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2021 ◽  
Andrej Cvetkovski

Alaina M. Beauchamp ◽  
Katelyn K. Jetelina

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Minggui Yu ◽  
Yujing Huang ◽  
Huijie Zhong ◽  
Qing Zhang

Purpose There are two opposite views about whether the Antitrust Law is conducive to the development of the economy. One view is that the Antitrust Law can restrain monopoly, maintain market competition and benefit economic growth. The other view is that the Antitrust Law inhibits innovation by monopolistic firms and fosters rent-seeking, which is bad for economic growth. To provide a possible perspective for clarifying the controversy, this paper aims to answer the following two questions: first, will the Antitrust Law inhibit corporate innovation? Second, does the antitrust enforcement agency discriminate against private enterprises? Design/methodology/approach Based on the samples of A-share listed companies from 2003 to 2013, the authors use the implementation of China’s Antitrust Law in 2008 as a policy shock, take the monopoly enterprises in each industry as the treatment group and competitive enterprises as the control group, using the difference-in-differences method to test the impact of the implementation of the Antitrust Law on corporate innovation activities. Findings The results show that compared with competitive enterprises, the patent output of monopolistic enterprises was significantly reduced after the implementation of the Antitrust Law, which indicates that the Antitrust Law does inhibit the innovation activities of monopolistic enterprises. Further research finds that the innovation suppression effect of the Antitrust Law is more prominent in state-owned enterprises, which means that the government does not have “selective law enforcement” against private enterprises in the process of law enforcement. Therefore, the results provide evidence for the idea that government intervention is neutral. Originality/value First, the paper enriches and expands the research on the factors affecting corporate innovation from the perspective of market structure. Second, it enriches and expands relevant research on the consequences of implementing the Antitrust Law from the perspective of corporate innovation. Third, it not only provides the relevant empirical evidence for clarifying the dispute about the Antitrust Law but also is helpful to clarify whether the Chinese Government has “selective law enforcement” against private enterprises.

Cureus ◽  
2021 ◽  
Brendan R Gontarz ◽  
Usman T Siddiqui ◽  
Brendan Campbell ◽  
Jonathan Gates ◽  
John Michael O'Hare ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (3D) ◽  
pp. 308-315
Andrey Valerievich Skorobogatov ◽  
Yulia Vladimirovna Samovich ◽  
Alexander Valerievich Krasnov ◽  
Ramil Anvarovich Sharifullin ◽  
Lenar Askhatovich Gumerov

In the process of communication, the subjective image of reality becomes intersubjective and acquires convectional features. Under these conditions, basic legal concepts become crucial, on the one hand, allowing a person to make the reflection of legal reality more reasonable, on the other hand, contributing to the study of these processes not only in an abstract but also in a wide socio-cultural context. In this regard, the most significant concept is "legal consciousness" which determines the general direction of legal research and forms the methodological basis for the study of legal concepts and phenomena. The understanding, interpretation and assessment of other legal phenomena (lawmaking, law enforcement, legal relations, subjective rights and legal obligations, legality and order, principles of law, etc.) depend on how the essence of law is understood, what is included in this concept, what features it is endowed with.

Entropy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (10) ◽  
pp. 1334
Alexandros Z. Spyropoulos ◽  
Charalampos Bratsas ◽  
Georgios C. Makris ◽  
Evangelos Ioannidis ◽  
Vassilis Tsiantos ◽  

In recent years, law enforcement authorities have increasingly used mathematical tools to support criminal investigations, such as those related to terrorism. In this work, two relevant questions are discussed: “How can the different roles of members of a terrorist organization be recognized?” and “are there early signs of impending terrorist acts?” These questions are addressed using the tools of entropy and network theory, more specifically centralities (degree, betweenness, clustering) and their entropies. These tools were applied to data (physical contacts) of four real terrorist networks from different countries. The different roles of the members are clearly recognized from the values of the selected centralities. An early sign of impending terrorist acts is the evolutionary pattern of the values of the entropies of the selected centralities. These results have been confirmed in all four terrorist networks. The conclusion is expected to be useful to law enforcement authorities to identify the roles of the members of terrorist organizations as the members with high centrality and to anticipate when a terrorist attack is imminent, by observing the evolution of the entropies of the centralities.

2021 ◽  
Vladislav Antonov

The textbook examines the theoretical aspects of the qualification of crimes, highlights the problems of practical application of the norms and institutions of criminal legislation. The paper analyzes the concepts and categories of criminal law, reveals the organizational and methodological aspects of the legal assessment of criminal encroachments. When preparing the manual, materials of judicial and investigative practice, guiding explanations of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of the USSR, the Russian Federation were used. The manual is addressed to law enforcement officials, lawyers, investigators, law students and anyone interested in the qualification of crimes.

2021 ◽  
Sarah Napier ◽  
Coen Teunissen

Live streaming of child sexual abuse presents challenges for law enforcement and policy development. This study analysed chat logs from seven offenders who watched and directed the sexual abuse of 74 children (mostly in the Philippines) via live stream. The study found that offenders paid facilitators and victims very small amounts of money (median A$51) to view the sexual abuse of children, and used mainstream messaging and video platforms (eg Facebook) to communicate and transmit the abusive materials. Two key factors emerged from this study that present potential points for intervention and disruption: payment characteristics (such as price ranges and the use of remittance services) and messaging platforms where offenders view CSA live streaming.

Auditor ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 3-9
E. Smirnov

The Russian Parliament is doing a lot of work to improve financial legislation, taking into account the requirements of the market and law enforcement practice. This year, in line with this work, in particular, Federal Law No. 359-FZ dated 02.07.2021 was adopted, which introduced significant innovations in the powers of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation in the field of auditing.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (10) ◽  
pp. 378
Julie M. Palais

On 1 January 2016, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) began collecting data on crimes involving animal cruelty from law enforcement agencies that participate in the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) in the United States (U.S.). Prior to 2016, such crimes either went unreported or were lumped into an “all other offenses” category, making it difficult to understand who was committing these crimes and whether there were any connections between crimes perpetrated against animals and crimes in which there was a human victim. Animal cruelty has cruelty has been linked to certain types of human violence and, therefore, it is important for authorities to know more about the people committing these crimes. Preliminary results from an analysis of the first four years (2016–2019) of data are presented. The age and gender of animal cruelty offenders, the time of day when most crimes occur, and the most common locations where offenses take place are presented. The type of animal cruelty involved and details of the other crimes that co-occur with animal cruelty are discussed. The limitations of the data are shared and recommendations are made about other types of data that could be collected in the future to add value to the data.

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