Emotional Arousal
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2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (2) ◽  
pp. 23-28
Fermina Omar Anuddin

This kind of attitude among the university students stems out of laziness and lack of prioritization in their academic endeavor. Research says that 95% of American students purposely delay beginning or completing tasks and 70% engaged in academic procrastination. It is not impossible that Filipinos are actually expert in procrastination. In other words, procrastination largely accounts for the relationship of conscientiousness to performance, and that procrastination is strongly associated with distractibility, poor organization, low achievement motivation, and an intention-action gap. If one is not conscientious in his performance he will likely engage in procrastination. Additionally, agreeableness and sensation seeking traits generated low correlations with procrastination. One possible way to decrease procrastination for tasks is to increase expectancy of success, or self- efficacy by verbal persuasion, emotional arousal, and modeling. Despite of the advances in the education nowadays, and the challenging tasks that students faced day by day to cope up with the requirements of their respective courses, they are still in the realm of seemingly taking their studies for granted that as if it’s easy or simply put, procrastinating! In connection, it sought to answer this question: Is there a relationship between procrastination to the academic performance in GEC 104 (Mathematics in the Modern World) of the 2nd year students of the College of Education at Mindanao State University-Sulu?

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 2694
Anna Stachurska ◽  
Anna Wiśniewska ◽  
Witold Kędzierski ◽  
Monika Różańska-Boczula ◽  
Iwona Janczarek

Horses in a herd develop and maintain a dominance hierarchy between all individuals. There are many situations in riding facilities and studs in which horses have to be separated out of a group. The aim of the study was to determine the rate of behaviours, level of locomotor activity and cardiac activity variables in a herd of horses during a short social separation of individuals differently ranked in the dominance hierarchy. Twelve adult Arabian mares were involved. A behavioural test had been performed before the main experiment to determine the rank order of the mares in this social herd. Three tests were performed when a dominant, mixed and submissive three-member group of mares was separated for 10 min. The response of the remaining herd was determined by a rate of behaviours, time of locomotor activity and cardiac parameters. The results of the experiment reveal evident changes towards emotional arousal in the social herd elicited by a short separation of some conspecifics. The herd created by humans preserves the sensitivity to a temporary loss of its members. The response of the remaining herd does not depend strictly on the composition of the separated mares regarding their rank in the dominance hierarchy.

Cayque Brietzke ◽  
Ítalo Vinícius ◽  
Paulo Estevão Franco-Alvarenga ◽  
Raul Canestri ◽  
Márcio Fagundes Goethel ◽  

This study provided a proof-of-concept and test–retest reliability of measures frequently used to assess a mental fatigue paradigm. After familiarization, 28 healthy men performed (40-min) the Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP) test in a test–retest design, having mental fatigue sensation, motivation, emotional arousal, total mood disturbance, and electroencephalography (EEG) in the prefrontal cortex measured before and after the test. EEG was recorded during a 3-min rest so that the power spectral density of theta (3–7 Hz) and alpha (8–13 Hz) bands was calculated. Pre-to-post RVP test changes in psychological and physiological domains were compared (paired-T tests), and absolute (standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimal difference (MD)) and relative reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)) were calculated. The RVP test induced an increase (p < 0.05) in mental fatigue sensation (120.9% (109.4; 132.4)) and total mood disturbance (3.5% (−6.3; 13.3)), and a decrease in motivation (−7.1% (−9.2; −5.1)) and emotional arousal (−16.2% (−19.1; −13.2)). Likewise, EEG theta (59.1% (33.2; 85.0); p < 0.05), but not alpha band, increased due to RVP test. All psychophysiological responses showed poor-to-moderate relative reliability. Changes in mental fatigue sensation and motivation were higher than SEM and MD, but changes in EEG theta band were higher only than SEM. Mental fatigue sensation, motivation, and EEG theta band were sensitive to distinguish a mental fatigue paradigm despite true mental fatigue effects on theta activity may be trivial.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (9) ◽  
pp. e0256211
Feng Tian ◽  
Minlei Hua ◽  
Wenrui Zhang ◽  
Yingjie Li ◽  
Xiaoli Yang

