Surgical Debridement
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Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 201
Christos Koutserimpas ◽  
Ifigeneia Chamakioti ◽  
Konstantinos Raptis ◽  
Kalliopi Alpantaki ◽  
Georgia Vrioni ◽  

Background: Osteomyelitis caused by Aspergillus spp. is a severe, but rare, clinical entity. However, clear guidelines regarding the most effective medical management have not yet been established. The present study is a literature review of all such cases, in an effort to elucidate epidemiology, as well as the therapeutic management and the infection’s outcome. Methods: A thorough review of all reports of osteomyelitis of the appendicular and the axial skeleton, without the skull and the spine, caused by Aspergillus spp. was undertaken. Data about demographics, imaging techniques facilitating diagnosis, causative Aspergillus, method of mold isolation, antifungal treatment (AFT), surgical treatment, as well as the infection’s outcome were recorded and evaluated. Results: A total of 63 cases of osseous infection due to Aspergillus spp. were identified. The studied population’s mean age was 37.9 years. The most commonly affected site was the rib cage (36.8%). Most hosts suffered immunosuppressive conditions (76.2%). Regarding imaging methods indicating diagnosis, computer tomography (CT) was performed in most cases (42.9%), followed by plain X-ray (41.3%) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (34.9%). The most frequent isolated mold was Aspergillus fumigatus (49.2%). Cultures and/or histopathology were used for definite diagnosis in all cases, while galactomannan antigen test was additionally used in seven cases (11.1%), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in four cases (6.3%), and beta-d-glucan testing in three cases (4.8%). Regarding AFT, the preferred antifungal was voriconazole (61.9%). Most patients underwent surgical debridement (63.5%). The outcome was successful in 77.5%. Discussion: Osteomyelitis due to Aspergillus spp. represents a severe infection. The available data suggest that prolonged AFT in combination with surgical debridement is the preferred management of this infection, while identification of the responsible mold is of paramount importance.

Ishita A. Shah ◽  
Niral R. Modi

<p><strong>Background:</strong> There has been an unprecedented increase in the number of mucormycosis cases post the second wave of COVID-19 in India, with a variety of clinical manifestations. The central nervous system manifestations have proven to be especially fatal, hence these require special attention. Aims and objectives of current investigation was to study the epidemiology, clinical features, risk factors, diagnostic modalities, management and complications of CNS manifestations of mucormycosis.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> This is a retrospective study, conducted on the mucormycosis patients admitted in G.G. hospital Jamnagar. Patients with clinically and radiologically evident central nervous system involvement were included in the study. The records of the patients were followed for 3 months post the diagnosis. 47 patients were included in the study.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean age of the patients was 51 years. 72.34% of patients were males, and 27.65%, were females. The most common clinical feature was headache 100% followed by fever 55%. Most of the patients (97.87%) had history of COVID 19 or had active infection. 63.96% had diabetes Mellitus. The most common radiological finding was cavernous sinus thrombosis (32.60%), 72.34% underwent surgical debridement, and all the patients were administered Amphotericin B. The outcome improved significantly with surgical debridement, with recovery seen in 51.06% patients.</p><p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> There has been a steep rise in the cases of mucormycosis following the COVID-19 pandemic. It is an extremely virulent infection which spreads rapidly, often causing the involvement of the central nervous system. However, early diagnosis and intervention have been found to alter the prognosis significantly.</p>

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Yani Mou ◽  
Qin Jiao ◽  
Yizhong Wang ◽  
Xiaolu Li ◽  
Yongmei Xiao ◽  

Abstract Background Actinomycosis is a rare infectious disease caused by Actinomyces, especially in children. Here, we present a case of musculoskeletal actinomycosis in a 5-year-old girl from China. Case presentation A 5-year-old girl presented with recurrent episodes of fever, pain, erythema, swelling, and festering sores on the right lower extremity, and pus was discharged from a sinus in the right foot. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested subcutaneous soft tissue infection and osteomyelitis of the right crus. A bacterial culture of pus extracted from a festering sore on the right popliteal fossa detected the growth of Actinomycetes europaeus. The patient was cured with 7 weeks of treatment with intravenous ampicillin-sulbactam, followed by 6 weeks of treatment with oral amoxicillin-clavulanate with surgical debridement and drainage. There were no symptoms of recurrence during the 15-month period of follow-up. Conclusions Pediatric actinomycosis is a rare and challenging infectious disease. Early accurate diagnosis and optimal surgical debridement are important for the management of pediatric actinomycosis.

