surgical intensive care
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2022 ◽  
Vol 68 ◽  
pp. 16-21
Luis E. Tollinche ◽  
Kenneth P. Seier ◽  
Gloria Yang ◽  
Kay See Tan ◽  
Yekaterina D. Tayban ◽  

Hatem Kallel ◽  
Stephanie Houcke ◽  
Dabor Resiere ◽  
Thibault Court ◽  
Cesar Roncin ◽  

Intensive care unit–acquired infection (ICU-AI) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase–producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) carriage are a major concern worldwide. Our objective was to investigate the impact of ESBL-PE carriage on ICU-AI. Our study is prospective, observational, and noninterventional. It was conducted over a 5-year period (Jan 2013–Dec 2017) in the medical-surgical intensive care unit of the Cayenne General Hospital (French Amazonia). During the study period, 1,340 patients were included, 271 (20.2%) developed ICU-AI, and 16.2% of these were caused by ESBL-PE. The main sites of ICU-AI were ventilator-associated pneumonia (35.8%) and primary bloodstream infection (29.8%). The main responsible microorganisms were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-P in 35.8% of isolates), and Enterobacter cloacae (ESBL-P in 29.8% of isolates). Prior ESBL-PE carriage was diagnosed in 27.6% of patients with ICU-AI. In multivariable analysis, the sole factor associated with ESBL-PE as the responsible organism of ICU-AI was ESBL-PE carriage before ICU-AI (P < 0.001; odds ratio: 7.9 95% CI: 3.4-18.9). ESBL-PE carriers (74 patients) developed ICU-AI which was caused by ESBL-PE in 32 cases (43.2%). This proportion of patients carrying ESBL-PE who developed ICU-AI to the same microorganism was 51.2% in ESBL-P K. pneumoniae, 5.6% in ESBL-P Escherichia coli, and 40% in ESBL-P Enterobacter spp. NPV of ESBL-PE carriage to predict ICU-AI caused by ESBL-PE was above 94% and PPV was above 43%. Carriage of ESBL-P K pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp. is a strong predictor of ICU-AI caused by these two microorganisms.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Keke Song ◽  
Tingting Yang ◽  
Wei Gao

Abstract Background Serum chloride (Cl−) is one of the most essential extracellular anions. Based on emerging evidence obtained from patients with kidney or heart disease, hypochloremia has been recognized as an independent predictor of mortality. Nevertheless, excessive Cl− can also cause death in severely ill patients. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between hyperchloremia and high mortality rate in patients admitted to the surgical intensive care unit (SICU). Methods We enrolled 2131 patients from the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care III database version 1.4 (MIMIC-III v1.4) from 2001 to 2012. Selected SICU patients were more than 18 years old and survived more than 72 h. A serum Cl− level ≥ 108 mEq/L was defined as hyperchloremia. Clinical and laboratory variables were compared between hyperchloremia (n = 664) at 72 h post-ICU admission and no hyperchloremia (n = 1467). The Locally Weighted Scatterplot Smoothing (Lowess) approach was utilized to investigate the correlation between serum Cl- and the thirty-day mortality rate. The Cox proportional-hazards model was employed to investigate whether serum chlorine at 72 h post-ICU admission was independently related to in-hospital, thirty-day and ninety-day mortality from all causes. Kaplan-Meier curve of thirty-day and ninety-day mortality and serum Cl− at 72 h post-ICU admission was further constructed. Furthermore, we performed subgroup analyses to investigate the relationship between serum Cl− at 72 h post-ICU admission and the thirty-day mortality from all causes. Results A J-shaped correlation was observed, indicating that hyperchloremia was linked to an elevated risk of thirty-day mortality from all causes. In the multivariate analyses, it was established that hyperchloremia remained a valuable predictor of in-hospital, thirty-day and ninety-day mortality from all causes; with adjusted hazard ratios (95% CIs) for hyperchloremia of 1.35 (1.02 ~ 1.77), 1.67 (1.28 ~ 2.19), and 1.39 (1.12 ~ 1.73), respectively. In subgroup analysis, we observed hyperchloremia had a significant interaction with AKI (P for interaction: 0.017), but there were no interactions with coronary heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus (P for interaction: 0.418, 0.157, 0.103, respectively). Conclusion Hyperchloremia at 72 h post-ICU admission and increasing serum Cl− were associated with elevated mortality risk from all causes in severely ill SICU patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xin Chu ◽  
Chenyi Di ◽  
Panpan Chang ◽  
Lina Li ◽  
Zhe Feng ◽  

