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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ashten R. Duncan ◽  
Grant Daugherty ◽  
Gabrielle Carmichael

Even with the expanding burden of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health, our approach to mental health care remains largely reactive rather than preventive. This trend is problematic because the majority of outpatient visits to primary care providers across the country is related to unmet mental health needs. Positive psychology has the potential to address these issues within mental health care and provide primary care providers with strategies to serve their patients more effectively. Positive psychology has many frameworks like hope, which can be measured using simple questionnaires in the waiting room. Moreover, there is a growing body of neurobiological evidence that lends credence to positive psychology concepts in the context of differential neuronal activation patterns. Many positive psychological instruments not only have high construct validity but also have connections to observable neurobiological differences tied to differences in psychosocial functioning. Despite the current evidence, we still need robust research that explores if such psychometric measurements and related interventions lead to clinically significant and favorable health outcomes in patients outside of controlled environments.

Ferry Efendi ◽  
Retno Indarwati ◽  
Gading Ekapuja Aurizki ◽  
Ika Adelia Susanti ◽  
Antoni Eka Fajar Maulana

Background: Mental health issues following the occurrence of disaster remain neglected area especially for older people group. The purpose of this study was to explore stakeholders’ perspectives on post-disaster management related to the elderly’s mental health needs.Design and Methods: This qualitative case study was conducted between June and October 2020. The investigators conducted in-depth interviews with policymakers who were in charge of disaster management at national, provincial, and regional levels. The policymakers were selected through purposive sampling. A policy analysis was conducted by the investigators to answer the research question.Results: The results were presented based on actor, content, context, and process. The actors engage in intersectoral collaboration between disaster agencies, health agencies, and social agencies. The content is largely comprehensive; however, the disaster management policy should not neglect to address mental health conditions after a disaster event. The context is the vulnerability and risk of the elderly in terms of experiencing physical and mental issues after a disaster, which should be considered by policymakers in Indonesia. The process is the development of disaster management policies, which are influenced by cultural, economic, political, and international factors.Conclusion: This study reveals that stakeholders need to pay attention to the mental health issue of elderly in national and regional policy, particularly during post-disaster situations. In addition, posttraumatic stress in post-disaster situations should be highlighted in order to formulate a better aged care policy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
pp. 100192
Amy J. Stevens ◽  
Anna M. Ray ◽  
Ahimza Thirunavukarasu ◽  
Ella Johnson ◽  
Lucy Jones ◽  

Geriatrics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (4) ◽  
pp. 102
Wisam Kamil ◽  
Estie Kruger ◽  
Marc Tennant

The increased percentage of older people retaining their natural dentition was associated with a burden of poor oral health and increased service demands. This study analyses the dental service utilisation of the ageing population in Australia and develops a modelled cost design that estimates the dental expenditure required to cover dental services for the aged population. Using the Australian Census of Population and Housing, ageing population and socioeconomic data were mapped to geographic boundaries and integrated with dental service provision data to estimate a model for the utilisation of dental services. The estimated financial cost of dental services was calculated based on the mean fees as per the Australian Dental Association’s Dental Fees Survey. The utilisation of the services varied considerably across the states and also by type of service, with limited numbers using periodontic services. However, there was an increase in cost for replacement and restorative services (5020 million AUD), most evident in the socioeconomic deprivation areas. In addition, the average dental services utilisation cost increased noticeably in the lower socioeconomic deciles of all regions outside major cities. The geographic maldistribution of older people significantly affects the utilisation of dental services, especially among disadvantaged communities. A predicted cost model of 6385 million AUD would cover the oral health needs of older Australians.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Clare Hawkes ◽  
Kimberley Norris ◽  
Janine Joyce ◽  
Douglas Paton

