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2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Eun-Ha Kang ◽  
Seol-Hee Park ◽  
Ye-In Oh ◽  
Kyoung-Won Seo

Abstract Background The use of salivary biomarkers has garnered attention because the composition of saliva reflects the body’s physiological state. Saliva contains a wide range of components, including peptides, nucleic acids, electrolytes, enzymes, and hormones. It has been reported that salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol are biomarkers of stress related biomarker in diseased dogs; however, evaluation of salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol pre- and post- operation has not been studied yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol levels in dogs before and after they underwent surgery and investigate the association between the salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol activity and pain intensity. For this purpose, a total of 35 dogs with disease-related pain undergoing orthopedic and soft tissue surgeries were recruited. Alpha-amylase and cortisol levels in the dogs’ saliva and serum were measured for each using a commercially available canine-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, and physical examinations (measurement of heart rate and blood pressure) were performed. In addition, the dogs’ pre- and post-operative pain scores determined using the short form of the Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Scale (CMPS-SF) were evaluated. Results After surgery, there was a significant decrease in the dogs’ pain scores (0.4-fold for the CMPS-SF, p < 0.001) and serum cortisol levels (0.73-fold, p < 0.01). Based on their pre-operative CMPS-SF scores, the dogs were included in either a high-pain-score group or a low-pain-score group. After the dogs in the high-pain-score group underwent surgical intervention, there was a significant decrease in their CMPS-SF scores and levels of salivary alpha-amylase, serum alpha-amylase, and serum cortisol. Additionally, there was a positive correlation between salivary alpha-amylase levels and CMPS-SF scores in both the high- and low-pain-score groups. Conclusions The measurement of salivary alpha amylase can be considered an important non-invasive tool for the evaluation of pain-related stress in dogs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 333
Nada Sabourdin ◽  
Julien Burey ◽  
Sophie Tuffet ◽  
Anne Thomin ◽  
Alexandra Rousseau ◽  

The clinical benefits to be expected from intraoperative nociception monitors are currently under investigation. Among these devices, the Analgesia Nociception-Index (ANI) has shown promising results under sevoflurane anesthesia. Our study investigated ANI-guided remifentanil administration under propofol anesthesia. We hypothesized that ANI guidance would result in reduced remifentanil consumption compared with standard management. This prospective, randomized, controlled, single-blinded, bi-centric study included women undergoing elective gynecologic surgery under target-controlled infusion of propofol and remifentanil. Patients were randomly assigned to an ANI or Standard group. In the ANI group, remifentanil target concentration was adjusted by 0.5 ng mL−1 steps every 5 min according to the ANI value. In the Standard group, remifentanil was managed according to standard practice. Our primary objective was to compare remifentanil consumption between the groups. Our secondary objectives were to compare the quality of anesthesia, postoperative analgesia and the incidence of chronic pain. Eighty patients were included. Remifentanil consumption was lower in the ANI group: 4.4 (3.3; 5.7) vs. 5.8 (4.9; 7.1) µg kg−1 h−1 (difference = −1.4 (95% CI, −2.6 to −0.2), p = 0.0026). Propofol consumption was not different between the groups. Postoperative pain scores were low in both groups. There was no difference in morphine consumption 24 h after surgery. The proportion of patients reporting pain 3 months after surgery was 18.8% in the ANI group and 30.8% in the Standard group (difference = −12.0 (95% CI, −32.2 to 9.2)). ANI guidance resulted in lower remifentanil consumption compared with standard practice under propofol anesthesia. There was no difference in short- or long-term postoperative analgesia.

