plant height
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Luana L. de S. A. Veloso ◽  
André A. R. da Silva ◽  
Geovani S. de Lima ◽  
Carlos A. V. de Azevedo ◽  
Hans R. Gheyi ◽  

ABSTRACT The cultivation of irrigated soursop in semiarid Northeastern Brazil highlights the need for information regarding its responses to the salinity of irrigation water and the use of techniques that allow its exploration, such as the use of hydrogen peroxide. Thus, the study aimed to evaluate the effect of soaking of seeds and foliar application of hydrogen peroxide on soursop plant growth and physiology under conditions of salt stress. The study was conducted in lysimeters in a greenhouse, and the treatments were distributed in a randomized block design and 4 × 4 factorial scheme, with four values of electrical conductivity of the irrigation water - ECw (0.7, 1.7, 2.7, and 3.7 dS m-1) and four concentrations of H2O2 (0, 25, 50, and 75 μM), with three replicates and one plant per plot. H2O2 concentrations were applied via seed imbibition and foliar spray. Irrigation with water from 0.7 dS m-1 impairs gas exchange and absolute growth rates of plant height and stem diameter and relative growth rate in height of soursop plants. Concentrations of 35, 33 and 23 µM of hydrogen peroxide favored the relative and absolute growth rates of plant height and transpiration, respectively. Compared to the aerial part, the root of soursop plants is more affected when irrigated with water from 1.6 dS m-1.

2022 ◽  
Vol 276 ◽  
pp. 108376
Yating Zhao ◽  
Shuai Zhang ◽  
Yanjie Lv ◽  
Fangfang Ning ◽  
Yibing Cao ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 038-046
Zipporah Page ◽  
David P Tokpah ◽  
Khady N Drame ◽  
Zogbo Luther ◽  
Victor M Voor ◽  

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a staple food crop in many countries in Africa. Africa consumes 11.6 million tons of rice per annum and out of 39 rice-producing countries, 21 import 50% to 99% of their rice requirements. The inability to reach the yield potential that would sustain Africa’s need for rice is due to many biotic and abiotic constraints that rice production faces. In lowland grown rice, one of the abiotic factors hindering rice production is iron toxicity. Excess uptake of ferrous (Fe2+) ions leads to a physiological stress, which results, into poor production. The current study aimed at selection of varieties tolerant to iron toxicity and assessment of the genetic diversity linked to this trait. In a hydroponic experiment conducted in a screen house at Africa Rice Centre in Dar es Salaam, 32 rice varieties were evaluated for tolerance to iron toxicity. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with iron concentration as the main plot factor and variety as the sub plot factor. Two levels of iron concentration were used: 2 ppm and 300 ppm of Fe2+ as control and test concentrations, respectively. Traits observed to gauge tolerance were leaf bronzing (an indicator of iron toxicity), plant height, tillering, number of leaves, shoot weight (above ground), root length and root weight. The varieties ARICA8, and CK801 were found to be tolerant due to low bronzing indices, higher shoot weight, more number of leaves and lack of significant variation in morphology between the two Fe treatments except for the plant height. Correlation analysis depicted negative correlation between leaf bronzing and the other traits measured especially shoot biomass.

2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (49) ◽  
pp. 1-1
Galina Konieva ◽  
Vitalii Ochirov ◽  
Vera Ivanova ◽  
Rustam Shabanov

Realization of the yield potential depends on the biological characteristics of the variety, cultivation technology and weather conditions. The article presents the results of studies carried out in 2018-2021. on the productivity of various varieties of winter rye in dryland conditions of the central zone of the Republic of Kalmykia. The fresh yield of winter rye harvested for fodder depended on the variety. Its highest index was obtained for the Saratovskaya 4 variety and amounted to 17.7 ... 26.9 t / ha. The analysis of the productivity of winter rye harvested for green fodder showed that the studied varieties provided the yield of dry matter at the level of 5.4 ... 7.1 t / ha on average for three years. All varieties have good winter hardiness. Keywords: WINTER RYE, VARIETY, NAKED FALLOW, PLANT HEIGHT, GREEN MASS, FRESH YIELD, CROP PRODUCTIVITY, DRY MATTER

