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PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (7) ◽  
pp. e0254649
Author(s):  
Sehoon Park ◽  
Soojin Lee ◽  
Yaerim Kim ◽  
Yeonhee Lee ◽  
Min Woo Kang ◽  
...  

As adult height is linked to various health outcomes, further investigation of its causal effects on kidney function later in life is warranted. This study involved a cross-sectional observational analysis and summary-level Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. First, the observational association between height and estimated GFR determined by creatinine (eGFRcreatinine) or cystatin C (eGFRcystatinC) was investigated in 467,182 individuals aged 40–69 using UK Biobank. Second, the genetic instrument for adult height, as reported by the GIANT consortium, was implemented, and summary-level MR of eGFRcreatinine and CKDcreatinine in a CKDGen genome-wide association study was performed (N = 567,460), with multivariable MR being adjusted for the effects of genetic predisposition on body mass index. To replicate the findings, additional two-sample MR using the summary statistics of eGFRcystatinC and CKDcystatinC in UK Biobank was performed (N = 321,405). In observational analysis, adult height was inversely associated with both eGFRcreatinine (per 1 SD, adjusted beta -1.039, standard error 0.129, P < 0.001) and eGFRcystatinC (adjusted beta -1.769, standard error 0.161, P < 0.001) in a multivariable model adjusted for clinicodemographic, anthropometric, metabolic, and social factors. Moreover, multivariable summary-level MR showed that a taller genetically predicted adult height was causally linked to a lower log-eGFRcreatinine (adjusted beta -0.007, standard error 0.001, P < 0.001) and a higher risk of CKDcreatinine (adjusted beta 0.083, standard error 0.019, P < 0.001). Other pleiotropy-robust sensitivity MR analysis results supported the findings. In addition, similar results were obtained by two-sample MR of eGFRcystatinC (adjusted beta -1.303, standard error 0.140, P < 0.001) and CKDcystatinC (adjusted beta 0.153, standard error 0.025, P < 0.001) in UK Biobank. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that a taller adult height is causally linked to worse kidney function in middle-aged to elderly individuals, independent of the effect of body mass index.


2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (15) ◽  
pp. 3353
Author(s):  
Camille Roubille ◽  
Joël Coste ◽  
Jérémie Sellam ◽  
Anne-Christine Rat ◽  
Francis Guillemin ◽  
...  

We aimed to explore the relationship between comorbidities and the structural progression in symptomatic knee and/or hip osteoarthritis (OA) patients. We analyzed the 5-year outcome of non-obese participants (body mass index (BMI) < 30 kg/m2) from the KHOALA cohort having symptomatic hip and/or knee OA (Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) ≥ 2). The primary endpoint was radiological progression, defined as ΔKL ≥ 1 of the target joint at 5 years. The secondary outcome was the incidence of total knee or hip replacement over 5 years. Dichotomous logistic regression models assessed the relationship of comorbidities with KL progression and joint replacement while controlling for gender, age and BMI. Data from 384 non-obese participants were analyzed, 151 with hip OA and 254 with knee OA. At 5 years, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) were significantly associated with the 5-year KL change in both knee (OR = 2.56 (1.14–5.78), p = 0.02) and hip OA (OR = 3.45 (1.06–11.17), p = 0.04). No significant relationship was found between any type of comorbidities and knee or hip arthroplasty. This 5-year association between CVD and radiological progression of knee and hip OA in non-obese participants argue for an integrated management of CVD in knee and hip OA non-obese patients.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ricardo Riquelme ◽  
Leandro F. M. Rezende ◽  
Juan Guzmán-Habinger ◽  
Javiera L. Chávez ◽  
Carlos Celis-Morales ◽  
...  

AbstractWe estimated the proportion and number of deaths from non-communicable diseases (NCD) attributable to high body mass index (BMI) in Chile in 2018. We used data from 5927 adults from a 2016–2017 Chilean National Health Survey to describe the distribution of BMI. We obtained the number of deaths from NCD from the Ministry of Health. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals per 5 units higher BMI for cardiovascular disease, cancer, and respiratory disease were retrieved from the Global BMI Mortality Collaboration meta-analyses. The prevalences of overweight and obesity were 38.9% and 39.1%, respectively. We estimated that reducing population-wide BMI to a theoretical minimum risk exposure level (mean BMI: 22.0 kg/m2; standard deviation: 1) could prevent approximately 21,977 deaths per year (95%CI 13,981–29,928). These deaths represented about 31.6% of major NCD deaths (20.1–43.1) and 20.4% of all deaths (12.9–27.7) that occurred in 2018. Most of these preventable deaths were from cardiovascular diseases (11,474 deaths; 95% CI 7302–15,621), followed by cancer (5597 deaths; 95% CI 3560–7622) and respiratory disease (4906 deaths; 95% CI 3119–6684). A substantial burden of NCD deaths was attributable to high BMI in Chile. Policies and population-wide interventions are needed to reduce the burden of NCD due to high BMI in Chile.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Omar Andrade-Mayorga ◽  
Nicolás Martínez-Maturana ◽  
Luis A. Salazar ◽  
Erik Díaz

