Abnormal fetal growth is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in adulthood. We investigated the effect of fetal programming on arterial health and morphology during early childhood.
We examined 90 children (median age 5.81 years, interquartile range: 5.67; 5.95), born small for gestational age with fetal growth restriction, large or appropriate for gestational age (SGA, N = 23, LGA, N = 19, AGA N = 48). We measured body composition, anthropometrics, blood pressure, pulse wave velocity (PWV), lipids, glucose and inflammatory markers, and assessed carotid, brachial, radial and femoral arterial morphology and stiffness using very-high resolution ultrasound (46–71 MHz).
LGA showed increased anthropometry, lean body mass and body mass index. SGA displayed decreased anthropometry and lean body mass. Blood pressure, PWV, carotid artery stiffness and blood work did not differ groupwise. Differences in lumen diameters, intima-media thicknesses (IMT) and adventitia thicknesses disappeared when adjusted for lean body mass and sex. In multiple regression models arterial dimensions were mainly predicted by lean body mass, with birth weight remaining associated only with carotid and brachial lumen dimensions, and not with IMTs. Carotid-femoral PWV was predicted by height and blood pressure only. No independent effect of adiposity was observed.
Arterial dimensions in childhood associate with current anthropometrics, especially lean body mass, and sex, explaining differences in arterial layer thickness. We found no signs of fetal programming of cardiovascular risk or arterial health in early childhood.
Objectives:It is well-established that the association between atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD) and connective tissue diseases (CTDs), but the relationship between coronary heart disease (CHD) and idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) remains controversial yet. The aim of this meta-analysis is to systematically evaluate the risk of CHD in IIMs patients. In addition, we explore differences in traditional cardiovascular risk factors between IIMs patients and controls.Methods:We searched Pubmed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases to identify relevant observational studies published in English up to August 2021. Pooled relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using the generic inverse variance method for the risk of CHD. A meta-proportion analysis was conducted to assess differences in cardiovascular risk factors between two groups.Results:A total of 15 studies met inclusion criteria: seven studies focused on CHD and nine studies focused on traditional cardiovascular risk factors. The results demonstrated that IIMs patients had a higher risk of CHD (RR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.40–3.42). Hypertension (OR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.28–1.61), diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.67, 95% CI: 1.55–1.81) and dyslipidemia (OR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.19–1.84) were more prevalent in IIMs patients compared with controls. However, there was a significant heterogeneity among studies assessing the risk of CHD and hypertension. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that definition of CHD, country and sample size may be potential sources of heterogeneity.Conclusions:IIMs patients were at increased risk of CHD, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors appeared more prevalent in IIMs patients. This systemic review offers the proof that early appropriate interventions could reduce cardiovascular-associated morbidity and mortality in IIMs patients.
Background:The development of atherosclerosis was considered as the common cause of the stenosis of coronary artery grafts. Left internal mammary artery (LIMA) was the best artery graft for further effectiveness of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We sought to assess the impact of known conventional cardiovascular risk factors (RFs) on LIMA graft stenosis.Methods:A retrospective study including 618 participants, who had recurrence of chest pain after CABG, aged ≥18 years, hospitalized for coronary angiography in Beijing Anzhen hospital between 2010 and 2017 was performed. All the participants were confirmed to have LIMA graft. Multivariate analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between conventional RFs and LIMA graft stenosis.Results:Of the study, 220 (35.6%) participants continued to smoke, 504 (81.6%) were overweight or obese, and 411 (66.5%) and 242 (39.2%) reported concomitant hypertension and diabetes, respectively. LIMA graft stenosis occurred in 161 participants (26.1%). Postoperative smoking, a CABG duration of ≥10 years and hyperglycemia without diabetes had an increased risk of LIMA graft stenosis, the odds ratio (OR) was 1.86 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26–2.78], 2.24 (95%CI:1.33–3.478), and 2.44(95% CI:1.39–4.32), respectively. Statin use (OR, 0.28; 95% CI: 0.25–0.5) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) < 1.8 mmol/L (OR, 0.27; 95% CI: 0.14–0.53) had a significantly decreased risk of LIMA graft stenosis. While, only 15.4% (95/618) achieved the target LDL-C level.Conclusions:Postoperative smoking and hyperglycemia without diabetes had an increased risk of LIMA graft stenosis. Statin use and LDL-C <1.8 mmol/L decreased the risk.
Background: There is little information concerning the invasive coronary angiography (ICA) findings of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA) with elevated troponin levels and suspected myocardial infarction (MI). This study analyzed patient characteristics associated with ICA outcomes.Methods: A total of 8,322 patients with AIS or TIA, treated between March 2010 and May 2020, were retrospectively screened for elevated serum troponin I at hospital admission. Patients in whom ICA was performed, due to suspected type 1 MI based on symptoms, echocardiography, and ECG, were categorized according to ICA results (non-obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD): ≥1 stenosis ≥50% but no stenosis ≥80%; obstructive CAD: any stenosis ≥80% or hemodynamically relevant stenosis assessed by FFR/iwFR).Results: Elevated troponin levels were detected in 2,205 (22.5%) patients, of whom 123 (5.6%) underwent ICA (mean age 71 ± 12 years; 67% male). CAD was present in 98 (80%) patients, of whom 51 (41%) were diagnosed with obstructive CAD. Thus, ICA findings of obstructive CAD accounted for 2.3% of patients with troponin elevation and 0.6% of all stroke patients. The clinical hallmarks of myocardial ischemia, including angina pectoris (31 vs. 15%, p < 0.05) and regional wall motion abnormalities (49 vs. 32%, p = 0.07), and increased cardiovascular risk indicated obstructive CAD. While there was no association between lesion site or stroke severity and ICA findings, causal large-artery atherosclerosis was significantly more common in patients with obstructive coronary disease (p < 0.05).Conclusion: The rate of obstructive CAD in patients with stroke or TIA and elevated troponin levels with suspected concomitant type I MI is low. The cumulation of several cardiovascular risk factors and clinical signs of MI were predictive. AIS patients with large-artery atherosclerosis and elevated troponin may represent an especially vulnerable subgroup of stroke patients with risk for obstructive CAD.