusoides is parasitic on litter-decaying fungi, its random spatial patterns of distribution may be due to highly scattered patterns of litter-decaying fungi within bamboo forests. To test this hypothesis, we first identified the main mycorrhizal fungi associating with developing seeds and adult plants at a bamboo forest site in Taiwan using Miseq high-throughput DNA sequencing. Next, we combined seed germination experiments with quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses to investigate to what extent the abundance of mycorrhizal fungi affected spatial patterns of seed germination. Our results show that seed germination and subsequent growth to an adult stage in G. confusoides required a distinct switch in mycorrhizal partners, in which protocorms associated with a single Mycena OTU, while adults mainly associated with an OTU from the genus Gymnopus. A strong, positive relationship was observed between germination and Mycena abundance in the litter, but not between germination and Gymnopus abundance. Fungal abundance was not significantly related to the distance from the adult plants, and consequently germination was also not significantly related to the distance from adult plants. Our results provide the first evidence that the abundance of litter-decaying fungi varies randomly within the bamboo forest and independently from G. confusoides adults.

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