2022 ◽  
Wiqar Ahmad ◽  
Jaya Nepal ◽  
Xiaoping Xin ◽  
Zhenli He

Abstract Conventional Zinc (Zn) fertilization (e.g., zinc sulfate) often leads to poor availability in soils. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (nano ZnO) can be a potential solution, but their effect on crop photosynthetic activity isn’t well documented. The effects of nano ZnO (50, 100, 150, 200 mg L-1) and application methods (seed-coating, soil-drench, and foliar-spray) in comparison with ZnSO4 recommended dose were evaluated for plant height, biomass, chlorophyll pigments and photosystem efficiency in a greenhouse pot experiment. 100 mg L-1 of nano ZnO significantly increased the chlorophyll (Chl.) a, b, a+b, carotenoids (x+c), a+b/x+c, SPAD, leaf Chl., total chlorophyll content plant-1, plant height and total biological yield (by 18-30%, 33-67%, 22-38%, 14-21%, 14-27%, 12-19%, 12-23% 58-99%, 6-11% and 16-20%, respectively) and reduced Chl. a/b (by 6-22%) over the other treatments (p<0.01) irrespective of application methods. Nano ZnO applied at 100 mg L-1 significantly increased photochemical quenching (qP) and efficiency of photosystem II (EPSII) compared to 150 and 200 mg L-1 regardless of application methods. The positive correlations between Chl. a and Chl. b (r2 0.90), Chl. a+b and x+c (r2=0.71), SPAD and Chl. a (r2=0.90), SPAD and Chl. b (r2=0.94) and SPAD and Chl. a+b (r2=0.93) indicates a uniform enhancement in chlorophyll pigments; SPAD value, qP, EPSII, and growth and yield parameters. This elucidates that the application of nano ZnO at 100 mg L-1 promotes corn biochemical health and photosynthesis, irrespective of the application method. These findings have a great propounding for improving plant growth through nano ZnO bio-fortification in acidic Spodosols.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 824
Peiwen Yan ◽  
Yu Zhu ◽  
Ying Wang ◽  
Fuying Ma ◽  
Dengyong Lan ◽  

Developing methods for increasing the biomass and improving the plant architecture is important for crop improvement. We herein describe a gene belonging to the RING_Ubox (RING (Really Interesting New Gene) finger domain and U-box domain) superfamily, PLANT ARCHITECTURE and GRAIN NUMBER 1 (PAGN1), which regulates the number of grains per panicle, the plant height, and the number of tillers. We used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to introduce loss-of-function mutations to OsPAGN1. Compared with the control plants, the resulting pagn1 mutant plants had a higher grain yield because of increases in the plant height and in the number of tillers and grains per panicle. Thus, OsPAGN1 may be useful for the genetic improvement of plant architecture and yield. An examination of evolutionary relationships revealed that OsPAGN1 is highly conserved in rice. We demonstrated that OsPAGN1 can interact directly with OsCNR10 (CELL NUMBER REGULATOR10), which negatively regulates the number of rice grains per panicle. A transcriptome analysis indicated that silencing OsPAGN1 affects the levels of active cytokinins in rice. Therefore, our findings have clarified the OsPAGN1 functions related to rice growth and grain development.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 795
Lulu Han ◽  
Chenggong Jiang ◽  
Wei Zhang ◽  
Hongwu Wang ◽  
Kun Li ◽  

Lodging is the primary factor limiting high yield under a high plant density. However, an optimal plant height and leaf shape can effectively decrease the lodging risk. Here we studied an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-induced dwarf and a narrow-leaf mutant, dnl2. Gene mapping indicated that the mutant was controlled by a gene located on chromosome nine. Phenotypic and cytological observations revealed that dnl2 showed inhibited cell growth, altered vascular bundle patterning, and disrupted secondary cell wall structure when compared with the wild-type, which could be the direct cause of the dwarf and narrow-leaf phenotype. The phytohormone levels, especially auxin and gibberellin, were significantly decreased in dnl2 compared to the wild-type plants. Transcriptome profiling of the internodes of the dnl2 mutant and wild-type revealed a large number of differentially expressed genes enriched in the cell wall biosynthesis, remodeling, and hormone biosynthesis and signaling pathways. Therefore, we suggest that crosstalk between hormones (the altered vascular bundle and secondary cell wall structure) may contribute to the dwarf and narrow-leaf phenotype by influencing cell growth. These results provide a foundation for DNL2 gene cloning and further elucidation of the molecular mechanism of the regulation of plant height and leaf shape in maize.