Abstract Background Women of Refugee Background (WoRB) are a highly vulnerable population with complex going mental health needs following resettlement. In Australia, there has been a substantial increase in WoRB being resettled in rural and regional locations. Despite this, no research to date has specifically focused on factors contributing to mental distress in WoRB in regional resettlement locations. The current study aimed to address this gap in literature. Methods 21 semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with WoRB and service providers in regional locations of Tasmania, Australia. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed utilising Braun and Clarke (Qual Res Psychol 3(2):77–101, 2006) framework for conducting thematic analysis. Results Thematic analysis revealed that WoRB conceptualised mental health as a pathogenic entity, which significantly influenced their mental health help-seeking behaviours. The findings also highlighted how resettlement to a rural and regional location of Australia may exacerbate many of the factors which contribute to ongoing mental distress in WoRB. Conclusions The findings of the current study build upon existing research which indicates the adverse impacts post-migrations stressors can have on the mental health of individuals of refugee background. Furthermore, this study suggests that the current services and supports available to WoRB resettled in regional locations of Australia are inadequate, and under-resources. These findings are discussed in regard to practical and policy implications which should be addressed to better support the mental health of WoRB resettled in rural and regional locations of Australia.

2021 ◽  
pp. 074355842110529
Katherine Sorsdahl ◽  
Thandi Davies ◽  
Charl Jensel ◽  
Dallas Oberholzer ◽  
Lillian Gelberg ◽  

This study aimed to assess the mental health needs and risk behaviors of adolescents attending an afterschool life-skills skateboarding program, to evaluate the perceived benefits of the program, and to identify potential modifications required to meet the identified needs. Program participants were from three gang- and poverty-affected urban communities in Cape Town, South Africa. Seventy-six adolescents aged between 10 and 19 years old (83% male) completed a self-report survey, and 24 adolescents and 19 key influencers participated in in-depth interviews and focus groups. Descriptive analyses were conducted on survey data and a framework approach was used to analyze qualitative data. 72% of the adolescents reported symptoms of moderate to severe anxiety and/or depressive symptoms, 66% had experienced food insecurity, 45% had been physically abused at home, 47% had been bullied, and 59% had used alcohol. Benefits of the program included experiencing a sense of belonging to a skateboarding subculture, protection from gang recruitment and community violence, physical and emotional benefits of exercise, mentors as positive role models, and learning life skills. Recommendations to improve the program were to include information on depression, anxiety, suicidal thoughts and grief, and to include stress management and emotion regulation skills.

2021 ◽  
pp. 088307382110418
Laura Kirkpatrick ◽  
Amy Collins ◽  
Elizabeth Harrison ◽  
Elizabeth Miller ◽  
Christina Patterson ◽  

Objective: To explore perspectives of pediatric neurologists regarding sexual and reproductive health care for adolescent women with epilepsy (WWE) and intellectual disability. Methods: We interviewed pediatric neurologists regarding sexual and reproductive health for WWE with intellectual disability. We audio-recorded and transcribed interviews and conducted qualitative analysis. Results: 16 pediatric neurologists participated. Themes included the following: (1) Pediatric neurologists have differing perspectives about how intellectual disability affects WWE’s sexual and reproductive health needs, (2) pediatric neurologists provide sexual and reproductive health counseling variable in content and frequency to this population, (3) pediatric neurologists tend to recommend longer-term methods of contraception for this population, and (4) pediatric neurologists are asked to be involved in decision-making around sterilization, yet express ethico-legal reservations. Conclusion: Our findings suggest pediatric neurologists provide variable, often suboptimal, sexual and reproductive health care for WWE and intellectual disability. Themes reveal ethical concerns among neurologists about sexual and reproductive health practices including sterilization. More tailored clinical guidelines and provider training on sexual and reproductive health for this population may be beneficial.