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Kathleen B. Cartmell ◽  
Sarah Ann E. Kenneson ◽  
Rakesh Roy ◽  
Gautam Bhattacharjee ◽  
Nibedita Panda ◽  

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a home-based palliative care program delivered by community health workers (CHW) in rural areas outside of Kolkata, India. The specific aims were to assess CHWs’ ability to implement the intervention protocol and maintain records of care, to characterize patient problems and CHW activities to assist patients, and to assess change in patient pain scores over the course of the intervention. Materials and Methods: Four CHWs were hired to facilitate delivery of home-based palliative care services. CHWs were trained using the Worldwide Hospice and Palliative Care Alliance’s Palliative Care Toolkit. CHWs provided care for patients for 3-months, making regular home visits to monitor health, making and implementing care plans, and referring patients back to the cancer center team for serious problems. Results: Eleven patients enrolled in the intervention, with ten of these patients participating in the intervention and one patient passing away before starting the intervention. All ten participants reported physical pain, for which CHWs commonly recommended additional or higher dose medication and/or instructed patients how to take medication properly. For two patients, pain levels decreased between baseline and end of study, while pain scores did not decrease for the remaining patients. Other symptoms for which CHWs provided care included gastro-intestinal, bleeding, and respiratory problems. Conclusion: The study findings suggest that utilization of CHWs to provide palliative care in low-resource settings may be a feasible approach for expanding access to palliative care. CHWs were able to carry out the study visit protocol and assess and document patient problems and their activities to assist. They were also able to alleviate many common problems patients experienced with simple suggestions or referrals. However, most patients did not see a decrease in pain levels and more emphasis was needed on the emotional aspects of palliative care, and so CHWs may require additional training on provision of pain management and emotional support services.

Logan Erz ◽  
Brandon Larson ◽  
Shayda Mirhaidari ◽  
Chad Cook ◽  
Doug Wagner

Abstract Background Given the ongoing battle with opioid abuse and over-use in the United States new strategies are consistently being implemented in an attempt to reduce opioid use and over prescribing. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine if a more regulated explicit pain management instruction plan could reduce the number of opioids taken. Methods Blinded randomized prospective study comparing a total of 110 (Group A=55, Group B=55) women undergoing elective outpatient bilateral breast reduction surgery by two different plastic surgeons. Patients were randomly divided into either Group A (control) that received general pain management instructions or Group B (experimental) that received explicit pain management instructions from the surgeons and nurses. Participants were asked to record the number of times they treated their pain with each separate modality. They were also asked to record their average daily pain scale for the days that they were treating their pain. Results Patients in group B took on average 1.5 oxycodone while patients in group A took on average 5.7 oxycodone (p&lt;0.01). Thirty-four patients in group B took no oxycodone. Patients in group B also had statistically significant lower subjective pain scores. Conclusions Based on these results it appears that standardizing how patients are instructed to treat their pain post-operatively may reduce the number of narcotics needed, thus reducing the number of narcotics prescribed without compromising pain control.

2022 ◽  
Vol 54 (1) ◽  
pp. 47-53
Nida S. Awadallah ◽  
Vanessa Rollins ◽  
Alvin B. Oung ◽  
Miriam Dickinson ◽  
Dionisia de la Cerda ◽  

Background and Objectives: The opioid epidemic highlights the importance of evidence-based practices in the management of chronic pain and the need for improved resident education focused on chronic pain treatment and controlled substance use. We present the development, implementation, and outcomes of a novel, long-standing interprofessional safe prescribing committee (SPC) and resulting policy, protocol, and longitudinal curriculum to address patient care and educational gaps in chronic pain management for residents in training. Methods: The SPC developed and implemented an opioid prescribing policy, protocol, and longitudinal curriculum in a single, community-based residency program. We conducted a postcurriculum survey for resident graduates to assess impact of knowledge gained. We conducted a retrospective chart review for patients on chronic opioid therapy to assess change in morphine equivalent dosing (MED) and pain scores pre- and postintervention. Results: A postcurriculum survey was completed by 20/26 (77%) graduates; 18/20 (90%) felt well-equipped to manage chronic pain based on their residency training experience. We completed a retrospective chart review on 57 patients. We found a significant decrease in MED (-20.34 [SE 5.12], P&lt;.0001) at intervention visit with MED reductions maintained through the postintervention period (-9.43 per year additional decrease [SE 5.25], P=.073). We observed improvement in postintervention pain scores (P=.017). Conclusions: Our study illustrates the effectiveness of an interprofessional committee in lowering prescribed opioid doses and enhancing chronic pain education in a community-based residency setting.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (6) ◽  
Alireza Pournajafian ◽  
Ali Khatibi ◽  
Behrooz Zaman ◽  
Amir Pourabbasi

