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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
Author(s):  
M. Ghafar ◽  
S. Khwaja ◽  
M. Zahid ◽  
S. I. Hussain ◽  
A. Karim ◽  
...  

Abstract The main purpose of this study was to find out a possible association between ABO blood groups or Rh and diabetes mellitus (DM) in the local population of eight (8) different towns of Karachi, Pakistan. For this purpose a survey was carried out in Karachi to have a practical observation of these towns during the period of 9 months from June 2019 to Feb. 2020. Out of eighteen (18) towns of Karachi, samples (N= 584) were collected from only eight (8) Towns of Karachi and gave a code-number to each town. Diabetic group sample was (n1=432) & pre-diabetes sample was (n2 =152). A standard Abbot Company Glucometer for Random Blood Sugar (RBS) and Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) tests, standard blood anti sera were used for ABO/Rh blood type. Health assessment techniques were performed ethically by taking informed consent from all registered subjects. Finally data was analyzed by SPSS version 20.0. In our current study, the comparison of ABO blood groups frequencies between diabetic and pre-diabetic individuals were carried out. The percentage values of blood Group-B as given as: (32% in DM vs. 31% in pre-diabetics), followed by blood Group-O as: (18% in DM vs. 11% in pre-diabetics). Contrary to Group-“B” & “O”, blood Group-A and Group-AB were distribution percentage higher pre-diabetic as compared to DM patients, as given as: Group-A (32% in pre-diabetics vs. 26% in DM) & Group-AB (26% in pre-diabetics vs. 24% in diabetic’s patients). In addition, percentage distribution of Rh system was also calculated, in which Rh+ve Group was high and more common in DM patients as compared to pre-diabetics; numerically given as: Rh+ve Group (80% in DM vs. 72% in pre-diabetics). Different views and dimensions of the research topic were studied through literature support, some have found no any association and some established a positive association still some were not clear in making a solid conclusion. It is concluded that DM has a positive correlation with ABO blood groups, and people with Group-B have increased susceptibility to DM disease.


Author(s):  
Aide Esu ◽  
Simone Maddanu

This chapter mainly points out how militarization as a bureaucratic and discursive “apparatus” results in a colonial modernization. Furthermore, the chapter establishes a direct link between military settlements – by various occupations – and a narrative of modernization and modernity. Both military protocols and the scope of the military activities contribute to a form of colonization and dependence, economically as well as culturally. Militarization is a wider concept involving at least two dimensions: the economic and political factors sustaining the expansion of military spending; and the social, cultural, and ideological dimension. However, the master narrative of modernization clashes with rising claims to autonomy in the local population that assert an alternative modernity.


YMER Digital ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (01) ◽  
pp. 277-282
Author(s):  
Sreejee Gopalakrishnan ◽  
◽  
S Elengkumaran ◽  
S Poojyashree ◽  
Pooja K. N ◽  
...  

Background - The recently developed HPV vaccine is highly effective against the HPV virus. It has met widespread acceptance amongst healthcare and public health professionals. However, there are still social barriers to vaccination that hampers the effects of preventing the disease caused by HPV. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the survey responses regarding the knowledge, awareness, and vaccination status among dental professionals and students in a local population and to emphasize the relationship between HPV and the increasing incidence of oral and oropharyngeal cancers in the current scenario. Methodology - This study was a prospective analysis of a questionnaire collected from the dentist and dental students at The Faculty of Dental Sciences, Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research, Porur, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India; regarding their knowledge, awareness, and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) - vaccination status.Results - 96% of the participants were aware of the HPV and only 4% were unaware of the virus. About 18.7 % of the participants were unaware of the modes of transmission of HPV. Only 66.6 % knew that HPV - 16 and 18 were responsible for Oral and cervical cancers. Conclusion - Understanding the barriers and hesitancy to vaccination is the crucial step to designing strategies that may aid in enhancing the vaccination


Sinusitis ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 15-20
Author(s):  
Abigail Weaver ◽  
Andrew Wood

