Abstract A ninety days nutritional trial was directed to explore the effects of dietary chromium on body composition, gut enzyme activity and physiological status of Cirrhinus mrigala by using G & NG corn. Six experimental diets were prepared by using different levels of chromium chloride hexahydrate (0, 0.2, 0.4 mg/kg, each with G & NG corn). For this experimental trial, 480 fingerlings, irrespective of sex were distributed in six aquariums each with replicate. Results revealed that gelatinized corn along with increasing level of Cr2Cl3.6H2O have a positive impact upon body composition of fish. Hematology was positively correlated with chromium chloride hexahydrate supplementation in gelatinized corn. Amylase gut enzyme also showed significant (P<0.05) increase in group fed with chromium chloride hexahydrate supplemented diet (G corn). However, corn with chromium chloride hexahydrate supplementation did not revealed any significant impact on gut protease enzyme activity. From these results it can be concluded that both chromium chloride hexahydrate and gelatinized corn in fish feed are very beneficial to improve body composition, enzymes activity and physiological health status of fish.
Objective: Tyrosinase is a glycosylated, copper-containing oxidase that catalyzes the first two steps of mammalian melanogenesis as well as enzymatic browning events in damaged fruits during post-harvest handling and processing. Human skin hyperpigmentation and enzymatic browning in fruits are both undesirable. In this study, the properties and inhibitory effect of some compounds on bitter kola tyrosinase were investigated.
Methods: Bitter kola tyrosinase was isolated and characterized using standard protocols. Partial purification was carried out on Sephadex G-100 loaded column chromatography.
Results: Bitter kola tyrosinase was purified with a specific activity of 3.5 U/mg protein, purification fold of 2.4 and a yield of 34%. The optimum pH value was found to be 6.0 while the optimum temperature value for maximum enzyme activity was observed at 60°C. The enzyme was stable at 40oC for 20 minutes. Metals such as NaCl, KCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2 had inhibitory effect on the activity; though MgCl2 and CaCl2 had minimal effect. Also, EDTA, β-marcaptoethanol and glutathione greatly inhibited the enzyme activity at all the tested concentration.
Conclusion: The properties of bitter kola tyrosinase compare very well with the tyrosinase from other sources. Also, the study was able to establish the inhibitory effect of some compounds and this could be applied in food processing industries.
Peer Review History:
Received: 2 November 2021; Revised: 11 December; Accepted: 25 December, Available online: 15 January 2022
Academic Editor: Dr. A.A. Mgbahurike, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria, [email protected]
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Received file: Reviewer's Comments:
Average Peer review marks at initial stage: 6.0/10
Average Peer review marks at publication stage: 7.5/10
Dr. Nazim Hussain, North East Frontier Technical University, Arunachal pradesh, India, [email protected]
Ahmad Najib, Universitas Muslim Indonesia, Makassar, Indonesia, [email protected]
Prof. Dr. Ali Gamal Ahmed Al-kaf, Sana'a university, Yemen, [email protected]
PHYTOCHEMICAL PURIFICATION OF ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS ISOLATED FROM ROOT OF THE MEDICINAL HERB, CARALLUMA QUADRANGULA
Nanozymes are particles with diameters in the range of 1–100 nm, which has been widely studied due to their biological enzyme-like properties and stability that natural enzymes do not have. In this study, several reducing agents with different structures (catechol (Cc), hydroquinone (Hq), resorcinol (Rs), vitamin C (Vc), pyrogallic acid (Ga), sodium citrate (Sc), sodium malate (Sm), and sodium tartrate (St)) were used to prepare colloidal gold with a negative charge and similar particle size by controlling the temperature and pH. The affinity analysis of the substrate H2O2 and TMB showed that the order of activities of colloidal gold Nanozymes prepared by different reducing agents was Cc, Hq, Rs, Vc, Ga, Sc, Sm, St. It was also found that the enzyme activity of colloidal gold reduced by benzene rings is higher than that of the colloidal gold enzyme reduced by linear chains. Finally, we discussed the activity of the colloidal gold peroxidase based on the number and position of isomers and functional groups; and demonstrated that the nanozymes activity is affected by the surface activity of colloidal gold, the elimination of hydroxyl radicals and the TMB binding efficiency.