Background: Acute postoperative pain is a significant cause of morbidities. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of intraoperative blood pressure during laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia on postoperative pain in patients without underlying disorders. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 72 patients undergoing general anesthesia for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly assigned into two groups: Group A with higher than baseline preoperative blood pressure (MAP allowed to increase up to 20% higher than baseline MAP by inducing pneumoperitoneum) and group B with normal to low blood pressure (MAP deliberately controlled at a tight limit from normal baseline MAP values to 20% less than baseline by titrating TNG infusion). The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) after 2, 8, 12, and 24 hours of surgery, and the total dose of meperidine used to manage postoperative pain were recorded and compared between the two groups. Results: The pain scores in group A were significantly lower than group B (P = 0.001). The postoperative analgesia request time was different between the two groups (P = 0.53). During the first 24 hours, the total meperidine consumption dose in group A was significantly lower than in group B (P = 0.001). Conclusions: High intraoperative blood pressure may affect the postoperative pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy and lead to less postoperative pain score and analgesic requirements.

2022 ◽  
Vol 226 (1) ◽  
pp. S535
Mia A. Heiligenstein ◽  
Anna Fuchs ◽  
Lama R. Noureddine ◽  
Richelle Fassler ◽  
Omar Abuzeid ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 307-313
Erdal Tekin ◽  
Muhammed Enes Aydin ◽  
Mehmet Cenk Turgut ◽  
Selahattin Karagoz ◽  
Irem Ates ◽  

Objective Ultrasound-guided infraclavicular nerve block (IB) has become a well-established method in several outpatient procedures; however, its use in emergency departments (EDs) remains limited. The aim of this study was to compare procedural sedation and anlagesia (PSA) and IB in the pain management for patients who underwent forearm fracture reduction in the ED.Methods This prospective randomized study included 60 patients aged 18 to 65 years, who visited the ED with forearm fractures. They were randomly divided into two groups: Group PSA (n=30) and Group IB (n=30). The pain scores of patients were evaluated before and during the procedure with the visual analog scale. Complications and patient and operator satisfaction levels were recorded.Results There was no difference between the two groups in terms of demographic characteristics. The median (interquartile range) pain scores observed during the procedures were significantly higher in Group PSA than in Group IB (4 [4–6] vs. 2 [0–2], respectively; P<0.001). Patient and operator satisfaction levels were significantly higher in Group IB (P<0.001). Oxygen desaturation was statistically higher in Group PSA than in Group IB (40.00% vs. 3.33%, respectively; P=0.002).Conclusion IB was an effective alternative for reducing pain and increasing patient satisfaction in ED patients undergoing forearm fracture reduction.

Neurospine ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (4) ◽  
pp. 733-740
Jae-Koo Lee ◽  
Jong Hwa Park ◽  
Seung-Jae Hyun ◽  
Daniel Hodel ◽  
Oliver N. Hausmann

This paper is an overview of various features of regional anesthesia (RA) and aims to introduce spine surgeons unfamiliar with RA. RA is commonly used for procedures that involve the lower extremities, perineum, pelvic girdle, or lower abdomen. However, general anesthesia (GA) is preferred and most commonly used for lumbar spine surgery. Spinal anesthesia (SA) and epidural anesthesia (EA) are the most commonly used RA methods, and a combined method of SA and EA (CSE). Compared to GA, RA offers numerous benefits including reduced intraoperative blood loss, arterial and venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, perioperative cardiac ischemic incidents, renal failure, hypoxic episodes in the postanesthetic care unit, postoperative morbidity and mortality, and decreased incidence of cognitive dysfunction. In spine surgery, RA is associated with lower pain scores, postoperative nausea and vomiting, positioning injuries, shorter anesthesia time, and higher patient satisfaction. Currently, RA is mostly used in short lumbar spine surgeries. However, recent findings illustrate the possibility of applying RA in spinal tumors and spinal fusion. Various researches reveal that SA is an effective alternative to GA with lower minor complications incidence. Comprehensive insight on RA will promote spine surgery under RA, thereby broadening the horizon of spine surgery under RA.

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