2021 ◽  
pp. 420-423
Anita Anita ◽  
Shailesh Kumar ◽  
Namrata Kumari ◽  
Kamlesh Rajpal ◽  
Santosh Kumar ◽  

Mucormycosis is an angioinvasive infection caused by fungi Mucorales which mainly occurs in immunocompromised patients. Aspergillosis is also an opportunistic fungal infection caused by Aspergillus species. Coinfection with mucormycosis and aspergillosis is very rare and very few cases were published in the literature till now. There is an increase in the incidence of mucormycosis infection in post-COVID-19 patients. Here, we are going to report a case series of three cases of combined infection of mucormycosis with Aspergillus. All three patients were treated with extensive surgical debridement and intravenous liposomal amphotericin B. Even after aggressive treatment, the mortality rate is high in these types of patients.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. S232-S232
Olcay Buse Kenanoğlu ◽  
Gunel Quliyeva ◽  
Tansu Yamazhan ◽  
Bilgin Arda ◽  
Meltem Taşbakan ◽  

Abstract Background Herein we aimed to evaluate osteomyelitis cases in our setting. Methods We evaluated the hospital records of patients with osteomyelitis between January 2013 and December 2020 retrospectively. Osteomyelitis was confirmed by direct radiography or magnetic resonance imaging or pathology. Demographic features, risk factors, clinical/laboratory findings, treatment response and mortality rates were evaluated. Clinical response was defined as (resolution of clinical signs including fever and purulent discharge and other symptoms) and/or negative culture at the end of antimicrobial therapy. Results Patients were 33 female, aged 29–85 years (mean 59±12.6). Fourty nine of the patients were diabetic foot infection, 30 were spondylodiscitis, eight were primary, seven were post-traumatic, and five were post-surgical osteomyelitis. Overall 62 patients had diabetes mellitus and 16 patients had chronic renal failure. Peripheral arterial disease, neuropathy, diabetic retinopathy and venous insufficiency rate in the DM subgroup is shown in table. Fever was present in 24.2% of the cohort. İncreasing of CRP was in 95,9%, erythrocyte sedimentation rate in 83,9%, and leukocytosis in 37.3%. The radiological findings of osteomyelitis were detected via magnetic resonance imaging in 73 patients. Etiology in biopsy cultures were elucidated in 59.5% and the most common pathogen was S. aureus (30%) Table1. The most common empirical treatment regimens were tigecycline in 27 patients, ampicillin/sulbactam in 19 patients and ceftriaxone+teicoplanin in 12 cases. Duration of treatment was 36,2±17.3 days (range 6-104 days). Overall, clinical response was obtained in 91.9%. Fifty patients were performed surgical procedure + antibacterial treatment, clinical response was 96% (p:0.091). Surgical debridement could be performed in 22 patients, clinical response was obtained in all (p:0.193). Thirteen patients developed recurrence within one year. Sixty-seven patients received oral consecutive treatment after discharge. In hospital mortality rate was 2/99 (2,02%). Conclusion Despite surgical debridement and/or developed antimicrobial treatment, approximately 1/5 of osteomyelitis cases required further treatment Further interventions seem to be needed to reach better outcomes. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. S779-S780
Thomas M Polveroni ◽  
Kelly Scott ◽  
Kevin J Renfree ◽  
Holenarasipur R Vikram ◽  
Carolyn Mead-Harvey

