size evaluation
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2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Andrea Accogli ◽  
Ana Filipa Geraldo ◽  
Gianluca Piccolo ◽  
Antonella Riva ◽  
Marcello Scala ◽  

Macrocephaly affects up to 5% of the pediatric population and is defined as an abnormally large head with an occipitofrontal circumference (OFC) >2 standard deviations (SD) above the mean for a given age and sex. Taking into account that about 2–3% of the healthy population has an OFC between 2 and 3 SD, macrocephaly is considered as “clinically relevant” when OFC is above 3 SD. This implies the urgent need for a diagnostic workflow to use in the clinical setting to dissect the several causes of increased OFC, from the benign form of familial macrocephaly and the Benign enlargement of subarachnoid spaces (BESS) to many pathological conditions, including genetic disorders. Moreover, macrocephaly should be differentiated by megalencephaly (MEG), which refers exclusively to brain overgrowth, exceeding twice the SD (3SD—“clinically relevant” megalencephaly). While macrocephaly can be isolated and benign or may be the first indication of an underlying congenital, genetic, or acquired disorder, megalencephaly is most likely due to a genetic cause. Apart from the head size evaluation, a detailed family and personal history, neuroimaging, and a careful clinical evaluation are crucial to reach the correct diagnosis. In this review, we seek to underline the clinical aspects of macrocephaly and megalencephaly, emphasizing the main differential diagnosis with a major focus on common genetic disorders. We thus provide a clinico-radiological algorithm to guide pediatricians in the assessment of children with macrocephaly.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2142 (1) ◽  
pp. 012021
A Ya Suranov

Abstract The article considers development of a human pupil measuring system on the Raspberry platform. The system is aimed at evaluating the variations of the human pupil diameter or area in the process of watching test images or video recordings. To reduce the interference from the eye surface the camera uses a band-stop color glass filter PS 13. In order to increase the pupil image contrast, IR LED backlighting of the eye is implemented. To provide the mobility of the system, battery power of the single-board computer was used while the registered image and the measurement results were transmitted via a Wi-Fi channel. The video camera and the single-board computer Raspberry Pi 4 with the battery bay are attached to the head-mounted flexible belt. The article gives the operation duration evaluation of the battery-supplied system. During the first stage of image processing, binarization by the threshold was performed. The threshold is determined by the image brightness histogram. Since the study is focused on relative variations of the pupil size, the pupil diameter or area values in pixels were chosen as informative parameters. The image recording and processing frequency in the system equalled 25 Hz that provides accurate recording of the pupil variations.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Kenneth Mulungu ◽  
Proscovia Katumba ◽  
Rosalind Parkes Ratanshi ◽  
Adelline Twimukye ◽  
Barbara Castelnuovo ◽  

Abstract Background Discrepancies between what is transcribed and the actual interview recordings were noticed in qualitative research reports. This study aimed at the development of a new transcription software (Jiegnote), and the evaluation of its effectiveness in the optimization of the transcription process, to minimize transcription completion time, and errors in qualitative research. Methods The study was a mixed methods project implemented from September to November 2020. The qualitative aspect of the study was phenomenological in perspective whereas the quantitative consisted of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a parallel design. Results At the time of the study, the Jiegnote software was a working prototype. We enrolled a total of 26 participants; 14 participants had their data analyzed in the RCT part of the study, 13 participated in the in-depth interviews, and 22 in the answering of Semi Structured Questionnaires. Upon the execution of an independent t test, results showed that, there was no statistical significance between the intervention and control means. On considering the total average transcription completion time and the type of language in which an audio case was recorded, the effect size evaluation implied that the Jiegnote software had a small impact (Hedges' g = 0.413438) in reducing the total average time taken to translate and transcribe audio cases that were recorded in a local language (Luganda), and a large impact (Hedges' g = 1.190919) in reducing the total average time taken to transcribe audio cases that were recorded in a foreign language (English). On considering the total average number of transcription errors and the type of language in which an audio case is recorded, the effect size evaluation implied that the Jiegnote software had a small impact (Hedges' g = 0.213258) in reducing the total average time taken to translate and transcribe audio cases that were recorded in a local language (Luganda). This was further observed (Hedges' g = 0.039928) in the transcription of cases that were recorded in a foreign language (English). On considering the in-depth interview data outcomes, participants responded that the Jiegnote software media looping functions (algorithm) enabled them to accomplish their transcription tasks in a shorter time and with fewer errors compared to the traditional methods. Conclusion The study demonstrates utilities associated with intrapreneurship and technological innovation in an organization setting whereby, the Jiegnote technology that was developed by the researchers, had some impact on the optimization of the qualitative research value chain. This was observed through the effect size (impact) evaluations that were conducted to investigate the superiority of the Jiegnote software against the traditional transcription methods, in minimizing the average number of errors committed, and time taken to complete a transcription process.