ObjectiveTo date, there are no studies regarding the lactylation profile and its role in critically ill patients. Thus, we aimed to examine expression of histone H3 lysine 18 (H3K18) lactylation and its role in patients with septic shock.MethodsThirteen healthy volunteers and 35 critically ill patients from the Department of Surgical Intensive Care Medicine, Beijing Hospital were enrolled in our study. Baseline information and clinical outcomes were obtained prospectively. Lactylation levels of all proteins and H3K18 from peripheral blood mononuclear (PBMC) were determined by western blotting and serum levels of inflammatory cytokines by flow cytometry. Arginase-1 (Arg1) and Krüppel-like factor-4 (Klf4) mRNA expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR).ResultsLactylation was found to be an all-protein post-translational modification and was detected in PBMCs from both healthy volunteers and critically ill patients, with a significantly higher relative density in shock patients (t=2.172, P=0.045). H3K18la was expressed in all subjects, including healthy volunteers, with the highest level in septic shock patients (compared with non-septic shock patients, critically ill without shock patients and healthy volunteers P=0.033, 0.000 and 0.000, respectively). Furthermore, H3K18la protein expression correlated positively with APACHE II scores, SOFA scores on day 1, ICU stay, mechanical ventilation time and serum lactate (ρ=0.42, 0.63, 0.39, 0.51 and 0.48, respectively, ρ=0.012, 0.000, 0.019, 0.003 and 0.003, respectively). When we matched patients with septic shock and with non-septic shock according to severity, we found higher H3K18la levels in the former group (t=-2.208, P =0.040). Moreover, H3K18la exhibited a close correlation with procalcitonin levels (ρ=0.71, P=0.010). Patients with high H3K18la expression showed higher IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-α levels (ρ=0.33, 0.37, 0.62, 0.55, 0.65, 0.49 and 0.374 respectively, P=0.024, 0.011, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000 and 0.000 respectively). H3K18la expression also displayed a positive correlation with the level of Arg1 mRNA (ρ=0.561, P=0.005).ConclusionsLactylation is an all-protein post-translational modification occurring in both healthy subjects and critically ill patients. H3K18la may reflect the severity of critical illness and the presence of infection. H3K18la might mediate inflammatory cytokine expression and Arg1 overexpression and stimulate the anti-inflammatory function of macrophages in sepsis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 91 (1) ◽  
pp. 8-35
Mary E. Charlson ◽  
Danilo Carrozzino ◽  
Jenny Guidi ◽  
Chiara Patierno

The present critical review was conducted to evaluate the clinimetric properties of the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), an assessment tool designed specifically to predict long-term mortality, with regard to its reliability, concurrent validity, sensitivity, incremental and predictive validity. The original version of the CCI has been adapted for use with different sources of data, ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes. The inter-rater reliability of the CCI was found to be excellent, with extremely high agreement between self-report and medical charts. The CCI has also been shown either to have concurrent validity with a number of other prognostic scales or to result in concordant predictions. Importantly, the clinimetric sensitivity of the CCI has been demonstrated in a variety of medical conditions, with stepwise increases in the CCI associated with stepwise increases in mortality. The CCI is also characterized by the clinimetric property of incremental validity, whereby adding the CCI to other measures increases the overall predictive accuracy. It has been shown to predict long-term mortality in different clinical populations, including medical, surgical, intensive care unit (ICU), trauma, and cancer patients. It may also predict in-hospital mortality, although in some instances, such as ICU or trauma patients, the CCI did not perform as well as other instruments designed specifically for that purpose. The CCI thus appears to be clinically useful not only to provide a valid assessment of the patient’s unique clinical situation, but also to demarcate major diagnostic and prognostic differences among subgroups of patients sharing the same medical diagnosis.

