allergic rhinitis
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2022 ◽  
Ru Chen ◽  
Yao Sun ◽  
Guoqi Sima

Review question / Objective: What is the effect of intralymphatic, subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy for pollen-induced allergic rhinitis. Condition being studied: Immunotherapy is the classic treatment for allergic rhinitis. Intralymphatic immunotherapy is a new type of treatment. Currently, no studies have compared subcutaneous, sublingual and intralymphatic sublingual immunotherapy. At present, there is no review to compare the efficacy of intralymphatic, subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy for pollen-induced allergic rhinitis.

2022 ◽  
pp. 00462-2021
Heidi Andersén ◽  
Pinja Ilmarinen ◽  
Jasmin Honkamäki ◽  
Leena E Tuomisto ◽  
Hanna Hisinger-Mölkänen ◽  

BackgroundNonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may exacerbate respiratory symptoms. A recent EAACI position paper recommended the use of an acronym, N-ERD (NSAID-exacerbated respiratory disease), for this hypersensitivity associated with asthma or chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with or without nasal polyposis. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of N-ERD and identify factors associated with N-ERD.MethodsIn 2016, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of a random adult population of 16 000 subjects aged 20–69 years was performed in Helsinki and Western Finland. The response rate was 51.5%.ResultsThe prevalence was 1.4% for N-ERD, and 0.7% for AERD. The prevalence of N-ERD was 6.9% among subjects with asthma and 2.7% among subjects with rhinitis.The risk factors for N-ERD were older age, family history of asthma or allergic rhinitis, long-term smoking and exposure to environmental pollutants. Asthmatic subjects with N-ERD had a higher risk of respiratory symptoms, severe hypersensitivity reactions and hospitalisations than asthmatic subjects without N-ERD. The sub-phenotype of N-ERD with asthma was most symptomatic. Subjects with rhinitis associated with N-ERD, which would not be included in AERD, had the least symptoms.ConclusionWe conclude that the prevalence of N-ERD was 1.4% in a representative Finnish adult population sample. Older age, family history of asthma or allergic rhinitis, cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke, secondhand smoke, and occupational exposures increased odds of N-ERD. N-ERD was associated with significant morbidity.

2022 ◽  
pp. 107815522110728
Kelsey Coffman ◽  
Coby Carstens ◽  
Susan Fajardo

Daratumumab, a CD38-directed monoclonal antibody indicated for multiple myeloma treatment in adult patients, is associated with a high incidence of infusion-related reactions (IRRs). Due to CD38 receptor presence in the lungs, many reactions present similarly to asthma or allergic rhinitis. Montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, has been hypothesized to reduce daratumumab IRRs due to its efficacy in treating allergic rhinitis and asthma and the presence of leukotriene receptors in the lungs. Recently published data reported daratumumab can be safely administered via rapid rate protocol that reduces infusion time from 195 min to 90 min after completion of two doses. This retrospective, observational cohort study examined 73 patients who received daratumumab in the outpatient setting between December 2015 and April 2020. Patients were included if they were 18 years or older, had an International Classification of Disease (ICD)-10 diagnosis code for multiple myeloma, and received daratumumab intravenously. The primary outcome was a comparison of IRRs between those who did and did not receive montelukast. Secondary outcomes included IRR symptoms, rescue medications utilized for IRRs, and rapid rate administration outcomes. Montelukast use was associated with a lower rate of IRRs (44.4% vs. 65.2%, p = 0.044). Pulmonary IRR symptoms were more common in those who did not receive montelukast. Rapid rate administration of daratumumab did not lead to any IRRs. Adding montelukast as a pre-medication for daratumumab infusions led to a reduction in IRRs, and rapid rate administration was found to be safe after completion of two full doses of daratumumab.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Shaobing Xie ◽  
Ruohao Fan ◽  
Qingping Tang ◽  
Xiao Cai ◽  
Hua Zhang ◽  

BackgroundSubcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) is an effective treatment for children with allergic rhinitis (AR), but its efficacy fluctuates among patients. There are no reliable candidate biomarkers for monitoring and predicting the response to SCIT. The present study aims to identify novel biomarkers for early predicting the efficacy of SCIT in pediatric AR patients based on multiple cytokine profiling.MethodsWe prospectively recruited 72 children with house dust mite (HDM)-induced AR who were assigned to receive SCIT. The serum samples were collected and multiple cytokine profiling was conducted by Luminex assay at baseline. All patients were followed-up for 1 year and then categorized into effective and ineffective group based on their efficacy, and levels of 48 selected cytokines were tested and compared between the two groups. The potential cytokines were further validated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a cohort with 54 responders and 26 non-responders.ResultsSixty-nine of 72 children completed one-year follow-up schedule with 46 included in effective group and 23 in ineffective group. The results of multiple cytokine profiling showed that 15 cytokines (eotaxin, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-12(p40), IL-13, IL-15, IL-16, IL-4, MIF, MIP-1α, RANTES, SCF, SDF-1α and VEGF) were dysregulated between effective and ineffective group (all P < 0.05). Unadjusted and adjusted multivariate analysis models highlighted that serum eotaxin, IFN-γ, IL-4 and MIF levels closely associated with the efficacy of SCIT in pediatric HDM-induced AR patients. In addition, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves revealed potential values of these four biomarkers in predicting the response to SCIT. Further ELISA validation results in the cohort of 80 pediatric patients demonstrated that serum eotaxin and IL-4 levels were elevated in responders while IFN-γ levels decreased in responders (all P < 0.05). ROC curves demonstrated that serum IL-4 exhibited more reliable accuracy in predicting SCIT efficacy than eotaxin and IFN-γ.ConclusionOur discover–validation study suggested that cytokines including IL-4, eotaxin and IFN- γ may serve as robust biomarkers for early predicting response of SCIT in children with HDM-induced AR. These results strengthen the evidence that cytokines were associated with the response of SCIT and contributed to understand its underlying therapeutic mechanisms.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Aranjit Singh Randhawa ◽  
Norhayati Mohd Noor ◽  
Mohd Khairi Md Daud ◽  
Baharudin Abdullah

Bilastine is a non-sedating second generation H1 oral antihistamine (OAH) for treating allergic rhinitis (AR) patients. The effect of bilastine has not previously been evaluated in a meta-analysis. The aim of this review was to determine the efficacy and safety of bilastine in treating AR. An electronic literature search was performed using Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Science Direct and Google Scholar up to March 2021. Randomized controlled trials comparing bilastine with placebo and standard pharmacotherapy were included. The included studies must have diagnosis of AR established by clinicians and the outcomes must have a minimum of 2 weeks of follow-up period. The primary outcomes assessed were total symptom score (TSS), nasal symptom score (NSS) and non-nasal symptom score (NNSS). The secondary outcomes were discomfort due to rhinitis, quality of life (QOL) and adverse events. The risk of bias and quality of evidence for all studies were appraised. The meta-analysis was done using Review Manager 5.3 software based on the random-effects model. The search identified 135 records after removal of duplicates. Following screening and review of the records, fifteen full-text articles were assessed for eligibility. Five trials involving 3,329 patients met the inclusion criteria. Bilastine was superior to placebo in improving TSS, NSS, NNSS, rhinitis discomfort score and QOL but has comparable efficacy with other OAHs in TSS, NSS, NNS, rhinitis discomfort score and QOL. There was no difference in adverse effects when bilastine was compared against placebo and other OAHs except for somnolence. Bilastine has fewer incidence of somnolence compared to cetirizine. The overall quality of evidence ranged from moderate to high quality. Bilastine is effective and safe in treating the overall symptoms of AR with comparable efficacy and safety with other OAHs except somnolence. Whilst bilastine has similar efficacy to cetirizine, somnolence is notably less in bilastine.

Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 80
Tetsuya Terada ◽  
Ryo Kawata

Some patients with chronic rhinitis have a positive nasal allergen provocation test (NAPT) without systemic IgE sensitization by skin prick tests or serum allergen-specific IgE (sIgE). This novel concept is called local allergic rhinitis (LAR) and affects children and adults worldwide, but is underdiagnosed. LAR is not just the initial state of allergic rhinitis (AR), it is a unique form of chronic rhinitis that is neither classical AR nor non-AR. Many of the features of AR and LAR are similar, such as a positive NAPT, positive type 2 inflammatory markers, including the nasal discharge of sIgE, and a high incidence of asthma. A differential diagnosis of LAR needs to be considered in patients with symptoms suggestive of AR in the absence of systemic atopy, regardless of age. The diagnostic method for LAR relies on positive responses to single or multiple allergens in NAPT, the sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of which are high. The basophil activation test and measurement of IgE in nasal secretions also contribute to the diagnosis of LAR. Treatment for LAR is similar to that for AR and is supported by the efficacy and safety of allergen exposure avoidance, drug therapy, and allergen immunotherapy. This review discusses current knowledge on LAR.

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