2021 ◽  
Vol 53 ◽  
pp. S613-S614
R.E. Litman ◽  
Y. Filts ◽  
M. Pata ◽  
C. Sherifi ◽  
J. Martínez ◽  

Hiam Alquran ◽  
Mohammed Alslity ◽  
Isam Abu Qasmieh ◽  
Khaled Z. Alawneh ◽  
Ali Mohammad Alqudah ◽  

<p>Kidney stones are a common and extremely painful disease and can affect any part of the urinary tract. Ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) are the most frequent imaging modalities used for patients with acute flank pain. In this paper, we design an automated system for 3D kidney segmentation and stones detection in addition to their number and size evaluation. The proposed system is built based on CT kidney image series of 10 subjects, four healthy subjects (with no stones) and the rest have stones based on medical doctor diagnosis, and its performance is tested based on 32 CT kidney series images. The designed system shows its ability to extract kidney either in abdominal or pelvis non-contrast series CT images, and it distinguishes the stones from the surrounding tissues in the kidney image, besides to its ability to analyze the stones and classify them in vivo for further medical treatment. The result agreed with medical doctor's diagnosis. The system can be improved by analyzing the stones in the laboratory and using a large CT dataset. The present method is not limited to extract stones but, also a new approach is proposed to extract the 3D kidneys as well with accuracy 99%.</p>

Yuliya Averyanova ◽  
Felix Yanovsky ◽  
Olga Shcherbina ◽  
Ivan Ostroumov ◽  
Nataliia Kuzmenko ◽  

2021 ◽  
John E. Broussard

Abstract ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section XI Code Case N-860 provides inspection requirements and evaluation standard for welded stainless steel canisters used for spent nuclear fuel storage. The Code Case defines an initial inspection interval and populations then defines examination requirements that are based on the primary degradation mechanism, chloride induced stress corrosion cracking (CISCC). Additional examination requirements are based on the results of the initial screening examination. This paper summarizes the technical basis for the examinations and the evaluation criteria defined in Code Case N-860. Technical basis information for topics related to the inservice inspection and the flaw evaluation of canisters are described. The topics related to inservice inspection include: 1) the reasons for and the basis of requirements for the site susceptibility of the canister installations, 2) the inspection intervals required by the Code Case, 3) the inspection sample population required by the Code Case, 4) the methods and acceptance criteria for visual examinations required by the Code Case, and 5) the size and location of the required inspection region for supplemental examinations. The topics related to the flaw evaluation include: 1) a summary of the crack growth rate technical basis, and 2) background related to flaw size evaluation for spent fuel canisters.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
Reem Emam ◽  
Nashwa Eassa

Mie-Gans (MG) fitting model theoretical model utilizing the phenomena of scattering light to determine the morphologies, shape, and size of metallic nanoparticles in solution. In the present work, the average radius of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was evaluated based on the fitting of their Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectra by the MG fitting model for spherical and non-spherical particles. Biosynthesis of AgNPs using Lemon (Citrus Limon) leaves extract as a reducing agent and Gum Acacia as a capping and stabilizing agent was studied for various concentrations of Citrus Limon leaves extract. The investigation of structural and optical properties was carried out for the synthesized samples using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and UV-Vis spectroscopy. XRD confirmed the structure of AgNPs and revealed that the structure of these nanoparticles was face-centered cubic (fcc). FTIR measurements indicate the presence of citric acid in Citrus Limon leaf extract which is responsible for reducing bioreduced AgNPs. UV-Vis spectroscopy determined the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for AgNPs; the peaks of resonances of samples appear at 436-461nm range. MG fitting evaluations show that most of AgNPs were spherical in shape with an average radius in the range of 39-47nm. Moreover, this model allows the estimation of the fraction of nonspherical and aggregated AgNPs. These unique characteristics of AgNPs have made them applicable in a large number of fields like water treatment, biomedical, energy science, catalysis, etc.

Caterina Lombardo ◽  
Silvia Cerolini ◽  
Rita Maria Esposito ◽  
Fabio Lucidi

Abstract Purpose The study aims at validating a new pictorial tool, the Silhouette Rating Scale (SRS). It consists of a series of nine female or male silhouettes. It was created to assess current and ideal body size evaluation, and body dissatisfaction. Our aims were to test the concurrent, convergent and discriminant validity of the scale, evaluating possible gender differences. Method A first sample of 754 young adults (age M = 26.10 ± 8.50, males N = 218) and a second sample of 210 young adults (age M = 21.19 ± 3.22, males = 43) completed the SRS, and other self-report measures assessing body size evaluation, disordered eating, body satisfaction, depression, emotion regulation and insomnia. Results Statistical analyses performed on the first sample largely support the concurrent validity of the scale. Results obtained from the second sample confirm its convergent validity, showing strong correlations with the Contour Drawing Rating Scale. In addition, the correlations performed between the three responses of the SRS and other measures of eating disorders, depression, insomnia and emotion regulation indicated a good discriminant validity, though some of the variables measured seem to be significantly correlated. Conclusions The SRS is a reliable and valid tool for assessing current body size, body ideal and body dissatisfaction as compared to other widely used scales. It guarantees the universality of use thanks to the absence of details related to ethnicity or culture and at the same time, maintaining a right level of realism. Future studies will evaluate test–retest validity and its potential within clinical populations. Leve of evidence V, descriptive cross sectional study

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