It is established that non-white people experience worse health outcomes than white people within the same population. Equity addresses differences between patient subgroups, allowing needs-based distribution of resources. The use of quality-of-life (QoL) tools to assist clinical decision making such as the SNOT-22 for chronic rhinosinusitis promotes equality, not equity, as quality-of-life (QoL) tools provide the same criteria of symptom scoring across diverse populations. We considered the effects of ethnicity and race on SNOT-22 scores and whether these scores should be adjusted to improve equity. PubMed and MEDLINE provided papers for a scoping review. A combination of the following search terms was used: patient-reported outcome measures (PROM) (OR) quality of life; (AND) race (OR) ethnicity (OR) disparities; (AND) otolaryngology (OR) SNOT-22 (OR) sinusitis. The first study identified no evidence of ethnic variability in SNOT-22 scores. However, the study did not represent the local population, including 86% white people. Other studies identified baseline SNOT-22 disparities with respect to population demographics, gender, and age. Ethnic differences appear to exist in acute sinusitis symptomatology. In other fields both within and outside of otorhinolaryngology, ethnic differences exist with regard to QoL tools. This scoping review identified a paucity of data in rhinology. However, evidence implies some form of correction to QoL scores could help promote equity for non-white patients.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Marcelo Pedrosa Gomes ◽  
Júlio César Moreira Brito ◽  
Fabio Vieira ◽  
Rafael Shinji Akiyama Kitamura ◽  
Philippe Juneau

This study investigated the occurrence and risk assessment of ten pharmaceutical products and two herbicides in the water of rivers from the Doce river watershed (Brazil). Of the 12 chemicals studied, ten (acyclovir, amoxicillin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, fluoxetine, erythromycin, sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid) had a 100% detection rate. In general, total concentrations of all target drugs ranged from 4.6 to 14.5 μg L−1, with fluoroquinolones and sulfonamides being the most representative classes of pharmaceutical products. Herbicides were found at concentrations at least ten times higher than those of the individual pharmaceutical products and represented the major class of contaminants in the samples. Most of the contaminants studied were above concentrations that pose an ecotoxicological risk to aquatic biota. Urban wastewater must be the main source of contaminants in waterbodies. Our results show that, in addition to the study of metal in water (currently being conducted after the Fundão dam breach), there is an urgent need to monitor emerging contaminant in waters from Doce river watershed rivers, as some chemicals pose environmental risks to aquatic life and humans due to the use of surface water for drinking and domestic purposes by the local population. Special attention should be given to glyphosate, aminomethylphosaphonic acid, and to ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin (whose concentrations are above predicted levels that induce resistance selection).


Author(s):  
Antonina Kolesnyak ◽  
Nataliya Polyanskaya

The general level of socio-economic development and the quality of life depend on the economic availability of food, i.e. the ability of the local population to buy products recommended by the Ministry of Health. Each family has the right to afford quality food for all household members. The local economic availability of food depends, first of all, on the income per capita in a particular region. The present research assessed the economic availability of food in the Republic of Buryatia using such indicators as food supplies, cash income per capita, household budget structure, and self-sufficiency in basic foodstuffs. The results were compared with the food situation in other regions of the Far Eastern Federal District and the average Russian data.


Author(s):  
Roman Kotov

The present research featured the issue of regional strategic planning as part of Russian economic system. The research objective was to study the role of strategic planning in improving the sustainable development of local economy. The study was based on the methods of analysis, synthesis, and grouping. The Strategy of Economic Development of Kuzbass through 2035 turned out to be more relevant in its content than previous strategies. The analysis of regional typology helped to identify a wider range of problems that aggravated or appeared over time. The problems were formulated as key priorities aimed at improving the life of local population and boosting the economic growth. The author believes that the main goal of the state regional policy is to reach and maintain a high level of economic development of the region. Regional policy is a set of legislative, administrative, and economic measures aimed at improving the quality of life and productive in the region. The state regional policy has the same economic orientation for all regions, which should be regulated by strategic planning, thus increasing the level of sustainable economic development.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 821
Author(s):  
Julian Philipp ◽  
Hannes Thees ◽  
Natalie Olbrich ◽  
Harald Pechlaner

