Recently Published Documents
Filtrates from cultures of endophytic fungi isolated from leaves of Copaifera oblongifolia (Fabaceae) affect germination and seedling development differently
Abstract Interactions between endophytic fungi (EFs) and their host plants range from positive to neutral to negative. The results of such interactions can vary depending on the organ of the infected host plant. EFs isolated from the leaves of some species of plants have potential for use as agents to inhibit seed germination and control invasive plants. The objectives of this study were to identify EFs present in the leaves of Copaifera oblongifolia and to evaluate the role of these fungi in seed germination and seedling development. A total of 11 species of EFs were isolated, which were identified using the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) sequence of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. The isolated species of EFs are generalists and probably are transmitted horizontally. Laboratory tests revealed that filtrates of these fungal isolates differently affect seed germination and seedling development of C. oblongifolia. The species Curvularia intermedia, Neofusicoccum parvum, Pseudofusicoccum stromaticum and Phomopsis sp. negatively affected seed germination, with N. parvum standing out for its negative effects, inhibiting seedling germination and survival in 89 and 222%, respectively. In addition, Cochliobolus intermedius negatively affected seedling development. Thus, the combined use of N. parvum and C. intermedius, or products from the metabolism of these microorganisms, in the control of invasive plants deserves attention from future studies.
Feralization of crop plants has aroused an increasing interest in recent years, not only for the reduced yield and quality of crop production caused by feral plants but also for the rapid evolution of novel traits that facilitate the evolution and persistence of weedy forms. Weedy rice (Oryza sativa f. spontanea) is a conspecific weed of cultivated rice, with separate and independent origins. The weedy rice distributed in eastern and northeastern China did not diverge from their cultivated ancestors by reverting to the pre-domestication trait of seed dormancy during feralization. Instead, they developed a temperature-sensing mechanism to control the timing of seed germination. Subsequent divergence in the minimum critical temperature for germination has been detected between northeastern and eastern populations. An integrative analysis was conducted using combinations of phenotypic, genomic and transcriptomic data to investigate the genetic mechanism underlying local adaptation and feralization. A dozen genes were identified, which showed extreme allele frequency differences between eastern and northeastern populations, and high correlations between allele-specific gene expression and feral phenotypes. Trancing the origin of potential adaptive alleles based on genomic sequences revealed the presence of most selected alleles in wild and cultivated rice genomes, indicating that weedy rice drew upon pre-existing, “conditionally neutral” alleles to respond to the feral selection regimes. The cryptic phenotype was exposed by activating formerly silent alleles to facilitate the transition from cultivation to wild existence, promoting the evolution and persistence of weedy forms.
Root parasitic weeds of the Orobanchaceae, such as witchweeds (Striga spp.) and broomrapes (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.), cause serious losses in agriculture worldwide. No practical method to control these parasitic weeds has been developed to date. Understanding the characteristic physiological processes in the life cycles of root parasitic weeds is particularly important to identify specific targets for growth modulators. In our previous study, planteose metabolism was revealed to be activated soon after the perception of strigolactones in germinating seeds of O. minor. Nojirimycin inhibited planteose metabolism and impeded seed germination of O. minor, indicating that planteose metabolism is a possible target for root parasitic weed control. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of planteose in dry seeds of O. minor by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization—mass spectrometry imaging. Planteose was detected in tissues surrounding—but not within—the embryo, supporting its suggested role as a storage carbohydrate. Biochemical assays and molecular characterization of an α-galactosidase family member, OmAGAL2, indicated the enzyme is involved in planteose hydrolysis in the apoplast around the embryo after the perception of strigolactones to provide the embryo with essential hexoses for germination. These results indicated that OmAGAL2 is a potential molecular target for root parasitic weed control.
The influence of oil pollution on the growth and development of phleum pratense, festuca pratensis, phalaris canariensis
Abstract. Purpose of the study: to study the effect of oil pollution on the morphological parameters of cereal grasses: canary grass, timothy grass and meadow fescue. Tasks: assessment of the impact of oil pollution of soils on seed germination, growth and development of the studied species by morphological parameters; analysis of the species variability of the studied indicators. Oil-contaminated high-moor peat was used as a substrate. Objects of research: seeds of cereal grasses: meadow timothy Phleum pratense L, 1753, meadow fescue Festuca pratensis Huds, canary grass Phalaris canariensis. Evaluation of the effect of oil-contaminated soil was carried out on the basis of changes in seed germination and morphological parameters: plant mass, leaf length, length and number of roots. The experimental results were processed by the method of variation statistics. As a result of studying the effect of oil-contaminated peat on seed germination, it was found that in the variants of the experiment with the minimum oil content, no differences were noted with the control values. The maximum concentration of oil (10,000 mg / kg) reduced seed germination by 924%. With an increase in the oil content in the soil, the morphometric parameters of all the studied species of cereal grasses also decreased. The greatest differences in the studied test functions, in comparison with the control variant, were noted in canary grass, the smallest in meadow fescue.
