Imaging Techniques
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V Rama Raju

This study discusses the various procedures and issues involved in the acquisition of microelectrode recordings (MER) signals of subthalamic nucleus stimulations with induced deep brain stimulation electrodes very rigorously. Bellicose-invasive physiological detections through the methods of sub cortical physio logical detections, electrical induced stimulations and micro electrode recordings, stereo-tactic technique, macro-stimulation, stereo-tactic functional neurosurgical technique, stimulations such as macro and micro, induced stimuli with current and microelectrode recordings, impedance information monitoring, micro injections of test substances, evoked potentials, biomarkers/local field potentials, microelectrode fabrication methods and setups, sub cortical atlas-mapping with micro recording/microelectrode recording (M.E.R.). Thus, the study is very significant to the electrophysiological neurosurgical point of view and is very useful to the field of microelectrode recording and functional neurosurgery. This study is concerned with invasive physiological detection of deep brain structures with micro- or macro-electrodes prior to surgery followed by imaging techniques and their use in cortical and subcortical detection; detection relevant to the superficial cerebral cortex regions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 108
Thomas Gerhard Wolf ◽  
Karin Anna Faerber ◽  
Christian Rummel ◽  
Ulrike Halsband ◽  
Guglielmo Campus

Hypnosis has proven a powerful method in indications such as pain control and anxiety reduction. As recently discussed, it has been yielding increased attention from medical/dental perspectives. This systematic review (PROSPERO-registration-ID-CRD42021259187) aimed to critically evaluate and discuss functional changes in brain activity using hypnosis by means of different imaging techniques. Randomized controlled trials, cohort, comparative, cross-sectional, evaluation and validation studies from three databases—Cochrane, Embase and Medline via PubMed from January 1979 to August 2021—were reviewed using an ad hoc prepared search string and following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A total of 10404 articles were identified, 1194 duplicates were removed and 9190 papers were discarded after consulting article titles/abstracts. Ultimately, 20 papers were assessed for eligibility, and 20 papers were included after a hand search (ntotal = 40). Despite a broad heterogenicity of included studies, evidence of functional changes in brain activity using hypnosis was identified. Electromyography (EMG) startle amplitudes result in greater activity in the frontal brain area; amplitudes using Somatosensory Event-Related Potentials (SERPs) showed similar results. Electroencephalography (EEG) oscillations of θ activity are positively associated with response to hypnosis. EEG results showed greater amplitudes for highly hypnotizable subjects over the left hemisphere. Less activity during hypnosis was observed in the insula and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC).

Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 191
Giorgia Fabbri ◽  
Matteo Gianesella ◽  
Rossella Tessari ◽  
Andrea Bassini ◽  
Massimo Morgante ◽  

Lameness represents one of the main causes of decreased productive performance and impaired animal welfare in the bovine industry. Young beef bulls are predisposed to develop diseases of the growing skeleton, especially growth plate lesions. Early diagnosis is indispensable for ensuring correct treatment, fast recovery and reduction losses. However, when dealing with beef cattle, this is not always possible. Fast and reliable diagnostic imaging techniques are necessary to improve dealing with lameness in beef animals. The aim of the present study was to examine the potential of thermographic imaging as a non-invasive tool for rapidly screening beef bulls for the presence of growth plate lesions. Here, 20 Charolais and Limousine beef bulls affected by growth plate lesions in one of the rear limbs were selected. IRT was performed on both hind limbs using a digital infrared camera (ThermaCam T420 Model, Flir Systems, Boston, MA, USA), prior to radiographic imaging and clinical examination. The temperature of healthy and affected limbs was measured in two regions: the area correspondent to the growth plate (AR01) and the whole area of the metatarsus (AR02). Growth plate lesions were found to increase the maximum, mean, and minimum temperatures in AR01; and the mean and maximum temperatures in AR02, therefore, indicating the potential of IRT as a reliable, practical tool for screening growth plate lesions in beef bulls.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Pierre-Jean Lapray ◽  
Jean-Baptiste Thomas ◽  
Ivar Farup

The visual systems found in nature rely on capturing light under different modalities, in terms of spectral sensitivities and polarization sensitivities. Numerous imaging techniques are inspired by this variety, among which, the most famous is color imaging inspired by the trichromacy theory of the human visual system. We investigate the spectral and polarimetric properties of biological imaging systems that will lead to the best performance on scene imaging through haze, i.e., dehazing. We design a benchmark experiment based on modalities inspired by several visual systems, and adapt state-of-the-art image reconstruction algorithms to those modalities. We show the difference in performance of each studied systems and discuss it in front of our methodology and the statistical relevance of our data.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Francesco Bandera ◽  
Anita Mollo ◽  
Matteo Frigelli ◽  
Giulia Guglielmi ◽  
Nicoletta Ventrella ◽  

