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2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Zaki Priambudi ◽  
Sendy Pratama ◽  
Ramdhan Prawira Mulya Iskandar ◽  
Namira Hilda Papuani ◽  
Natasha Intania Sabila

<table width="595" border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"><tbody><tr><td valign="top" width="387"><p><em>This article aims to answer whether vaccination is a right or an obligation and how criminal law and Qiyas Shafi’i Mazhab views the basic provisions of criminal law against vaccination objectors. By combining doctrinal and socio-legal research method, this article concludes that vaccination is an obligation because a person's personal right to choose health services, especially COVID-19 vaccination has turned into a public right. Vaccination is the government's obligation to protect public health as part of meeting health needs, following the mandate of the constitution and human rights. According to the relative punishment theory, the application of criminal sanctions is an effort made to maintain public order and peace of society, not as a means of repaying the perpetrator's mistakes. Thus, the sanctions imposed on the perpetrator are solely to provide fear so that they do not repeat their actions and other people do not follow them. There are three main objectives of relative theory, namely prevention, prevention, and reform. Whereas Qiyas Shafi'i Mazhab puts forward the application of qiyas as a justification for imposing criminal sanctions against vaccination objectors. Because a person is prohibited from doing something that endangers himself and others, punishment according to the Qiyas Shafi'i Mazhab can be applied. There are similarities between criminal law and Qiyas Shafi'i Mazhab to a view of the obligation to vaccinate, that is, both allow the reduction of individual human rights for the sake of common interests. Ultimately, this article recommends the need to regulate the handling of COVID-19 vaccination objectors through act so that vaccination and law enforcement can run comprehensively, not partially </em></p></td></tr></tbody></table>

2022 ◽  
Vol 145 ◽  
pp. 112391
Katarína Vavrová ◽  
Radek Indra ◽  
Petr Pompach ◽  
Zbyněk Heger ◽  
Petr Hodek

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 74-88
Ahmad Yazid Hayatul Maky ◽  
Iskandar Iskandar

Humans are the noblest creatures in the sight of Allah swt in various fields, from form, behavior, communication, social interaction, to the establishment of applicable laws and connectedness with God. The Qur'an and Hadith in relation to Islamic Religious Education convey studies related to human nature and all its potentials that can be carried out by each individual human being for the benefit of himself, others and broader interests, to the level of becoming the best human profile in the version. Al Qur'an and human quality according to the study of Hadith. This article aims to find the meaning of Potential and Human Nature according to the Qur'an and Hadith. This writing method is in the form of a literature study (Library Research). The results of the writing describe that human nature has the basic meaning of Basyar (human with body dimensions), Insan (human with dimensions of growth and development), Bani adam (humans with hereditary dimension). The potential that exists in humans is the Instinct Potential (Emotional), Intellectual Potential (Intellectual), Sensory Potential (Physical), Religious Potential (Spiritual).

2021 ◽  
Walter Lerchner

What is a human being? Some might answer this question by referring to a biological body, growing from genetic information passed on through generations. Others refer to a mind, developed from infancy to adulthood, expressing itself self-aware and intelligently. Few will argue that a human being could exist without one or the other, but many disagree on their relative contribution. Does the conscious mind emerge solely from a single physical body? Is the developing body shaped purely by biological predetermination? I propose that the formation of individual human beings is subject to an environment that envelops both, the physical and mental realms. This environment is here referred to as story-verse of humanity. It is an ecosystem that emerged from biological activity but grew and evolved into an interactive space that includes temporal interactions, such as created by nervous system activity. The emerging story-verse gives rise to persistent hyperobjects, including individual human beings, whose stories perpetuate themselves via physical and mental representations. The story-verse is a real physics realm that includes the four fundamental interactions described by particle physics, but additionally requires higher-order fundamental forces that facilitate interactions between the physical and mental realm.

2021 ◽  
pp. 25-30
Anton Maštalský ◽  
Eduard Dolný

The article describes the possibilities of using simulation in various fields, whether in aviation, education or in many other sectors. Modeling and simulation in computer training to increase civil security are becoming particularly important for the development of today's society. Many simulator programs today allow the simulation of the influence of individual human factors and it is possible to apply this into model situations, which for safety reasons is difficult to test in real life. However, accurate and effective models of human behavior also indicate great potential in military and crisis management. At present, these methods can be used to simulate the behavior of isolated individuals and entities that have a major impact, for example, on the spread of various viral diseases, depending on several factors. These factors include population, geographical location, age group of the isolated and also social and cultural aspects, to which special space is devoted in this article. These factors can be used as inputs to the model for predicting the behavior of isolated groups of the population, on the basis of which it is possible to estimate in advance the spread of a possible epidemic, through various simulations.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-18
Babalọla Joseph Balogun