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxy-tryptamine) is a mammalian neurohormone, antioxidant and signaling molecule that was first discovered in plants in 1995. The first studies investigated plant melatonin from a human perspective quantifying melatonin in foods and medicinal plants and questioning whether its presence could explain the activity of some plants as medicines. Starting with these first handful of studies in the late 1990s, plant melatonin research has blossomed into a vibrant and active area of investigation and melatonin has been found to play critical roles in mediating plant responses and development at every stage of the plant life cycle from pollen and embryo development through seed germination, vegetative growth and stress response. Here we have utilized a systematic approach in accordance with the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) protocols to reduce bias in our assessment of the literature and provide an overview of the current state of melatonin research in plants, covering 1995–2021. This review provides an overview of the biosynthesis and metabolism of melatonin as well as identifying key themes including: abiotic stress responses, root development, light responses, interkingdom communication, phytohormone and plant signaling. Additionally, potential biases in the literature are investigated and a birefringence in the literature between researchers from plant and medical based which has helped to shape the current state of melatonin research. Several exciting new opportunities for future areas of melatonin research are also identified including investigation of non-crop and non-medicinal species as well as characterization of melatonin signaling networks in plants.
Transcriptome Reveals Roles of Lignin-Modifying Enzymes and Abscisic Acid in the Symbiosis of Mycena and Gastrodia elata
Gastrodia elata is a well-known medicinal and heterotrophic orchid. Its germination, limited by the impermeability of seed coat lignin and inhibition by abscisic acid (ABA), is triggered by symbiosis with fungi such as Mycena spp. However, the molecular mechanisms of lignin degradation by Mycena and ABA biosynthesis and signaling in G. elata remain unclear. In order to gain insights into these two processes, this study analyzed the transcriptomes of these organisms during their dynamic symbiosis. Among the 25 lignin-modifying enzyme genes in Mycena, two ligninolytic class II peroxidases and two laccases were significantly upregulated, most likely enabling Mycena hyphae to break through the lignin seed coats of G. elata. Genes related to reduced virulence and loss of pathogenicity in Mycena accounted for more than half of annotated genes, presumably contributing to symbiosis. After coculture, upregulated genes outnumbered downregulated genes in G. elata seeds, suggesting slightly increased biological activity, while Mycena hyphae had fewer upregulated than downregulated genes, indicating decreased biological activity. ABA biosynthesis in G. elata was reduced by the downregulated expression of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED-2), and ABA signaling was blocked by the downregulated expression of a receptor protein (PYL12-like). This is the first report to describe the role of NCED-2 and PYL12-like in breaking G. elata seed dormancy by reducing the synthesis and blocking the signaling of the germination inhibitor ABA. This study provides a theoretical basis for screening germination fungi to identify effective symbionts and for reducing ABA inhibition of G. elata seed germination.
Storage Period and Different Abiotic Factors Regulate Seed Germination of Two Apocynum Species — Cash Crops in Arid Saline Regions in the Northwestern China
On degraded land in arid regions, cultivation of Apocynum species can provide significant environmental benefits by preventing soil erosion and desertification. Furthermore, Apocynum venetum and Apocynum pictum, which are mainly distributed in salt-barren lands in the northwestern region of China, are traditionally used to produce natural fiber and herbal tea. Direct sowing of both species may encounter various abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity. However, these effects on germination remain largely unknown, especially for seeds with different storage periods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of storage period, light condition, temperature regime, drought, and salinity on germination performances of both species. Germination experiment was carried out in November 2017. There were four replicates for each treatment, and each petri dish contained 25 seeds. The results indicated that prolongation of storage period significantly decreased the germination percentage and velocity, especially under abiotic stresses. Light did not affect seed germination of A. venetum and A. pictum under any conditions. Seeds had better germination performance at 10/25 and 15/30°C than those of seeds incubated at any other temperatures. With the increase of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and salinity concentrations, seed germination for both species gradually decreased, especially for seeds stored for 2 years. Low PEG (0–20%) and salinity concentration (0–200 mM) did not significantly affect germination percentage of freshly matured seeds. However, long-time storage significantly decreased drought and salinity tolerance in A. venetum and A. pictum during germination stage. For saline soils in arid and semi-arid regions, freshly matured seeds or 1-year-stored seeds of both Apocynum species are recommended to be sown by using drip-irrigation in spring.