Agriculture ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 102
Norazlida Jamil ◽  
Gert Kootstra ◽  
Lammert Kooistra

Agriculture practices in monocropping need to become more sustainable and one of the ways to achieve this is to reintroduce intercropping. However, quantitative data to evaluate plant growth in intercropping systems are still lacking. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have the potential to become a state-of-the-art technique for the automatic estimation of plant growth. Individual plant height is an important trait attribute for field investigation as it can be used to derive information on crop growth throughout the growing season. This study aimed to investigate the applicability of UAV-based RGB imagery combined with the structure from motion (SfM) method for estimating the individual plants height of cabbage, pumpkin, barley, and wheat in an intercropping field during a complete growing season under varying conditions. Additionally, the effect of different percentiles and buffer sizes on the relationship between UAV-estimated plant height and ground truth plant height was examined. A crop height model (CHM) was calculated as the difference between the digital surface model (DSM) and the digital terrain model (DTM). The results showed that the overall correlation coefficient (R2) values of UAV-estimated and ground truth individual plant heights for cabbage, pumpkin, barley, and wheat were 0.86, 0.94, 0.36, and 0.49, respectively, with overall root mean square error (RMSE) values of 6.75 cm, 6.99 cm, 14.16 cm, and 22.04 cm, respectively. More detailed analysis was performed up to the individual plant level. This study suggests that UAV imagery can provide a reliable and automatic assessment of individual plant heights for cabbage and pumpkin plants in intercropping but cannot be considered yet as an alternative approach for barley and wheat.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Shaozhe Wen ◽  
Minghu Zhang ◽  
Keling Tu ◽  
Chaofeng Fan ◽  
Shuai Tian ◽  

Wheat yield is not only affected by three components of yield, but also affected by plant height (PH). Identification and utilization of the quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling these four traits is vitally important for breeding high-yielding wheat varieties. In this work, we conducted a QTL analysis using the recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between two winter wheat varieties of China, “Nongda981” (ND981) and “Nongda3097” (ND3097), exhibiting significant differences in spike number per unit area (SN), grain number per spike (GNS), thousand grain weight (TGW), and PH. A total of 11 environmentally stable QTL for these four traits were detected. Among them, four major and stable QTLs (QSn.cau-4B-1.1, QGns.cau-4B-1, QTgw.cau-4B-1.1, and QPh.cau-4B-1.2) explaining the highest phenotypic variance for SN, GNS, TGW, and PH, respectively, were mapped on the same genomic region of chromosome 4B and were considered a QTL cluster. The QTL cluster spanned a genetic distance of about 12.3 cM, corresponding to a physical distance of about 8.7 Mb. Then, the residual heterozygous line (RHL) was used for fine mapping of the QTL cluster. Finally, QSn.cau-4B-1.1, QGns.cau-4B-1, and QPh.cau-4B-1.2 were colocated to the physical interval of about 1.4 Mb containing 31 annotated high confidence genes. QTgw.cau-4B-1.1 was divided into two linked QTL with opposite effects. The elite NILs of the QTL cluster increased SN and PH by 55.71–74.82% and 14.73–23.54%, respectively, and increased GNS and TGW by 29.72–37.26% and 5.81–11.24% in two environments. Collectively, the QTL cluster for SN, GNS, TGW, and PH provides a theoretical basis for improving wheat yield, and the fine-mapping result will be beneficial for marker-assisted selection and candidate genes cloning.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 6-14
Henly Yulina ◽  
Wiwik Ambarsari

The objective of this research was to find out the effect of municipal solid waste compost and cow manure on plant height, leaf length, and harvest weight of pakcoy (Brasica rapa) in Andisols in Indramayu Regency. This study used a randomized block design factorial with two factors. The first factor is municipal waste compost and the second factor is cow manure. Each of them consisted of 4 levels : 0%, 3.0%, 6.0%, and 9.0% with two replication. The results showed that there was an interaction between municipal solid waste compost and cow manure on the plant heights of  pakcoy 14, 21, and 28 HST, but there was no interaction at 7 HST. The statistical results show that the combination of municipal solid waste compost with cow manure has an effect on the height of pakcoy 14, 21, and 28 HST, but the height of pakcoy 7 HST is influenced by the independent influence of cow manure. There was an interaction between municipal solid waste compost and cow manure on the leaf length of pakcoy 7, 14, 21, and 28 HST, and there was an interaction between municipal waste compost and cow manure on the harvest weight of pakcoy. The application of organic matter, both municipal solid waste compost and cow manure to the soil can increase plant height, leaf length, and harvest weight of pakcoy.

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