The place of the world in the life of individual human being cannot be underestimated. This fact has culminated in the high esteem in which the concept of the world is held in the existentialist thinking. Using the Sartrean existentialist methodological approach, the paper critically examines the notion of the world (ayé) in the existentialist thinking of the Yoruba people of Nigeria. The paper argues that although humans find themselves thrown into the world (ayé) amidst situations that are not of their own making, sometimes amidst untoward circumstances, the right mark of an authentic existence is ṣíṣe ayé which literally means “doing the world”, rather than mere gbígbé ayé, that is, living in the world. The paper concludes that the hallmark of authentic existence is to be found in the act of “doing the world” rather than just living in it.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-14
Yunusa Kehinde Salami

This paper examines the àsùwàdà principle as an indigenous social theory, which is based on alásùwàdà, a body of doctrines according to which the creator of human beings and everything in nature, dá (created) individual human beings as à-sù-wà (beings who can only live successfully as part of a human group with a purpose). By establishing a teleological or purposeful unity and interconnectedness among all human beings, the àsùwàdà principle suggests that all human beings are created to be gregarious in nature and enjoy the best ìwà (existence or character) when they sù-wà (live in group). This paper interrogates the àsùwàdà principle in relation to the problem of ethnic conflicts in Nigeria. The paper concludes that if as human beings, we are dá (created) to be àsùwà, then, with the complementary ideas of alájọbí, alájọgbé, and ìfọgbọ́ntáyéṣe, ethnic pluralism should not necessarily lead to ethnic antagonism or conflict.

Nature ◽  
2021 ◽  
Ryan N. Delgado ◽  
Denise E. Allen ◽  
Matthew G. Keefe ◽  
Walter R. Mancia Leon ◽  
Ryan S. Ziffra ◽  

Economics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 104 (10-12) ◽  
pp. 61-69
Merab Mikelashvili Merab Mikelashvili

Nowadays, teaching entrepreneurship is important in terms of developing country’s economics and forming entrepreneurial thinking among the society. The difference between entrepreneurial competence and adequacy must be considered, as well as defining entrepreneurial competences as being initiative and stringy. The result of teaching entrepreneurship has two different meanings - it is considered as a skill of leading business, more widely - as a stringiness of an individual. Human is an actualization of civilization, society and historical experience of profession, therefore the process of forming entrepreneurial thinking - universal skill - should be considered through this lens. The Entrepreneurial work is not easy, it demands a purposeful approach, assessment of individual possibilities and skills. Lots of business theorists and practicists still argue about whether it’s possible to teach someone entrepreneurship or not. Everybody agrees that possessing the entrepreneurial skills is very important, but cannot define what it means. The Entrepreneurial thinking can be reviewed as:  The Vivid vision and understanding of life goals - an entrepreneur mostly does what he wants and likes and minimizes almost every unpleasant work.  Desire to work for yourself - strong will to work without dependence on others.  Abillity and desire to take responsibility on his personal life, income and other material pleasures.  Particular attitude towards money - for entrepreneurs, money is not an instrument of fulfilling goals. Therefore, they’re not afraid of investing millions. The Positive perception of the word “investition” - entrepreneur sees investments not as an expense, but as the additional possibility. He knows that he doesn’t waste money in books or trainings, but investing in himself. The ability to gain from every situation - if others are saying that it’s not real, then it’s just an opinion of others. The Entrepreneurs love experiments - he’s open to the new things and possibilities and uses chances. The Entrepreneur is able to find necessary contacts, resources, possibilities fast. Dealing with those who are difficult to be dealt with, to say a firm “no” if he doesn’t agree with something. Developing entrepreneurial thinking is very real and this process should be based on human’s formation into an entrepreneur - if 100,000 is the biggest number for him, then his business will be of this scale. And when he starts thinking with 100 Million categories, the business will profit him accordingly. Keywords: entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial competences, entrepreneurial skills, teaching entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial thinking.

2021 ◽  
Vol 39 (2) ◽  
pp. 29-50
Jo M. C. Nelissen

In this article, it is argued that it makes sense to define and distinguish three levels of human intelligence: intelligence as genotypical potential, intelligence as actualised in environmental interaction, and intelligence as measured by tests (IQ). This raises the questions of what is meant by the term “intelligence as potential”, and how and in what sense does a child’s cognitive potential express the parents’ potential and genetics? The larger the number of genes involved in a certain trait, the more possibilities emerge for the formation of new combinations for that trait. The degree of similarity between a child and their parents depends on the unique combination of innate genes in each newborn child. The more genes are connected with a human trait or ability, the more refined or intricate the structure of the distribution for that trait in a population will be. The question of how a parents’ genes relate to their children’s genes has been studied, among other things, in ‘twin studies’. Another relevant, but complicated question concerns the relation between genetics (nature) and environment (nurture). Nature appears to be at work in nurture, while nurture influences processes of nature. In psychological research, some DNA differences can be used to predict psychological differences, called polygenic scores. In this context, it is argued that individual cognitive growth comes about by all kinds of influences; psychologists call such influences ‘bidirectional’ influences. It is also argued that, ultimately, it is the individual human explorative activity that is responsible and a strong catalyst for the development and mastery of human traits and for the cognitive qualifications of all newborn children.

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