The left atrium (LA) is emerging as a key element in the pathophysiology of several cardiac diseases due to having an active role in contrasting heart failure (HF) progression. Its morphological and functional remodeling occurs progressively according to pressure or volume overload generated by the underlying disease, and its ability of adaptation contributes to avoid pulmonary circulation congestion and to postpone HF symptoms. Moreover, early signs of LA dysfunction can anticipate and predict the clinical course of HF diseases before the symptom onset which, particularly, also applies to patients with increased risk of HF with still normal cardiac structure (stage A HF). The study of LA mechanics (chamber morphology and function) is moving from a research interest to a clinical application thanks to a great clinical, prognostic, and pathophysiological significance. This process is promoted by the technological progress of cardiac imaging which increases the availability of easy-to-use tools for clinicians and HF specialists. Two-dimensional (2D) speckle tracking echocardiography and feature tracking cardiac magnetic resonance are becoming essential for daily practice. In this context, a deep understanding of LA mechanics, its prognostic significance, and the available approaches are essential to improve clinical practice. The present review will focus on LA mechanics, discussing atrial physiology and pathophysiology of main cardiac diseases across the HF stages with specific attention to the prognostic significance. Imaging techniques for LA mechanics assessment will be discussed with an overlook on the dynamic (under stress) evaluation of the chamber.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-5
Harneet Kaur ◽  
Harshita Gupta ◽  
Himanshu Dadlani ◽  
Gulsheen Kaur Kochhar ◽  
Gurkeerat Singh ◽  

Background. The COVID-19 pandemic has made dentists very assiduous about cross-infection during dental treatment, thereby delaying dental radiographs for treatment. However, patients needing dental emergency treatment in the ongoing pandemic require relevant intra/extraoral dental radiography for adequate diagnosis and treatment planning. Methods. This article is aimed at adding to the hot debate: Is delay for intraoral radiographs justified or a possible proxy? As a narrative review, it provides an insight into the reasons for delaying intra-oral dental radiographs during in the pandemic and options of the nontraditional radiographic techniques available until the pandemic subsides. Discussion and Conclusion. Cross-contamination concerns through respiratory droplets grow while using intraoral film holders that stimulate gag reflex, coughing, saliva secretion, and if proper disinfection protocols are not applied. Since the patients’ acquiring emergency dental treatment cannot be neglected, the return-to-work guidelines by the health regulatory bodies urge to prioritize extraoral radiographic imaging techniques to curb the infection, offering the best diagnostic efficacy. The dental professionals can consider cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans and sectional dental panoramic radiographs (SDPRs), followed by a risk assessment for COVID-19, a safer modality in reducing cross-contamination and assuring an innocuous environment for both patient and coworkers.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 353
Ludovico Alfarone ◽  
Arianna Dal Buono ◽  
Vincenzo Craviotto ◽  
Alessandra Zilli ◽  
Gionata Fiorino ◽  

International guidelines recommend a treat-to-target strategy with a close monitoring of disease activity and therapeutic response in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Colonoscopy (CS) represents the current first-line procedure for evaluating disease activity in IBD. However, as it is expensive, invasive and poorly accepted by patients, CS is not appropriate for frequent and repetitive reassessments of disease activity. Recently, cross-sectional imaging techniques have been increasingly shown as reliable tools for assessing IBD activity. While computed tomography (CT) is hampered by radiation risks, routine implementation of magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) for close monitoring is limited by its costs, low availability and long examination time. Novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based techniques, such as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), can overcome some of these weaknesses and have been shown as valuable options for IBD monitoring. Bowel ultrasound (BUS) is a noninvasive, highly available, cheap, and well accepted procedure that has been demonstrated to be as accurate as CS and MRE for assessing and monitoring disease activity in IBD. Furthermore, as BUS can be quickly performed at the point-of-care, it allows for real-time clinical decision making. This review summarizes the current evidence on the use of cross-sectional imaging techniques as cost-effective, noninvasive and reliable alternatives to CS for monitoring patients with IBD.

Tanveer Ahmed Shaik ◽  
Enrico Baria ◽  
Xinyue Wang ◽  
Florian Korinth ◽  
João L. Lagarto ◽  

Margaret J. Zhang ◽  
Jeffrey H. Stear ◽  
David A. Jacques ◽  
Till Böcking

Jonathan Wesley Revels ◽  
Sherry S Wang ◽  
Jennifer S Weaver ◽  
Jordan R Foreman ◽  
Maxx A Gallegos ◽  

Optimum radiological assessment of the male urethra requires knowledge of the normal urethral anatomy and ideal imaging techniques based on the specific clinical scenario. Retrograde urethrography is the workhorse examination for male urethral imaging, usually utilized as the initial, and often solitary, modality of choice not only in the setting of trauma, but also in the pre- and post-operative evaluation of urethral strictures. There is, however, growing interest in utilization of ultrasound and magnetic resonance for evaluation of the male urethra owing to lack of ionizing radiation and improved delineation of the adjacent tissue. We review the various modalities utilized for imaging of the male urethra for a variety of known or suspected disorders, and provide an update on current treatments of urethral strictures. Additionally, we detail the key information needed by urologists to guide management of urethral strictures. We conclude with a brief discussion of neophallus urethral diseases following female-to-male sexual confirmation surgery.

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