Antibiotics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 35
Basit Zeshan ◽  
Mohmed Isaqali Karobari ◽  
Nadia Afzal ◽  
Amer Siddiq ◽  
Sakeenabi Basha ◽  

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health issue that plays a significant role in morbidity and mortality, especially in immunocompromised patients. It also becomes a serious threat to the successful treatment of many bacterial infections. The widespread and irrelevant use of antibiotics in hospitals and local clinics is the leading cause of AMR. Under this scenario, the study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Lahore, Pakistan, from 2 August 2021 to 31 October 2021 to discover the prevalence of bacterial infections and AMR rates in COVID-19 patients admitted in surgical intensive care units (SICUs). Clinical samples were collected from the patients and we proceeded to identify bacterial isolates, followed by antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) using the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The data of other comorbidities were also collected from the patient’s medical record. The current study showed that the most common pathogens were E. coli (32%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (17%). Most E. coli were resistant to ciprofloxacin (16.8%) and ampicillin (19.8%). Klebsiella pneumoniae were more resistant to ampicillin (13.3%) and amoxycillin (12.0%). The most common comorbidity was chronic kidney disease (CKD) and urinary tract infections (UTIs). Around 17 different types of antibiotic, the carbapenem, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycoside, and quinolones, were highly prevalent in ICU patients. The current study provides valuable data on the clinical implication of antibiotics consumed by COVID-19 patients in SICUs and the AMR rates, especially with different comorbidities.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 77-88
Bianca Marochi ◽  
Daniela Thaís Lorenzi Pereira ◽  
Luiza Manfroi Lattmann ◽  
Sthefany Mais ◽  
Arthur Nathan Luiz Ferreira Matos ◽  

Background and objectives: Gastrointestinal fistulas are anomalous communications between the digestive system and other structures. This article presents the epidemiological profile of patients who developed postoperative abdominal fistulas and their outcomes. Methods: Cross-sectional study that evaluated surgical procedures done in a 25 week period that presented risks for fistulous formations. Were analyzed age, type of the surgery (elective or urgent), pre-existing risk factors, need for post-surgical intensive care unit, type of fistula, reoperations to the fistula treatment, and outcome (discharge or death). Results: There were 1785 abdominal surgical procedures, with a fistula incidence of 1.8%. Most of the patients who developed fistulas were over 60 years old (71.4%), and surgeries that resulted in fistulous complications were mainly urgent (75.0%), with the need for intensive care in 46.9%. The most frequent types of fistula were enteral (52.3%) and biliary (23.8%), and surgical treatment took place in 53.1% of cases. Late hospital discharge was predominant in these patients (40.6%), and the death rate was 3.1%. Discussion: These complications are common after abdominal surgery and require clinical attention. There is a correlation between the formation of the fistulas and urgent surgery procedures, directly impacting the length of hospital stay. Conclusion: The risk factors of fistula development are advanced age and the presence of malignant disease. They are more prevalent in urgent surgeries and patients were more likely to need reoperation and have a delay on discharge.

2021 ◽  
pp. 001857872110673
Kaitlyn J. Agedal ◽  
Elizabeth A. Feldman ◽  
Robert W. Seabury ◽  
William Darko ◽  
Luke A. Probst ◽  

Background: Trauma patients are at increased risk of developing venous thromboembolism given alterations in the coagulation cascade. Chemoprophylaxis with standard dosing of enoxaparin 30 mg subcutaneously twice daily has evolved to incorporate the use of anti-factor Xa (AFXa) trough level monitoring given concerns for decreased enoxaparin bioavailability in this patient population. Current available evidence suggests low rates of goal AFXa trough level achievement with standard enoxaparin dosing. Our study aims to identify the incidence of critically ill trauma patients that did not achieve goal AFXa trough levels and attempts to identify predictors that may influence the lack of achievement of goal levels. Methods: This was a retrospective, cohort analysis performed at a single academic medical center. Adult patients 18 years or older admitted to the surgical intensive care unit secondary to trauma who were initiated on standard prophylactic enoxaparin and had at least 1 AFXa trough level representative of steady state were included. Patient demographics and clinical data were collected, and descriptive statistics were utilized. All statistical tests were 2-tailed and a P < .05 was considered significant. Variables with a P < .10 on univariable analysis were included in a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results: A majority of our patient population did not achieve goal AFXa trough levels while receiving standard doses of prophylactic enoxaparin (82.4% [108/131]). Sub-target AFXa levels were associated with higher creatinine clearance values. Positive predictors of obtaining target AFXa levels included automobile versus pedestrian mechanism of injury and requiring an enoxaparin dose escalation to at least 40 mg twice daily. Conclusions: Our study found low rates of achievement of goal AFXa trough levels in critically ill trauma patients receiving standard prophylactic enoxaparin dosing. Certain variables were identified as negative and positive predictors for achievement of goal AFXa trough levels, although the biologic plausibility of these predictors is questionable and requires further investigation.

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