Digitalization, new work and leisure concepts and global challenges are transforming the way we live. More stakeholders, including residents and entrepreneurs, actively participate in the implementation of alternative socio-economic concepts; as such, entrepreneurial ecosystems are seen as drivers of regional development. The research still lacks holistic approaches to the application of ecosystems in tourism destinations. Hence, the objectives of this article are to capture research on entrepreneurial ecosystems in tourism and, specifically, to derive a holistic model that integrates destination and location management across stakeholders. This research utilizes the method of a systematic literature review, starting with 597 articles on ecosystems. Following four stages of exploring the literature, the results show that most articles have been published in rather isolated fields of smart tourism or quality of life aspects. Based on the rather qualitative review that reveals specific ecosystem components, we propose a model of an “Ecosystem of Hospitality” (EoH). Focusing on stakeholder interaction and encounters, the EoH fosters the adoption of the entrepreneurial ecosystem to destinations in a dynamic approach. The practical implications are, for example, a broader consideration of various stakeholders, including the local population, and a switch in typical destination management tasks from mere tourism service production to regional development and living space management.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Thomas Beaney ◽  
Jonathan M. Clarke ◽  
Emily Grundy ◽  
Sophie Coronini-Cronberg

Abstract Background NHS hospitals do not have clearly defined geographic populations to whom they provide care, with patients able to attend any hospital. Identifying a core population for a hospital trust, particularly those in urban areas where there are multiple providers and high population churn, is essential to understanding local key health needs especially given the move to integrated care systems. This can enable effective planning and delivery of preventive interventions and community engagement, rather than simply treating those presenting to services. In this article we describe a practical method for identifying a hospital’s catchment population based on where potential patients are most likely to reside, and describe that population’s size, demographic and social profile, and the key health needs. Methods A 30% proportional flow method was used to identify a catchment population using an acute hospital trust in West London as an example. Records of all hospital attendances between 1st April 2017 and 31st March 2018 were analysed using Hospital Episode Statistics. Any Lower Layer Super Output Areas where 30% or more of residents who attended any hospital for care did so at the example trust were assigned to the catchment area. Publicly available local and national datasets were then applied to identify and describe the population’s key health needs. Results A catchment comprising 617,709 people, of an equal gender-split (50.4% male) and predominantly working age (15 to 64 years) population was identified. Thirty nine point six percent of residents identified as being from Black and Minority Ethnic (BAME) groups, a similar proportion that reported being born abroad, with over 85 languages spoken. Health indicators were estimated, including: a healthy life expectancy difference of over twenty years; bowel cancer screening coverage of 48.8%; chlamydia diagnosis rates of 2,136 per 100,000; prevalence of visible dental decay among five-year-olds of 27.9%. Conclusions We define a blueprint by which a catchment can be defined for a hospital trust and demonstrate the value a hospital-view of the local population could provide in understanding local health needs and enabling population-level health improvement interventions. While an individual approach allows tailoring to local context and need, there could be an efficiency saving were such public health information made routinely and regularly available for every NHS hospital.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jean de Bremond d’Ars ◽  
Dominique Gibert

Volcanoes with highly-developed and shallow hydrothermal systems may be subject to sudden increases of their surface steam emission at vents in response to either deep forcing (e.g. increase of heat flux coming from the magma chamber) or external forcing (e.g. sudden decrease of atmospheric pressure or variation of meteoric water input). Because the vent plumbing has a limited heat and mass transfer capacity, the rise of steam pressure accompanying the increase of flux may destabilize the system in order to augment its net transfer capacity. This reorganization may, for instance, take the form of an enlargement of existing conduits and vents or to the creation of new ones. In such a case, local and extremely dangerous blast phenomena are likely to occur with devastating consequences several hundreds of meters around. Even volcanoes with a moderate activity and considered safe by the local population are exposed to such abrupt and dangerous events. The detection of early warning signals through temperature monitoring in the vents is of a primary importance and a main difficulty is to correctly interpret temperature jumps in order to reduce false alarms. We analyze time series of the temperature measured in three fumaroles located at the top of La Soufrière volcano in Guadeloupe, which are characterized by their relatively low temperature around 99°C, slightly above the boiling temperature of water at this altitude. Thanks to the long duration of the records from January to August 2017 and to their short 1-s sampling interval, a multiscale analysis can be performed over several orders of magnitude. We show that, despite their complex and sometimes erratic appearance, the temperature variations observed in the vents contain components highly correlated with rain input variations. Some remarkable patterns recurrently appear at different periods and we show that the main temperature variations of more than 10°C are related to the rainfall intensity. Our results illustrate the importance of external forcing on the otherwise complex and possibly chaotic dynamics of the shallow hydrothermal system of La Soufrière. They also reveal that a careful analysis of rainfall forcing must be done to be able to draw any conclusion concerning changes caused by the underlying hydrothermal system.


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