Background: Human adaptive response to exercise interventions is often described as group average and SD to represent the typical response for most individuals, but studies reporting individual responses to exercise show a wide range of responses.Objective: To characterize the physiological effects and inter-individual variability on fat mass and other health-related and physical performance outcomes after 12 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and dietary energy restriction in overweight/obese adult women.Methods: Thirty untrained adult overweight and obese women (age = 27.4 ± 7.9 years; BMI = 29.9 ± 3.3 kg/m2) successfully completed a 12-week supervised HIIT program and an individually prescribed home hypocaloric diet (75% of daily energy requirements) throughout the whole intervention. High and low responders to the intervention were those individuals who were able to lose ≥ 10 and &lt; 10% of initial absolute fat mass (i.e., kilograms), respectively.Results: The prevalence for high and low responders was 33% (n = 11) and 66% (n = 19), respectively. At the whole group level, the intervention was effective to reduce the absolute fat mass (30.9 ± 7.2 vs. 28.5 ± 7.2 kg; p &lt; 0.0001), body fat percentage (39.8 ± 4.3 vs. 37.8 ± 4.9%; p &lt; 0.0001), and total body mass (76.7 ± 10.1 vs. 74.4 ± 9.9 kg; p &lt; 0.0001). In addition, there were improvements in systolic blood pressure (SBP; Δ% = −5.1%), diastolic blood pressure (DBP; Δ% = −6.4%), absolute VO2peak (Δ% = +14.0%), relative VO2peak (Δ% = +13.8%), peak power output (PPO; Δ% = +19.8%), anaerobic threshold (AT; Δ% = +16.7%), maximal ventilation (VE; Δ% = +14.1%), and peak oxygen pulse (O2 pulse; Δ% = +10.4%). However, at the individual level, a wide range of effects were appreciated on all variables, and the magnitude of the fat mass changes did not correlate with baseline body mass or fat mass.Conclusion: A 12-week supervised HIIT program added to a slight dietary energy restriction effectively improved fat mass, body mass, blood pressure, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). However, a wide range of inter-individual variability was observed in the adaptative response to the intervention. Furthermore, subjects classified as low responders for fat mass reduction could be high responders (HiRes) in many other health-related and physical performance outcomes. Thus, the beneficial effects of exercise in obese and overweight women go further beyond the adaptive response to a single outcome variable such as fat mass or total body mass reduction.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Chyi Liang ◽  
Shih-Wu Liang ◽  
Po-Fu Lee ◽  
Chien-Chang Ho

Abstract Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the association of regular leisure-time physical activity with body mass index and obesity risk in Taiwanese young adults. Methods: A total of 10,802 young adults (18-44 years) were enrolled into this national telephone survey. The questionnaire data of this survey includes socio-demographic characteristics, zip code of residence, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) behaviors, self-reported health status, and self-evaluations (including height, body weight, and body mass index [BMI]). Results: When using non-regular LTPA as the baseline, participants in regular LTPA group exhibited the lower risks of overweight and underweight (OR, 0.837; 95% CI 0.738–0.948, OR, 0.732; 95% CI 0.611-0.876). But there was no significant relationship between the regular LTPA and obesity risk when using non-regular LTPA as the baseline after adjusting for potential confounders. Conclusions: The study results revealed that regular LTPA effectively lowered the risks of underweight and overweight. However, for people with obesity, regular LTPA was unable to significantly decrease their obesity risk.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Meng-Wu Chung ◽  
Chien-Ming Chen ◽  
Jun-Te Hsu ◽  
Ren-Chin Wu ◽  
Cheng-Tang Chiu ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Intestinal perforations and fistulas are common complications of Crohn’s disease. However, chronic perforation with peritoneal space to rectal and vaginal fistulas have not been previously reported. Case presentation A 38-year-old female suffered from progressive lower abdominal pain, diarrhea and weight loss. Terminal ileal chronic perforation with intra-abdominal abscess, peritoneal space to rectal and vaginal fistulas were noted. The patient received surgical resection of the cecum and terminal ileum, and then vedolizumab treatment. Three months later, she had complete fistula closure, and her body mass index had increased from 13 to 22. Conclusion Vedolizumab combined with stool diversion is effective at treating Crohn’s disease with chronic perforation and complex peritoneal space to rectal and vaginal fistulas.