Seed germination behaviour of the narrow endemic Daphne arbuscula (Thymelaeaceae) compared to the more widespread Daphne cneorum
AbstractDiminished reproduction success in species with narrow distribution ranges might be one of the factors responsible for their limited dispersal and colonization abilities. We investigated here various aspects of the seed biology of the West Carpathian endemic Daphne arbuscula (Thymelaeaceae) and compared it with its more widespread relative D. cneorum. In both species, we investigated (i) differences in seed viability and germination ability; (ii) differences between the two observed fruit morphotype groups, and (iii) the effect of cold stratification in breaking seed dormancy and enhance germination in stored seeds. To determine seed viability, a tetrazolium test and an imbibed cut test were performed. Several seed germination tests with gibberellic acid and with a sequence of cold and warm stratification, using different temperatures and durations, were carried out. We uncovered that (i) D. arbuscula seeds show significantly lower viability than D. cneorum seeds, but this difference is due to the smaller-fruit morphotype; (ii) seed quality and viability of the big-fruit morphotype are significantly greater than the smaller-fruit morphotype in both species, although the seed viability of the latter is not null and the dormancy level seems to differ between them; (iii) a warm stratification at 15°C for 13 weeks, followed by cold stratification at either 0 or 5°C for 28 weeks, followed by 4 weeks at 15°C, break physiological dormancy and allow the majority of seeds of D. arbuscula (63%) to germinate. We recommend including both fruit morphotypes when collecting seed of Daphne for ex situ conservation and reintroduction initiatives, to maintain the original genetic diversity of the species.
Weed management is an arduous undertaking in crop production. Integrated weed management, inclusive of the application of bioherbicides, is an emerging weed control strategy toward sustainable agriculture. In general, bioherbicides are derived either from plants containing phytotoxic allelochemicals or certain disease-carrying microbes that can suppress weed populations. While bioherbicides have exhibited great promise in deterring weed seed germination and growth, only a few in vitro studies have been conducted on the physiological responses they evoke in weeds. This review discusses bioherbicide products that are currently available on the market, bioherbicide impact on weed physiology, and potential factors influencing bioherbicide efficacy. A new promising bioherbicide product is introduced at the end of this paper. When absorbed, phytotoxic plant extracts or metabolites disrupt cell membrane integrity and important biochemical processes in weeds. The phytotoxic impact on weed growth is reflected in low levels of root cell division, nutrient absorption, and growth hormone and pigment synthesis, as well as in the development of reactive oxygen species (ROS), stress-related hormones, and abnormal antioxidant activity. The inconsistency of bioherbicide efficacy is a primary factor restricting their widespread use, which is influenced by factors such as bioactive compound content, weed control spectrum, formulation, and application method.
Allelopathic, Phytotoxic, and Insecticidal Effects of Thymus proximus Serg. Essential Oil and Its Major Constituents
The chemical profile of Thymus proximus essential oil (EO) and its allelopathic, phytotoxic, and insecticidal activity was evaluated. Carvacrol, p-cymene, and γ-terpinene were detected as the major components of the EO, representing 85.9% of the total oil. About 50 g fresh plant material of T. proximus in a 1.5-L air tight container completely inhibited the seed germination of Amaranthus retroflexus and Poa anuua. Meanwhile, the EO exhibited potent phytotoxic activity, which resulted in 100% germination failure of both the test species when 2 mg/ml (for A. retroflexus) and 5 mg/ml (for Poa annua) oil was applied. The EO also triggered a significant insecticidal activity on Aphis gossypii with a LC50 value of 6.34 ppm. Carvacrol was identified as the main active compound responsible for both the plant suppressing effect and the insecticidal activity of the EO. Our study is the first on the allelopathic, phytotoxic, and insecticidal activity of T. proximus EO, and the determination of the responsible compound, which indicated their potential of being further explored as environment friendly biopesticides.