Abstract Background Although uncommon, nontuberculous mycobacterial infections (NTMI) of the upper extremity cause significant morbidity based on their natural history, delay in diagnosis, prolonged duration of antimicrobial therapy often combined with surgical debridement, and functional loss. Herein we describe our experience with such infections. Methods Records for adult patients from two academic, tertiary facilities with culture-proven NTMI involving the upper extremity were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic information, co-morbidities, laboratory and microbiological evaluation, management, and outcomes were extracted. Patients were analyzed based on pathogen identified and immune suppression. Results 77 patients were identified. The mean age was 59 years and 65% of patients were male. 48% reported a preceding injury, with the hand being most frequently involved (58%). 41% were considered immune compromised; 19% of them were organ transplant recipients. Mean symptom duration prior to presentation was 203 days. Mean time to culture identification was 33 days, and 25 different species of NTM were identified (subcategorized as rapid or slow growers). 77% had solitary lesions, with cutaneous/subcutaneous location as the most common site. All patients underwent surgical debridement with four undergoing amputation to control infection. 69% received combination antimicrobial therapy for a mean duration of 184 days. Immunosuppressed patients were treated with antimicrobial therapy for a longer duration (mean 243 vs 155 days). One-third of patients experienced complications and/or recurrence regardless of organism type. Conclusion NTMI of the upper extremity is often misdiagnosed leading to significant delays in appropriate management. Knowledge of its protean manifestations and early consideration in the differential diagnosis of chronic, painful swelling of the hand or wrist, nodular or inflammatory lesions, or septic arthritis is crucial. A low threshold for surgical or biopsy with specimens sent for histopathology as well as microbiologic analysis is warranted. A combined approach with surgical debridement and prolonged combination antimicrobial therapy is necessary for optimal outcomes; however, adverse reactions from such therapy are commonly encountered. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures

2021 ◽  
pp. 000313482110517
Maria G. Valadez ◽  
Neil Patel ◽  
Vince Chong ◽  
Brant A. Putnam ◽  
Ashkan Moazzez ◽  

Introduction Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs) carry high morbidity and mortality. While early aggressive surgical debridement is well-accepted treatment for NSTIs, the optimum duration of adjunct antibiotic therapy is unclear. An increasing focus on safety and evidence-based antimicrobial stewardship suggests a value in addressing this knowledge gap. Objective To determine whether shorter antibiotic courses have similar outcomes compared to longer courses in patients with NSTI following adequate source control. Population 142 consecutive patients with surgically managed NSTI were identified on retrospective chart review between December 2014 and December 2018 at two academic medical centers. Results Patients were predominately male (74%) with a median age of 52 and similar baseline characteristics. The median number of debridements to definitive source control was 2 (IQR 1-3) with the short course group undergoing a greater number of debridements control 2.57 ± 1.8 vs 1.9 ± 1.2, ( P = .01). Of 142 patients, 34.5% received a short course and the remaining 65.5% received a longer course of antibiotics. There was no significant difference in the incidence of bacteremia or wound culture positivity between groups. There was also no significant difference in in-hospital mortality, 8% vs 6, ( P = .74), incidence of C. difficile infection, median length of stay, or 30-day readmission. Conclusion Provided adequate surgical debridement, similar outcomes in morbidity and mortality suggest antibiotic courses of 7 days or less are equally safe compared to longer courses.

Johannes Maximilian Wagner ◽  
Felix Reinkemeier ◽  
Mehran Dadras ◽  
Christoph Wallner ◽  
Julika Huber ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
Ajay Sharma ◽  
Sagar Bijarniya ◽  
Nagaraj Manju Moger ◽  
R C Meena ◽  
Deepak Singh ◽  

Introduction:India being an endemic region for Tuberculosis (TB) has a high incidence of musculoskeletal TB with various presentations. Tenosynovitis is a rare presentation and few cases have been reported involving the hand and wrist but isolated involvement of extensor tendons at the ankle is even rarer and unreported. Case Report:Thirty-five-year-old female patient presenting with a dumbbell-shaped swelling over the anterolateral aspect of right ankle with mild dull aching pain. MRI revealed altered signal intensities surrounding the extensor tendons at the ankle without the involvement of the joint. Surgical debridement was done and six-month ATT was given. Gross specimen revealed rice bodies and histopathological examination showed caseous necrosis and epitheloid cell granulomas. Conclusion:Tuberculosis TB being endemic can have varied presentations, early diagnosis can be made if clinical suspicion for TB is considered. ATT is the mainstay of treatment, but surgical debridement is necessary for extensive lesions with compressive symptoms. Keywords:Tuberculosis, tenosynovitis, rice bodies, dumbbell dumbbell-shaped mass.

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