2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 87-93
Author(s):  
Bharat Bhusan Sharma ◽  
Nitish Virmane ◽  
Navreet Boora ◽  
Mir Rizwan Aziz ◽  
Arshad Alam Khan ◽  
...  

Non-contrast computerized tomography (NCCT) is in rampant use in daily practice for the diagnosis of various chest diseases. In the era of COVID-19 pandemic, the use of chest NCCT has increased many fold. The reason was because it will resolve many issues and quick diagnosis can be made. The same was also required to see the behavior of the disease as well as in the follow-up. Basically two parameter are in use to described the amount of radiation dose received by the patient in volumetric CT. These are, one is CT Dose Index (CTDIvol) & its unit is mGy, and the second is dose length product (DLP). With normal pitch factor i.e. 1, the CTDIw is use on the description of CTDIvol. Multiplication of scan length and CTDIvol parameter is known as Dose Length Product (DLP). There was much concern about the radiation dose received by the individual. A total of twenty-six individuals were studied. The measurement of direct chest circumference before each CT chest examination and correlation of CT chest protocol parameter in combination use was an effective tool to reduce the amount of radiation dose in patients. Chest circumference values can also be correlated with body mass index (BMI) values for more accuracy in the reduction of radiation dose. Lower chest circumference patients should be irradiated with the least amount of radiation dose and so on.


2021 ◽  
Vol 14 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sami Badwan ◽  
James Harper

Background: A relationship between body size and longevity has long been appreciated within eukaryotes, especially vertebrates. Introduction: In general, large size is associated with increased longevity among species of mammals and birds but is associated with decreased longevity within individual species such as dogs and mice. In this study, we examined the relationship between measures of individual body size and longevity in a captive population of speckled cockroaches (Nauphoeta cineria). Method: Newly molted adults of both sexes were removed from a mass colony housed in multiple terraria and housed individually with food and water provided ad libitum for the duration of their lifespan. Thrice weekly, the status (i.e. live/dead) of individual cockroaches was noted for the duration of the study. Individuals found dead were weighed and measured to obtain body mass and morphometric measures and the age at the time of death was recorded. The relationship between body size and lifespan was assessed. Result: Contrary to what is commonly seen within vertebrates, large cockroaches were longer-lived than their smaller counterparts. Specifically, body mass, body length and pronotum width were all significantly correlated with the age at death in a mixed population of males and females (n = 94). In addition, we found that the longevity of a historically larger population in terms of both body mass and body length were significantly longer-lived than the population used in this study. Conclusion: These data indicate there is a significant interaction between body size and aging in this species and that increased size results in a survival advantage. There is evidence in the literature indicating that a positive relationship between size and longevity may be common in insects.


2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Rongsheng Wang ◽  
Longlong DAI ◽  
Yanjia Zhong ◽  
Guobo Xie

Abstract Background Triglyceride glucose-body mass index (TyG-BMI) is a recently developed alternative indicator to identify insulin resistance. However, few studies have investigated the association between the TyG-BMI and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Therefore, this study aimed to study the relationship between NAFLD and the TyG-BMI in the general population and its predictive value. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 14,251 general subjects who took part in a comprehensive health examination. The anthropological characteristics and many risk factors for NAFLD were measured. Results After fully adjusting for confounding variables, a stable positive correlation was found between NAFLD and the TyG-BMI (OR: 3.90 per SD increase; 95% CI: 3.54 to 4.29; P-trend< 0.00001). This positive correlation was not simply linear but a stable non-linear correlation. Additionally, obvious threshold effects and saturation effects were found, in which a threshold effect occurred when the TyG-BMI was between 100 and 150; when the TyG-BMI was between 300 and 400, the corresponding NAFLD risk appeared saturated. Furthermore, receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the TyG-BMI could better predict the risk of NAFLD than other traditional indicators [TyG-BMI (AUC): 0.886; 95% CI: 0.8797–0.8927; P < 0.0001], particularly among young and middle-aged and non-obese people. Conclusions This epidemiological study is the first on the association between the TyG-BMI and NAFLD risk in the general population. In this large data set from the general population, the TyG-BMI showed an independent positive correlation with NAFLD. The discovery of the threshold effect and saturation effect between them provides a new idea to prevent and treat NAFLD.


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