Previous studies have suggested that virtual reality (VR) can elicit emotions in different visual modes using 2D or 3D headsets. However, the effects on emotional arousal by using these two visual modes have not been comprehensively investigated, and the underlying neural mechanisms are not yet clear. This paper presents a cognitive psychological experiment that was conducted to analyze how these two visual modes impact emotional arousal. Forty volunteers were recruited and were randomly assigned to two groups. They were asked to watch a series of positive, neutral and negative short VR videos in 2D and 3D. Multichannel electroencephalograms (EEG) and skin conductance responses (SCR) were recorded simultaneously during their participation. The results indicated that emotional stimulation was more intense in the 3D environment due to the improved perception of the environment; greater emotional arousal was generated; and higher beta (21–30 Hz) EEG power was identified in 3D than in 2D. We also found that both hemispheres were involved in stereo vision processing and that brain lateralization existed in the processing.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Szczepan J. Grzybowski ◽  
Miroslaw Wyczesany ◽  
Hanna Cichecka ◽  
Aleksandra Tokarska

Emotional adjectives can be grouped into two main categories: denoting and connoting stable (personality) traits and denoting and connoting transient (mood) states. They relate closely to the concept of affectivity, which is a pervasive tendency to experience moods of positive or negative valence. They constitute a rich study material for personality and affect psychology and neuroscience. Thus, this study was designed to establish a normed list of emotional adjectives with ratings encompassing four dimensions: emotional valence (positive or negative), emotional arousal (low-arousing or high-arousing), category (state, trait, and hybrid), and social judgment (competence, morality, and mixed). The adjectives were preselected based on previous broad Polish norming studies, personality and mood questionnaires, and a dictionary study. The results of the study were drawn from 195 participants who rated 400 adjectives that were chosen based on similar linguistic variables, such as frequency and word length. The dataset measures were proven to be stable and reliable. Correlations between the emotional valence and state-trait, valence and competence-morality, and emotional arousal and competence-morality dimensions were found. The study was successful in preparing a dataset of well-categorized (state, trait, and hybrid) positive and negative adjectives of moderate to high arousal ratings. Since the words were matched on linguistic variables, the set provided useful material that can be readily used for research into the effects of the category and emotional dimensions on language processing and as a basis for new personality questionnaires and mood checklists. The dataset could also be seen as a supplement for broader sets of published normed materials in Polish that link emotion and language.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Seonghun Park ◽  
Do-Won Kim ◽  
Chang-Hee Han ◽  
Chang-Hwan Im

Neurocinematics is an emerging discipline in neuroscience, which aims to provide new filmmaking techniques by analyzing the brain activities of a group of audiences. Several neurocinematics studies attempted to track temporal changes in mental states during movie screening; however, it is still needed to develop efficient and robust electroencephalography (EEG) features for tracking brain states precisely over a long period. This study proposes a novel method for estimating emotional arousal changes in a group of individuals during movie screening by employing steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP), which is a widely used EEG response elicited by the presentation of periodic visual stimuli. Previous studies have reported that the emotional arousal of each individual modulates the strength of SSVEP responses. Based on this phenomenon, movie clips were superimposed on a background, eliciting an SSVEP response with a specific frequency. Two emotionally arousing movie clips were presented to six healthy male participants, while EEG signals were recorded from the occipital channels. We then investigated whether the movie scenes that elicited higher SSVEP responses coincided well with those rated as the most impressive scenes by 37 viewers in a separate experimental session. Our results showed that the SSVEP response averaged across six participants could accurately predict the overall impressiveness of each movie, evaluated with a much larger group of individuals.

2021 ◽  
Norbert Vanek ◽  
Artem Tovalovich

To what extent does emotional reactivity differ when bilinguals process input in their native (L1) or non-native language (L2)? Does the L1 elicit a significantly stronger emotional arousal or can salient second language experience generate comparably strong associations between emotions and the L2? These questions were addressed through two measures of emotional arousal, (online) skin conductance responses (SCR) and (offline) emotionality ratings. Russian-English late bilinguals, UK university students, were presented different types of university-related expressions in English and Russian. The vocabulary types were university-related emotionally-laden expressions (“Плагиат”/“Plagiarism”) and neutral words (“Круг”/“Circle”). Two main results emerged. First, in L1, SCRs showed a significantly increased electro-dermal activity when participants reacted to university-related words. Emotionality ratings showed contrasts based on stimulus type in both languages. These results indicate that university-related words qualify as a category of emotionally charged expressions. Second, between-language tests showed that electrodermal reactivity was not more reduced in L2 than in L1, which was also mirrored in emotionality ratings. These findings are located within the existing empirical context, and alternative interpretations are provided to further our understanding of how an emotionally salient L2 context contributes to shifts from mother tongue dominance to an increased emotional power of the second language.

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