The interplay between biochemical characteristics and the generation of volatile compounds in 11 type II sourdough fermented by single strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was studied. Samples were collected at 0, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 24h for analyses of microbial growth, pH, titratable acidity and CO2 production. During the first 12h, the LABs entered the stationary phase, and the formation of organic and carboxyl acids, alcohols, and esters were observed. Although acidity is an important characteristic of sourdough, in this work increasing the acetic acid content decreased yeast growth and the CO2 retention capacity of the doughs. The main carbohydrate consumed by autochthonous yeast was influenced by the LAB added (homo-or heterofermentative), as observed by correlation analysis. Maltose and glucose showed a strong and negative correlation with the yeast cell density in the dough fermented by homo and heterofermentative LAB, respectively. Moreover, LAB had an important effect on the aromatic profile, being the alcohols, aldehydes, alkanes, organics acids and esters mainly groups characterized. Altogether, 100 different volatile compounds were identified; however, each dough had a different volatile profile. This study shows, for the first time, the influence of a single strain of LAB on the characteristics of type II sourdough.
Cereal-porridge(‘ogi’) was produced by spontaneous fermentation using maize and sorghum substrates. The microbiological dynamics involved were monitored over a period of 48h fermentation. Bacteria, yeasts and moulds were isolated. Based on the morphological, cultural and biochemical test results, the aerobic bacterial isolates were identified as Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella sp, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus sp, Pseudomonas sp, Citrobacter sp, Bacillus sp, Proteus sp, Shigella sp, and Escherichia coli. The Lactic acid bacteria were Lactococcus sp, Enterococcus sp, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus sp. The yeast isolates were 2 strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one other Saccharomyces sp and a Candida sp. The moulds were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus sp and Penicillium sp. The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated were 2 strains of Lactococcus lactis, 2 Enterobacter spp, 5 strains of Lactobacillus fermentum and 1 other Lactobacillus sp. The initial total viable aerobic bacterial count at 0h in maize, sorghum and maize-sorghum blend were 4.6 × 104, 7.3 × 104 and 2.4 × 105cfu/ml respectively. The growths rose to peaks of 6.5 × 107 and 3.9 × 107cfu/ml at 24h in maize and maize-sorghum blend, respectively. A Peak of 4.7 x 107cfu/ml was attained at 36h in sorghum. Coliform bacteria and moulds growths in the three samples attained peaks of growth at 12h and reduced till there was no growth by 48h. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts increased in numbers till the end of fermentation. The initial pH value at 0h was lowest in maize-sorghum blend sample (5.43) and highest in maize (5.75). Final values at 48h were 3.76, 3.78 and 3.75 in maize, sorghum and maize-sorghum blend samples respectively. There were no significant differences between the microbial growth patterns, changes in pH, total titratable acidity (TTA) and amylase enzymatic activities in maize, sorghum and maize-sorghum blend samples during fermentation.
In southern Italy, some artisanal farms produce mozzarella and caciocavallo cheeses by using natural whey starter (NWS), whose microbial diversity is responsible for the characteristic flavor and texture of the final product. We studied the microbial community of NWS cultures of cow’s milk (NWSc) for the production of caciocavallo and buffalo’s milk (NWSb) for the production of mozzarella, both from artisanal farms. Bacterial identification at species and strain level was based on an integrative strategy, combining culture-dependent (sequencing of the 16S rDNA, species/subspecies-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and clustering by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) and culture-independent (next-generation sequencing analysis, NGS) approaches. Results obtained with both approaches showed the occurrence of five species of lactic acid bacteria in NWSb (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus fermentum, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, and Lactobacillus helveticus) and five species in NWSc (Lc. lactis subsp. lactis, Enterococcus faecium, and S. thermophilus, Lb. helveticus, and Lb. delbrueckii), with the last two found only by the NGS analysis. Moreover, RAPD profiles, performed on Lc. lactis subsp. lactis different isolates from both NWSs, showed nine strains in NWSb and seven strains in NWSc, showing a microbial diversity also at strain level. Characterization of the microbiota of natural whey starters aims to collect new starter bacteria to use for tracing microbial community during the production of artisanal cheeses, in order to preserve their quality and authenticity, and to select new Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) strains for the production of functional foods.
Starter cultures composed of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were developed based on the genotypic and phenotypic characterisation of isolates belonging to dominant groups of bacteria in spontaneous rye wholemeal sourdoughs. Combinations of strains have been evaluated on an industrial scale in the sourdough fermentation process. Wholemeal rye bread was prepared using sourdoughs obtained with 3 new starter cultures, and compared to bread made using the commercial culture (LV2). All newly developed cultures used for the preparation of wholemeal rye bread allowed to obtain better quality products as compared to the LV2 based bread. The best results were obtained when the culture containing Lactiplantibacillus plantarum 2MI8 and exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing Weissella confusa/cibaria 6PI3 strains was applied. The addition of yeast during sourdough breads production, especially the one prepared from mentioned above starter culture, significantly improved their organoleptic properties, their volume and crumb moisture was increased, and also the crumb acidity and hardness was reduced. Fermentation of rye wholemeal dough, especially without the yeast addition, resulted in a significant reduction in the content of higher inositol phosphates as compared to the applied flour, which is associated with improved bioavailability of minerals. The results of this study prove that the investigated new starter cultures can be successfully applied in wholemeal rye bread production.
The demand for roasted seaweed sandwich (Porphyra yezoensis) product has risen in recent years. The product slicing process has created a huge number of scraps that are not utilized effectively. Three lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were used to ferment P. yezoensis sauces in this study, including Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus casei, Streptococcus thermophilus, and the mixed strains (1:1:1, v/v). The fermentation characteristics, antioxidant capacity in vitro, sensory properties, and flavoring substances of fermented P. yezoensis sauces were analyzed. After 21 days of fermentation, all LAB strains grew well in the P. yezoensis sauces, with protease activity increased to 6.6, 9.24, 5.06, and 5.5 U/mL, respectively. Also, the flavors of P. yezoensis sauces fermented with L. casei and L. fermentum were satisfactory. On this premise, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to investigate the changes in gustatory compounds in P. yezoensis sauces fermented with L. casei and L. fermentum. In general, 42 and 41 volatile flavor chemicals were identified after the fermentation of L. casei and L. fermentum. Furthermore, the fermented P. yezoensis sauce possessed greater DPPH scavenging activity and ferric-reducing ability power than the unfermented P. yezoensis. Overall, the flavor and taste of P. yezoensis sauce fermented by L. casei was superior.
Two strains of lactic acid bacteria were selected for the study (Lactobacillus sakei Lsk-45andLactobacillus sakeiDSM 20017). Bacterial media, based on rice and rice flour, were tested as an alternative to media based on whey. A comparison of the different types of media showed that there was better growth of the selected strains on themedium based on rice flour.Statistical analyses, including factorial experiments and response surface analyses, were used to optimizethe composition of the bacterial medium for Lactobacillus sakei propagation. Bacteriological peptone and rice flour were found to be good growth factors for Lactobacillus sakei.For Lactobacillus sakei Lsk-45,better growth was obtained with the use of 7.75-10 g/L of peptone and 57.5-75 g/L of rice flour. For Lactobacillus sakei DSM 20017, better growth was obtained with the use of 7-10 g/L of peptone and 40-75 g/L of rice flour.
Keywords: starters, media, Lactobacillus sakei, fermentation,fish products, bacterial strains, lactic acid bacteria