Zhen Liu ◽  
Zulan Yang ◽  
Mohamed Osmani

At present, a smart city from the perspective of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) emphasizes the importance of providing citizens with promising health and well-being. However, with the continuous impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the increase of city population, the health of citizens is facing new challenges. Therefore, this paper aims to assess the relationship between building, environment, landscape design, art therapy (AT), and therapeutic design (TD) in promoting health within the context of sustainable development. It also summarizes the existing applied research areas and potential value of TD that informs future research. This paper adopts the macro-quantitative and micro-qualitative research methods of bibliometric analysis. The results show that: the built environment and AT are related to sustainable development, and closely associated with health and well-being; the application of TD in the environment, architecture, space, and landscape fields promotes the realization of SDGs and lays the foundation for integrating digital technologies such as Building Information Modeling (BIM) into the design process to potentially solve the challenges of TD; and the principle of TD can consider design elements and characteristics from based on people’s health needs to better promote human health and well-being.

2021 ◽  
pp. archdischild-2021-322319
Alice Jane Armitage ◽  
Jonathan Cohen ◽  
Michelle Heys ◽  
Pia Hardelid ◽  
Allison Ward ◽  

Objective(1) To describe a novel integrated pathway for unaccompanied asylum-seeking children (UASC).(2) To evaluate a population engaged with this service.DesignDescription of the integrated pathway (objective 1) and retrospective evaluation, using data from community paediatrics, infectious diseases (IDs) screening and a sexual health (SH) service (objective 2).SettingUnlinked data were collected from three services across three National Health Service (NHS) trusts in London.PatientsAll Camden UASC engaged with the service from 01 January 2016 to 30 March 2019.InterventionsA multidisciplinary approach prioritising the health needs of UASC including a childre and adolescent mental health service (CAMHS) clinican and a health improvement practitioner. There are low thresholds for onward referral and universal asymptomatic screening of UASC for ID.Main outcome measuresData on demographics, unmet health needs and known outcomes.ResultsData were available for 101 UASC, 16% female, median age 16 years (range 14–17). Physical assault/abuse was reported in 67% and 13% disclosed sexual assault/abuse, including 38% of female UASC. Mental health symptoms were documented in 77%. IDs warranting treatment were identified in 41% including latent tuberculosis (25%) and schistosomiasis (13%). Interpreters were required for 97% and initial non-attendance rates at follow-up were 40% (ID) and 49% (SH).ConclusionsThese data demonstrate high rates of historical physical and sexual assault/abuse, unmet physical, mental and emotional health needs among UASC and significant barriers to engaging with services. An integrated pathway has been successfully implemented and shown to deliver appropriate, joined-up care for UASC, consistent with current recommendations, with the potential to improve outcomes.

2021 ◽  
Sian Reece ◽  
Trevor A Sheldon ◽  
Josie Dickerson ◽  
Kate Pickett

The links between financial insecurity and poor health and wellbeing are well established. Individuals experiencing financial insecurity are also more likely to face challenges in accessing the support services they need. There is evidence of unequal uptake of welfare support and benefits, particularly in some ethnic minority groups. The COVID-19 pandemic has further exacerbated financial insecurity for the most vulnerable and action is needed to improve the support provided for those affected during the recovery from the pandemic. One approach to improving uptake of benefits has been to deliver welfare services within health settings. This has the potential to increase income and possibly improve health. We conducted systematic review with a critical narrative synthesis to assess the health, social and financial impacts of welfare advice services co-located in health settings and explore the facilitators and barriers to successful implementation of these services, in order to guide future policy and practice. The review identified 14 studies published in the UK from 2010. The services provided generated on average 27GBP of social, economic and environmental return on investment per 1GBP invested. Individuals on average benefitted from an additional 2,757GBP household income per annum and cost savings for the NHS were demonstrated. The review demonstrated that improvements to health were made by addressing key social determinants of health, thereby reducing health inequalities. Co-located welfare services actively incorporated elements of proportionate universalism and targeted those, who due to predominately health needs, were most in need of this support. The nature of the welfare advice service, how it operates within a health setting, and how visible and accessible this service is to participants and professionals referring into the service, were seen as important facilitators. Co-production during service development and ongoing enhanced multi-disciplinary collaboration were also considered vital to the success of co-located services.

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